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Патент USA US3069353

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Dec . 18>, 1962
_
Flled Aug. 9, 1961
R. F. POST
ETAL
-
TION
FOR THE
OF CHARGED
DENSIFICATION
PARTICLES
AND
'
2 Sheets-Sheet l
mm,
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8$63,.5E1m .M52863m dd E20“. “.65138
~
INVENTORS.
RICHARD F POST
BY
FREDERIC H. COENSGEN
WWW
ATTORNEY.
Dec. 18, 1962
R. F. POST ETAL
3,069,344
APPARATUS FOR THE DENSIF‘ICATION AND
ENERGIZATION 0F CHARGED PARTICLES
Filed Aug. 9, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2_
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AXIAL POSITION, z
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FIG. 3.
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INVENTORS.
RICHARD E PosT
BY FREDERIC H. COENSGEN
ATTORNEY.
B????dll
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
tron” has been conceived to designate devices and proc
esses of the general character disclosed in the said copend
ing application and one particularly useful embodiment
and certain processes pertaining thereto disclosed in the
application relate to a linear multiple zone Pyrotron. A
linear multiple zone Pyrotron generally includes a mag
3 669 344
APPARATUS ran "this ’DENSll<“lCATl0N AND
ENERGEZATEGN 0F CHARGED PAR’EHILES
Richard F. Post, Walnut Creek, and Frederic H. Coens
gen, leasanton, Caii?, assignors to the United States
of America as represented by the United States Atomic
Energy Commission
Filed Aug. 9, 1951, Ser. No. 136,686
9 Claims. (Cl. 294-1932)
netically contained accumulator and initial compression
zone de?ned by an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld hav
ing axially spaced gradientially-intensi?ed reflector ?eld
10 regions situated therein. In coaxial abutment with the
accumulator zone there is also provided a magnetic con
The present invention relates generally to the produc
tion and accumulation of high energy charged particles
at high density, and more particularly to apparatus for
materially increasing the energy and density of a plasma
to produce various nuclear reactions between the plasma 15
particles.
This application is a continuation-in-part of our prior
tainment reaction and secondary compression zone de
?ned by an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld extending
from one of the accumulator re?ector ?eld regions to a
third re?ector ?eld region axially spaced apart therefrom.
The intensity of the central ?eld region between the
re?ector ?eld regions of the accumulator zone is less
than that of the similar central ?eld region of the re
application S.N. 736,646, ?led May 20, 1958, now aban
action zone. Charged particles (plasma) under low
doned.
In the ?eld of nuclear physics it is often times desir 20 density conditions are introduced to the accumulator zone
and initially compressed by increasing the intensity of
able to provide accumulations of high energy particles
the corresponding central ?eld region and terminally
at high densities. Energetic ions or electrons may, for
bounding re?ector ?eld regions. Such compression re
example, be advantageously accumulated into high dens
sults in densi?cation and heating (increased energization)
ity hunches and periodically directed into charged particle
accelerators or other utilization equipment. Electric 25 of the particles to predetermined intermediate values.
The plasma of intermediate density and energy is next
?elds have long been employed for the foregoing purpose
accelerated into the reaction zone by appropriate axial
in various ion sources, electron guns, and the like, where
translation of the accumulator ?elds to positions coincid
in ions or electrons are accelerated to relatively high
ing with the reaction zone. The reaction zone ?elds are
energies during discrete periodic intervals of time by
pulsed electric ?elds to thereby form densi?ed bunches 30 then increased in intensity to further compress the plasma
and thereby increase the density and energy of the plasma
of high energy particles. In other instances recently of
particles to values greater than the intermediate values
importance, particularly in the ?eld of magnetohydrody
attained in the accumulator zone. The plasma may be
namics, it has become desirable to provide dense accum
further densi?ed and increased in energy in step-wise fash~
ulations of a space-charge neutralized mixture of ions
and electrons, i.e., a high density, high energy plasma. 35 ion through the employment of additional successive com
pression zones. In this manner plasma may be accumu
The accumulations of such plasma may be injected into
lated at substantial densities and energies commensurate
various controlled fusion devices and further densi?ed
with the establishment of controlled thermonuclear reac
and energized therein to establish conditions requisite to
tions, or at densities and energies useful for other pur
the initiation and promotion of nuclear reactions. The
accumulations of plasma may in other instances be initi 40 poses.
