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Патент USA US3068832

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Dec. 18, 1962
J. P. ORR ETAL
3,068,822
HIGH ENERGY METAL FORMING APPARATUS
Filed July 51, 1959
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Dec. 18, 1962
J. P. ORR EI'AL
3,068,822
HIGH ENERGY METAL FORMING APPARATUS
Filed July 31, 1959
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FLOYD *‘Ag- cox
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BY
ilnite grates Patent G
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3,868,822
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
2
1
a closed upper end 34 with a head portion 36, said head
HGH ENERGY
3,068,822
FORMING APPARATUS
lames P. Orr, Lakeside, and Floyd A. Cox, San Diego,
Calif., assignors to Ryan Aeronautical (30., San Diego,
Calif.
Filed July 31, 195‘), Ser. No. 830,937
1 Claim. (Cl. 113-44)
portion having a large central aperture 38. The open
lower end 40 of the pressure dome 32 has an outer
?ange 42 which conforms in size to the seat face 26.
Fixed to and enclosing the lower end 40 is a ?exible
diaphragm 44 of thick rubber sheet or the like, the edge
of said diaphragm being held under a retaining ring 46.
Below the retaining ring 46 is a resilient sealing ring 48
The present invention relates generally to metal work
which rests on and seals against the seat face 26. The
ing and more particularly to high energy metal forming 10 sealing ring 48, retaining ring 46 and diaphragm 44 are
secured by means of suitable screws 50 passing through
apparatus.
The primary object of this invention is to provide ap
all three pieces and threaded into the ?ange 42. The
para-tus in which metal parts are formed by a high en
pressure dome 32 is centered on the base block 18 by
ergy impulse, such as an explosion, the parts being
guide pins 52 ?xed into said base block and extending
formed over simple dies without the use of matching 15 upwardly through slip ?t holes 54 in the ?ange 42, the
male and female die blocks.
number of guide pins used depending on the size of the
Another object of this invention is to provide a high
apparatus.
energy forming apparatus in which the explosion is con—
To ensure proper sealing, the pressure dome 32 is held
tained within a pressure vessel, so that the operation can
by a plurality of eye bolts 56 pivotally attached to
be performed safely in restricted surroundings.
brackets 58 on the base block 18, said eye bolts ?tting
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
between paired lugs 60 extending from the ?ange 42 and
high energy forming apparatus in which the parts are
secured by nuts 62 and washers 64. While the eye bolts
formed in an enclosed cavity which is evacuated of air
provide an effective means for holding the pressure dome
to avoid air pockets or bubbles in the ?nished articles.
in position, it should be understood that other securing
25
A further object of this invention is to provide a high
means, such as toggle clamps or the like, may be used if
energy forming apparatus which is capable of forming
desired.
several different parts simultaneously.
The pressure dome 32 is partially ?lled with ?uid,
Finally, it is an object to provide a high energy form
indicated at 66, water being preferred for low cost and
ing apparatus of the aforementioned character which is
non-?ammable properties although other ?uids can be
simple, safe and convenient to operate and which Will 30 used. The head portion 36 is ?tted with a cap plate 68
give generally e?icient and durable service with consistent
having a small central opening 70 and a lifting book 72
results.
?xed thereto to facilitate handling. The cap plate 68 is
With these and other objects de?nitely in view, this
secured by suitable studs 74 and nuts 76, or quick re
invention consists in the novel construction, combina
lease means may be used if necessary.
35
tion and arrangement of elements and portions, as will
ln‘use, metal blanks of suitable size are placed over
be hereinafter fully described in the speci?cation, par
the die blocks 28 and 30 and can be aligned by conven
ticularly pointed out in the claim, and illustrated in the
tional tooling pins if needed, the arrangement being well
drawings which form a material part of this disclosure,
known. It should be noted that the blanks can be ?at as
and in which:
40 at 78, or partially preformed as at 89, according to the
FIGURE 1 is a vertical sectional view of the appara
complexity of the formed part. The cavity 24 has a
tus as taken on the line 1—1 of FIGURE 2;
small outlet 82 leading to an external connection 84, which
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 2—2
is connected by a hose 86 to a source of vacuum so that
of FIGURE 1; and
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view
said cavity can be evacuated. The vacuum is necessary
to prevent trapped air from forming bubbles or pockets
45 in the formed parts. The pressure dome 32 is seated
taken on the line 3—3 of FIGURE 2.
