Патент USA US3068832код для вставки
Dec. 18, 1962 J. P. ORR ETAL 3,068,822 HIGH ENERGY METAL FORMING APPARATUS Filed July 51, 1959 94 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1 A; \/12 14 K HI'M 92 ' 1o 16 74 64/76 asas 34 /-32 56 56 . \ 42 6:2 _ Q 626 x )0 _50 M40 4 _ \ 58 a u a: i 44 , éo I e264 \ 24 I 1 I1 _ ‘hr;- 60 26 6 I85?6 L/ \ l // >~\\\\ \\\\\\¥\ I Fig'‘ FLOYD FXWORS' "Y Dec. 18, 1962 J. P. ORR EI'AL 3,068,822 HIGH ENERGY METAL FORMING APPARATUS Filed July 31, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 VACUUM as |4/’@;|s I 84 .' @/ f m I Q; 64 / // 82 \ ‘x I llll so Ill 62 ' \ ‘ ‘ ‘I a‘ a 90 'l Q \\ ‘I \\ \ I 52 | \' ; as I \ 2 ll l‘l 2o 22 ’ 62 *4 3 so ‘\4" 22 56 56 [I Hg‘: 20 | ‘ ‘II Q \I4 I6 @ I ——T~ 32 II \\\ \l‘ll 52 2/4 I // \ 44 "' 42 56 I ,Zlo so 20 is 4 ‘ 2 6 I! ‘54 64 62 I6 6 " 32 In Fig.2 42 44 52 46 26 _ 4o :1’ ("I I l I8 2 ’ 48 Fig.3 0 k \ 24 . - mvENToRs. FLOYD *‘Ag- cox .mm-zs P"."ORR_ BY ilnite grates Patent G pr‘ REE 3,868,822 Patented Dec. 18, 1962 2 1 a closed upper end 34 with a head portion 36, said head HGH ENERGY 3,068,822 FORMING APPARATUS lames P. Orr, Lakeside, and Floyd A. Cox, San Diego, Calif., assignors to Ryan Aeronautical (30., San Diego, Calif. Filed July 31, 195‘), Ser. No. 830,937 1 Claim. (Cl. 113-44) portion having a large central aperture 38. The open lower end 40 of the pressure dome 32 has an outer ?ange 42 which conforms in size to the seat face 26. Fixed to and enclosing the lower end 40 is a ?exible diaphragm 44 of thick rubber sheet or the like, the edge of said diaphragm being held under a retaining ring 46. Below the retaining ring 46 is a resilient sealing ring 48 The present invention relates generally to metal work which rests on and seals against the seat face 26. The ing and more particularly to high energy metal forming 10 sealing ring 48, retaining ring 46 and diaphragm 44 are secured by means of suitable screws 50 passing through apparatus. The primary object of this invention is to provide ap all three pieces and threaded into the ?ange 42. The para-tus in which metal parts are formed by a high en pressure dome 32 is centered on the base block 18 by ergy impulse, such as an explosion, the parts being guide pins 52 ?xed into said base block and extending formed over simple dies without the use of matching 15 upwardly through slip ?t holes 54 in the ?ange 42, the male and female die blocks. number of guide pins used depending on the size of the Another object of this invention is to provide a high apparatus. energy forming apparatus in which the explosion is con— To ensure proper sealing, the pressure dome 32 is held tained within a pressure vessel, so that the operation can by a plurality of eye bolts 56 pivotally attached to be performed safely in restricted surroundings. brackets 58 on the base block 18, said eye bolts ?tting Still another object of this invention is to provide a between paired lugs 60 extending from the ?ange 42 and high energy forming apparatus in which the parts are secured by nuts 62 and washers 64. While the eye bolts formed in an enclosed cavity which is evacuated of air provide an effective means for holding the pressure dome to avoid air pockets or bubbles in the ?nished articles. in position, it should be understood that other securing 25 A further object of this invention is to provide a high means, such as toggle clamps or the like, may be used if energy forming apparatus which is capable of forming desired. several different parts simultaneously. The pressure dome 32 is partially ?lled with ?uid, Finally, it is an object to provide a high energy form indicated at 66, water being preferred for low cost and ing apparatus of the aforementioned character which is non-?ammable properties although other ?uids can be simple, safe and convenient to operate and which Will 30 used. The head portion 36 is ?tted with a cap plate 68 give generally e?icient and durable service with consistent having a small central opening 70 and a lifting book 72 results. ?xed thereto to facilitate handling. The cap plate 68 is With these and other objects de?nitely in view, this secured by suitable studs 74 and nuts 76, or quick re invention consists in the novel construction, combina lease means may be used if necessary. 