The present invention is of generally similar relevance
ally of su?icient energy and density to establish a thermo
to the multiple zone Pyrotron discussed above and pro~
nuclear reaction without additional energization and dens
vides improved speci?c structure for accomplishing the
i?cation or at least to establish other nuclear reactions
dcnsi?cation and energization of charged particles (plas
through interparticle collisions which are productive of
neutrons, X-rays, and other radiation useful for manifold 45 ma) in a plurality of successive magnetically contained
compression zones of progressively greater magnetic in
utilitarian purposes. It will be appreciated that the
tensity. Charged particles (i.e., ions and electrons) may
previously-mentioned electric ?elds for individually ac
be introduced to the ?rst compression zone in admixture
celerating and accumulating ions or electrons are unsat
as a plasma, and accelerated through the successive com
isfactory for accomplishing similar functions with a plas
pression zones of progressively greater intensity until the
ma, inasmuch as any attempt to in?uence a plasma by
particles are ?nally accumulated in the last compression
electric ?elds produces plasma disintegration. For ex
zone at high densities and energies. The present inven
ample, an electric ?eld of such polarity that it would
tion is accordingly useful as a novel charged particle
attract positively charged ions in a plasma would repel
magnetic linear accelerator. Where plasma is accumu
electrons so that the ?eld would terminate the plasma
lated at suf?cient energy and su?icient density in the de
instead of accelerating same.
vice of the present invention, conditions requisite to the
In order to accelerate plasma to high energy and ac
initiation and/or promotion of thermonuclear reactions
cumulate same in densi?ed quantities, means other than
as well as other nuclear reactions are established with an
electric ?elds must be employed and in this connection
attendant production of energetic neutrons and other
one solution to the problem is presented in a copending
application for U.S. Letters Patent of Richard F. Post, 60 nucleons useful for serving manifold utilitarian purposes.
it is therefore an object of the present invention to
Serial No. 443,447, ?led July 14, 1954. Brie?y, the in
provide apparatus for producing dense accumulations of
vention disclosed in said copending application compre
extremely energetic charged particles.
hends the employment of a magnetic containment system
Another object of the present invention is the pro
generally characterized by an axially symmetric magnetic
?eld having spaced gradientially-intensi?ed re?ector ?eld 65 vision of a magnetic linear accelerator for space charge
neutralized particles.
regions situated therein and providing a containment
Still another object of the invention is to provide
zone for charged particles in an evacuated space. The
means for increasing the energy and density of a plasma.
application also discloses methods and means for the
injection, trapping, heating (energization), compression,
It is yet another object of the invention to accelerate
containment, and decompresion of charged particles (plas 70 a plasma.
ma) and the utilization of the products of various reac
An important object of the invention is to provide
tions which may be caused to occur. The term “Pyro
hieh ?nal magnetic compression ?elds over small plasma
ace-9,344
V
'
volumes to efficiently utilize magnetic energy in a Pyro—
means may also be employed to generate a magnetic ?eld
tron.
A One other object of this invention is to provide means
having the indicated con?guration, which con?guration is
subsequently described in more detail.
A second pulse solenoid 2.2 is similarly provided dis
posed concentrically about tubular section 13. The ends
of solenoid 22; are preferably spaced axially inward from
tendant production of energetic nucleons.
the stepped transitions'between section 13 and sections
It is a further object of the present invention to pro
12 and 14, respectively. The turns-density of solenoid.
vide a muliple zone Pyrotroii.