Similar characters of reference indicate similar or iden
over the base block 18 and clamped tightly in place, the
tical elements and portions throughout the speci?cation
sealing ring 48 sealing the periphery of the base block
and throughout the views of the drawings.
when the vacuum is applied. A prepared explosive charge
Apparatus representative of that required to carry out
88 is placed in the pressure dome 32 at a predetermined
forming according to the concepts of the present inven
distance above the diaphragm 44, the exact positioning
tion may include abed plate 10 which is secured to a
of the charge being dependent on the size of the charge, the
?oor, or preferably in a shallow pit 12, said bed plate
area of the diaphragm and the nature of the parts to be
being held in place by anchor bolts 14 and nuts 16.
formed. The explosive charge 88 is preferably elec
On the bed plate is a base block 18 seated on a plurality
trically initiated and can conveniently be suspended in the
of studs 20 extending upwardly from the bed plate 10, 65 ?uid 66 by means of its ?ring cord 90, which extends
and secured by nuts 22, said base block having a cham
through the opening 70 and is connected to a simple
ber or cavity 24 in the upper portion thereof. The
?ring circuit diagrammatically illustrated as containing av
upper face of the base block 18 surrounding the cavity
battery 92 and switch 94, the means for detonating the
24 is ?nished smooth and ?at and comprises a seat face
charge being variable. The charge may be held in place
26. Inside the cavity 24 are ?xed various die blocks, as 60 by a wire frame or similar support, or can be supported
indicated at 28 and 30, said die blocks being shaped to
by tying or clipping the ?ring cord 90 to the lifting hook
conform to the contours of the parts to be formed there
72 or other convenient structure. The cap plate 68 may
on. Several di?erent die blocks may be installed ac
be removed to facilitate insertion of the explosive charge
cording to the size of the cavity, the size and shape of
88, if the charge is too large to pass through the open
the die blocks not being critical, except that the upper 65 ing 70.
faces thereof will ordinarily be slightly below the seat
When the switch 94 is closed, the explosive charge 88
face 26, as in FIGURE 1. The die blocks 28 and 30
is ?red, the resultant explosion distending the diaphragm
may be secured by suitable bolts, retaining pins, or the
44 downwardly with extremely high energy and forcing
the blanks 78 and 84]! around and into their respective
like, not illustrated, according to requirements.
Mounted above the base block 18 is a pressure dome 70 die blocks 28 and 30.
32 comprising a high strength cylindrical vessel having
The ?uid 66 acts as a pressure
transmission medium and spreads the explosive force
3,068,822
-
4
3
evenly over the diaphragm 44, in addition to controlling
the explosion. A pecularity of ‘such explosive charges
It is understood that minor variation from the form of
the invention disclosed herein may be made without de
parture from the spirit and scope of the invention, and
that the speci?cation and ‘drawings are to be considered
as merely illustrative rather than limiting.
.We claim:
is that the explosive force tends to be greater in a down
ward direction, a factor which adds to the effectiveness
of the operation. It has been found in tests that a cer
tain optimum depth of ?uid above the explosive charge
High energy forming apparatus, comprising:
88 will contain the explosion to the extent that the result
is little more than a surface disturbance. The required
depth of ?uid varies with the size of charge, but for
all normal usage is not excessive and may be contained
in a vessel or dome of reasonable size. ‘ The cap plate 68 is.
(A) a block having-a forming cavity having a sealing
'10
face at the upper portion thereof: a plurality of
. forming dies positioned at the bottom of said cavity
to receive a work piece to be shaped positioned on
each said forming dies;
used to prevent any inadvertent loss of ?uid upwardly
while still providing a vent, although it may be found
that the cap plate is unnecessary. The structure is shown
(B) a tubular pressure chamber having ‘a peripheral
?ange at its lower end; a disc-like ?exible resilient
installed in a shallow pit 12 in view of the possibility
of sudden ?uid loss due to bursting of the diaphragm 44,
but this is a safety precaution and rupture of the dia
diaphragm, having a diameter substantially equal to
that of said ?ange positioned on the lower surface
phragm is unlikely to occur in normal use.