35 tion and arrangement of elements and portions, as will ln‘use, metal blanks of suitable size are placed over be hereinafter fully described in the speci?cation, par the die blocks 28 and 30 and can be aligned by conven ticularly pointed out in the claim, and illustrated in the tional tooling pins if needed, the arrangement being well drawings which form a material part of this disclosure, known. It should be noted that the blanks can be ?at as and in which: 40 at 78, or partially preformed as at 89, according to the FIGURE 1 is a vertical sectional view of the appara complexity of the formed part. The cavity 24 has a tus as taken on the line 1—1 of FIGURE 2; small outlet 82 leading to an external connection 84, which FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 2—2 is connected by a hose 86 to a source of vacuum so that of FIGURE 1; and FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view said cavity can be evacuated. The vacuum is necessary to prevent trapped air from forming bubbles or pockets 45 in the formed parts. The pressure dome 32 is seated taken on the line 3—3 of FIGURE 2. Similar characters of reference indicate similar or iden over the base block 18 and clamped tightly in place, the tical elements and portions throughout the speci?cation sealing ring 48 sealing the periphery of the base block and throughout the views of the drawings. when the vacuum is applied. A prepared explosive charge Apparatus representative of that required to carry out 88 is placed in the pressure dome 32 at a predetermined forming according to the concepts of the present inven distance above the diaphragm 44, the exact positioning tion may include abed plate 10 which is secured to a of the charge being dependent on the size of the charge, the ?oor, or preferably in a shallow pit 12, said bed plate area of the diaphragm and the nature of the parts to be being held in place by anchor bolts 14 and nuts 16. formed. The explosive charge 88 is preferably elec On the bed plate is a base block 18 seated on a plurality trically initiated and can conveniently be suspended in the of studs 20 extending upwardly from the bed plate 10, 65 ?uid 66 by means of its ?ring cord 90, which extends and secured by nuts 22, said base block having a cham through the opening 70 and is connected to a simple ber or cavity 24 in the upper portion thereof. The ?ring circuit diagrammatically illustrated as containing av upper face of the base block 18 surrounding the cavity battery 92 and switch 94, the means for detonating the 24 is ?nished smooth and ?at and comprises a seat face charge being variable. The charge may be held in place 26. Inside the cavity 24 are ?xed various die blocks, as 60 by a wire frame or similar support, or can be supported indicated at 28 and 30, said die blocks being shaped to by tying or clipping the ?ring cord 90 to the lifting hook conform to the contours of the parts to be formed there 72 or other convenient structure. The cap plate 68 may on. Several di?erent die blocks may be installed ac be removed to facilitate insertion of the explosive charge cording to the size of the cavity, the size and shape of 88, if the charge is too large to pass through the open the die blocks not being critical, except that the upper 65 ing 70. faces thereof will ordinarily be slightly below the seat When the switch 94 is closed, the explosive charge 88 face 26, as in FIGURE 1. The die blocks 28 and 30 is ?red, the resultant explosion distending the diaphragm may be secured by suitable bolts, retaining pins, or the 44 downwardly with extremely high energy and forcing the blanks 78 and 84]! around and into their respective like, not illustrated, according to requirements. Mounted above the base block 18 is a pressure dome 70 die blocks 28 and 30. 32 comprising a high strength cylindrical vessel having The ?uid 66 acts as a pressure transmission medium and spreads the explosive force 3,068,822 - 4 3 evenly over the diaphragm 44, in addition to controlling the explosion. A pecularity of ‘such explosive charges It is understood that minor variation from the form of the invention disclosed herein may be made without de parture from the spirit and scope of the invention, and that the speci?cation and ‘drawings are to be considered as merely illustrative rather than limiting. .We claim: is that the explosive force tends to be greater in a down ward direction, a factor which adds to the effectiveness of the operation. It has been found in tests that a cer tain optimum depth of ?uid above the explosive charge High energy forming apparatus, comprising: 88 will contain the explosion to the extent that the result is little more than a surface disturbance. The required depth of ?uid varies with the size of charge, but for all normal usage is not excessive and may be contained in a vessel or dome of reasonable size. ‘ The cap plate 68 is. (A) a block having-a forming cavity having a sealing '10 face at the upper portion thereof: a plurality of . forming dies positioned at the bottom of said cavity to receive a work piece to be shaped positioned on each said forming dies; used to prevent any inadvertent loss of ?uid upwardly while still providing a vent, although it may be found that the cap plate is unnecessary. The structure is shown (B) a tubular pressure chamber having ‘a peripheral ?ange at its lower end; a disc-like ?exible resilient installed in a shallow pit 12 in view of the possibility of sudden ?uid loss due to bursting of the diaphragm 44, but this is a safety precaution and rupture of the dia diaphragm, having a diameter substantially equal to that of said ?ange positioned on the