_
V
I _
Z2 is appropriately varied in the axial direction to pro~>
Other objects and advantages of the invention will
become apparent by consideration of the following de 10 duce a nodal shaped ?eld which gradually decreases
lly in the direction of the transition from section 13
scription taken in conjunction with the accompanying
to section ‘14'.
drawings, of which:
The magnetic compression ?eld generating means of
FIGURE 1 is a cross sectional plan view, partially
for initiating and promoting controlled thermonuclear
reactions as well as other nuclear reactions with an at—
in schematic, of a preferred embodiment of the invention;
FEGURE 2 is a graphical schematic illustration of
the axial magnetic ?eld intensity pro?le of the embodi~
ment of FIG. 1; and
.
FIGURE 3 is a graphical illustration of the axial mag
netic ?eld intensity pro?le of this embodiment at several
successive increments of time.
Considering now the invention in some detail and
referring to the illustrated form thereof in the drawings,
there is provided generally a linear succession of com
municating magnetically contained evacuated compres
sion chambers for charged particles. Charged particle
source means communicating with the ?rst one of the
compression chambers inject charged particles thereinto
as a space charge neutralized mixture of particles of
both polarities, i.e., as a plasma. Means are provided
to generate a magnetic compression ?eld within the ?rst
chamber and the ?eld is manipulated to compress the
particles (i.e., increase the kinetic energy of the particles
while restricting same to a limited region) by an inter
mediate amount. During compression the ?eld is fur
ther manipulated to transfer the particles axially into
the next successive compression chamber and to trap’ the
particles therein.
Means are provided to generate a mag-,
netic compression ?eld within the second chamber and
the field is manipulated to further compress the particles
and transfer same into the next axially successive charm
her.
In a like manner the particles are further com~
pressed in each successive chamber whereby there is ac
cumulated in the last chamber a densi?ed charge of. high
energy particles.
Preferred structure for providing an evacuated region
in which to establish the compression chambers men
tioned above, as illustrated in FIG. 1, comprises an elon
gated closed vacuum envelope 11 having a plurality of
graded cylindrical sections 12, 13, 14 of progressively de
creasing diameters and lengths. The'respective volumes
16, 17, 13 enclosed by sections 12, 13, 14 are according
ly progressively decreasing and each enclosed volume
corresponds to one of the compression chambers of pre
vious mention. Envelope 11 in addition includes a port
19 or equivalent means to facilitate communicable con
nection of a vacuum pump (not shown) to the interior
of the envelope for the purpose of evacuating same to
suitable high vacuum dimensions, e.g., of the order of
the present invention further includes a pair of pulse so-»
lenoids 23, 24 disposed in spaced-apart relation coaxially‘
about envelope section 14-‘ proximate the transition from.
section 13. Solenoids 23, 24 are preferably serially con~
nected and upon energization generate a pair of spaced‘
reflector ?elds forming a Pyrotron magnetic containment.
?eld of the general character disclosed in the previously-'
mentioned copending application of Richard F. Post Se»
rial No. 443,447.
In addition to the pulse solenoids described above, the
magnetic compression ?eld generating means includes a.
plurality of direct current solenoids 26 disposed in axially
spaced apart relation co-axially about pulse solenoid 2}.
and the remaining length of envelope section 12; Simi~
larly, a plurality of axially spaced direct current solenoids
27 are mounted coaxially about pulse solenoid 22, and
axially spaced direct current solenoids 28 are mounted
coaxially about pulse solenoids 23, 24. Finally, an end
reflector ?eld direct current solenoid 29 is mounted con
centrically about the end region of envelope section 14
in abutment with the end of pulse solenoid 24. Solenoids
26 preferably have a lesser turns-density than solenoids
27' which, in turn, have a lesser turns-density than sole
noids 28. Re?ector ?eld solenoid 29, moreover, prefer
ably has a greater turns~density than solenoids 28. With
the foregoing relations between the turns-density of the
direct current solenoids, such solenoids may be con
nected in electrical series and coupled between the ter
minals of a DC. power source 31 to facilitate energiza
tion thereof. By virtue of the turns-density variation be
tween the respective direct current solenoids 26, 27, 28
and re?ector ?eld solenoid 29, a direct current axially
symmetric magnetic ?eld is generated within envelope
11 having an intensity which increases progressively in
steps in each successive compression chamber 16, 17, 18
and which rises sharply to a re?ector ?eld peak in the
end region of the last chamber 13. More particularly,
the direct current magnetic ?eld in accordance with the
present invention has an axial intensity pro?le as is gen
erally depicted by the solid line curve in FIG. 2. As
illustrated therein, the direct current magnetic ?eld has a
uniform relatively low intensity H1 in compression cham?