It has been found in tests that the explosive force will
form complex parts without distortion or wrinkling and 20
within very close tolerances, even in materials which are
?ange; a retaining ring, having substantially the same
of said ?ange substantially coextensive with said ,
‘dimensions as said ?ange, positioned on the lower
surface of said diaphragm substantially coextensive
with said ?ange; a sealing ring, having substantially
the same dimensions as said ?ange, positioned on
normally considered di?icult to'form by other methods.
The forming pressure developed is much greater than
the lower surface of said retaining ring substantially
coextensive therewith; means for attaching said re
that obtained in even the largest forming presses or sim
ilar tools, yet is of such extremely short duration that the
strength requirements of the pressure dome 32 and other
taining ring, said sealing ring, said diaphragm, and
parts of the structure are not particularly severe.
It should be understood that the base block 18, as illus
structure; a ?uid positioned in said pressure chamber;
an explosive positioned in said ?uid; an end cap posi
tioned at the upper end of said tubular pressure cham
said ?ange to form a substantially unitary leakproof
trated, is merely an example of a suitable arrangement for
forming multiple small parts. The base block may’ be
made to form a single large part, the cavity 24 itself com
ber to substantially sealit;
‘
(C) means for detonating said explosive;
prising the die and being suitably shaped. 'Also, the pres
(D) means for releasably attaching said ?ange, dia
.
sure dome 32 need not be a complete unit in itself, but
can be a part of a large tank or pit in which the base
phragm, and ring assembly to said sealing face in a '
block and diaphragm assembly are submerged in ?uid. 35
As an added feature, the apparatus can be used for blank
detonated, the shock wave produced in said ?uid dis
leakp'roof manner, whereby when said explosive is‘
ing or piercing by substituting suitable sharp edged blank
tends said diaphragm so that it shapes said work.
pieces around said forming dies, and when said shock
ing ‘dies of shallow depth for the die blocks.
The apparatus provides an effective method of forming
wave subsides the resiliency of said diaphragm causes
it to return to its original position and contain said
'many different types of shaped components at high speed
40
with a minimum of equipment. Many components such
as used in aircraft must be formed in large, complex
presses with matched dies which are costly to make; Often
several operations are necessary to form a single part
in stages, since certain materials tend to crack if distorted 45
?uid in said pressure chamber;
’
>
(E) means permitting the insertion of a new explosive
charge into said ?uid, said means comprising an
opening in said end cap; and
(.F) means on said end cap, for use in lifting said pres
sure chamber, said contained ?uid and said diai
beyond certain limits at the relatively slow speed ob
phragm-ring assembly from said sealing face of said
tained in a press. Also, at slow forming speeds, the mate
rial retains certain spring back properties which must be
allowed for in working to close tolerances. At the extreme
dies may be readily placed in said cavity and-said.
pressure chamber may be repositioned for another
cavity, whereby new work pieces and if desired new
speeds obtained with high energy explosive forming, the 50
forming operation, thus permitting said high energy
part is formed so suddenly that the material seems to ?ow
into shape with no tendency to crack or spring back. At
manufacture.
a comparison, a press may form a part in one tenth of a
second or more, whereas the high energy apparatus de
scribed herein performs the operation in one three-thou 55
sandth of a second, the precise ?gures being variable.
The explosive charge 88 may be of any suitable type,
such as a small quantity of dynamite with a suitable
detonator, a specially made capsule of explosive having
its own ?ring means, or even a conventional cartridge with 60
an electrically released ?ring pin.
forming ‘apparatus to be used for production-type
.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent‘
.UNITED STATES PATENTS '
, 1,450,291
2,133,445
2,313,689
2,385,083
‘2,847,957
Heacock ____________ __-__ Apr. 3, 1923
Guerin _______________ __ Oct. 18, 1938
Waters ___________ _'______ Mar. 9, 1943
Kemerer _____________ __ Sept. 18, 1945
Watter et al ___________ .... Aug. .19, 1958
' The operation of this invention will be clearly compre
OTHER REFERENCES
hended from a consideration of the foregoing description
of the mechanical details thereof, taken in connection
American
Machinist,
June 15, 1959; pp. 127-138; vol,
with the drawings and the above recited objects. It will be 65 103; No. 12.
obvious that all said objects are amply achieved by this
invention.
'
‘
'
Steel, Aug. 25, 1958; pp. 82-86.
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