lower surface phragm is unlikely to occur in normal use. It has been found in tests that the explosive force will form complex parts without distortion or wrinkling and 20 within very close tolerances, even in materials which are ?ange; a retaining ring, having substantially the same of said ?ange substantially coextensive with said , ‘dimensions as said ?ange, positioned on the lower surface of said diaphragm substantially coextensive with said ?ange; a sealing ring, having substantially the same dimensions as said ?ange, positioned on normally considered di?icult to'form by other methods. The forming pressure developed is much greater than the lower surface of said retaining ring substantially coextensive therewith; means for attaching said re that obtained in even the largest forming presses or sim ilar tools, yet is of such extremely short duration that the strength requirements of the pressure dome 32 and other taining ring, said sealing ring, said diaphragm, and parts of the structure are not particularly severe. It should be understood that the base block 18, as illus structure; a ?uid positioned in said pressure chamber; an explosive positioned in said ?uid; an end cap posi tioned at the upper end of said tubular pressure cham said ?ange to form a substantially unitary leakproof trated, is merely an example of a suitable arrangement for forming multiple small parts. The base block may’ be made to form a single large part, the cavity 24 itself com ber to substantially sealit; ‘ (C) means for detonating said explosive; prising the die and being suitably shaped. 'Also, the pres (D) means for releasably attaching said ?ange, dia . sure dome 32 need not be a complete unit in itself, but can be a part of a large tank or pit in which the base phragm, and ring assembly to said sealing face in a ' block and diaphragm assembly are submerged in ?uid. 35 As an added feature, the apparatus can be used for blank detonated, the shock wave produced in said ?uid dis leakp'roof manner, whereby when said explosive is‘ ing or piercing by substituting suitable sharp edged blank tends said diaphragm so that it shapes said work. pieces around said forming dies, and when said shock ing ‘dies of shallow depth for the die blocks. The apparatus provides an effective method of forming wave subsides the resiliency of said diaphragm causes it to return to its original position and contain said 'many different types of shaped components at high speed 40 with a minimum of equipment. Many components such as used in aircraft must be formed in large, complex presses with matched dies which are costly to make; Often several operations are necessary to form a single part in stages, since certain materials tend to crack if distorted 45 ?uid in said pressure chamber; ’ > (E) means permitting the insertion of a new explosive charge into said ?uid, said means comprising an opening in said end cap; and (.F) means on said end cap, for use in lifting said pres sure chamber, said contained ?uid and said diai beyond certain limits at the relatively slow speed ob phragm-ring assembly from said sealing face of said tained in a press. Also, at slow forming speeds, the mate rial retains certain spring back properties which must be allowed for in working to close tolerances. At the extreme dies may be readily placed in said cavity and-said. pressure chamber may be repositioned for another cavity, whereby new work pieces and if desired new speeds obtained with high energy explosive forming, the 50 forming operation, thus permitting said high energy part is formed so suddenly that the material seems to ?ow into shape with no tendency to crack or spring back. At manufacture. a comparison, a press may form a part in one tenth of a second or more, whereas the high energy apparatus de scribed herein performs the operation in one three-thou 55 sandth of a second, the precise ?gures being variable. The explosive charge 88 may be of any suitable type, such as a small quantity of dynamite with a suitable detonator, a specially made capsule of explosive having its own ?ring means, or even a conventional cartridge with 60 an electrically released ?ring pin. forming ‘apparatus to be used for production-type . References Cited in the ?le of this patent‘ .UNITED STATES PATENTS ' , 1,450,291 2,133,445 2,313,689 2,385,083 ‘2,847,957 Heacock ____________ __-__ Apr. 3, 1923 Guerin _______________ __ Oct. 18, 1938 Waters ___________ _'______ Mar. 9, 1943 Kemerer _____________ __ Sept. 18, 1945 Watter et al ___________ .... Aug. .19, 1958 ' The operation of this invention will be clearly compre OTHER REFERENCES hended from a consideration of the foregoing description of the mechanical details thereof, taken in connection American Machinist, June 15, 1959; pp. 127-138; vol, with the drawings and the above recited objects. It will be 65 103; No. 12. obvious that all said objects are amply achieved by this invention. ' ‘ ' Steel, Aug. 25, 1958; pp. 82-86.