ber 16 and then increases smoothly to a second rela
tively greater uniform intensity H2 in compression cham
ber 17. The ?eld intensity then increases abruptly from
intensity H2 to an even greater intensity H3 which extends
lO—6 mm. of mercury.
uniformly through compression chamber 18 to the end
Appropriate magnetic ?eld generating means are car 60 thereof and then rises sharply to a re?ector ?eld peak in
ried by envelope 11 to generate the hereinbefore-men
tensity, H,-. In order that a tube of flux of the direct
tioned axially symmetric magnetic compression ?elds
current ?eld threads the entire length of envelope 11
within compression chambers 16, 17, 18. Such ?eld gen
without intersecting a wall thereof, the turns-density of
erating means preferably includes a pulse solenoid 21
the direct current solenoids are chosen such that the
disposed coaxially about envelope tubular section 12 and
corresponding magnetic ?eld intensities H1, H2, H3 thereby
extending over at least a portion of the axial length there
generated within adjacent compression chambers vary
of with one end proximate the stepped transition from
inversely as at least the ratio of the diameters of the cor
section ‘12 to section 13.
Solenoid 2'1, moreover, is best
formed in several axially spaced sections of varying turns
density and length in order to provide a shaped, nodal
pulsed ?eld which gradually decreases in intensity along
the axis of section 12 toward section 13. It will be ap
preciated that a single solenoidal section having a suit
ably tapered turns-density distribution or equivalent
responding envelope sections 12, 13, 14. Accordingly,
the magnetic ?eld intensities H2, H3 within chambers 17,
18 relative to the intensity H1 Within chamber 16 are
given by the following expressions:
H1Z(D2of
112
'
.
aoeaeaa
5
H3
6
within envelope 11 for several successive increments of
time is as generally depicted by the axial intensity pro
21 2
E403)
where :
?le of FIG. 3. More particularly, at ‘a time, t1, just
after time rising current begins to flow through solenoid
D1=diameter of envelope section 12
D2=diarneter of envelope section 13
D3=diameter of envelope section 14
includes a central region of relatively low intensity Hm
21, the compression ?eld in compression chamber 16
terminally bounded on one side by a region of relatively
high intensity Hm and on the other side by the direct
It is to be noted that means other than the series en
current stepped region of relatively high intensity H2
ergized direct current solenoids of varying turns-density 10 existing in compression chamber ‘17. At a later time
described above may be employed to generate a direct
current magnetic ?eld of the con?guration depicted by
t2 the pulse current magnitude is increased to a value
commensurate with a central ?eld region of intensity
FIG. 2 and therefore same are not to be construced as
Hm, greater than the intensity Hi1, and terminally
limiting upon the scope of the invention. For example,
the turns-densities of solenoids 26, 27, 28, 29 may be
bounded on one side by the stepped region of higher in
tensity H2 and on the other side ‘by a region of rela
equal and such solenoids connected to direct current
sources of progressively greater magnitude to generate
the indicated ?eld.
Considering now means for energizing the pulse sole
noids 21, 22, 23,‘ 24 of previous mention in order to
provide pulsed components of the magnetic compression
?eld of the present invention, pulsed current sources 32,
tively high intensity Hm greater than H2. At a still
later time, :3, during the rise time of the pulse current,
the magnetic ?eld within compression chamber 16 in
33 are respectively connected to solenoids 21, 22 and
pulsed current source 34 is connected to solenoids 23, 24
in additive series. Such current sources 32, 33, 34 are
capable of generating very fast rise time pulses of cur
rent of predetermined maximum values when connected
to the corresponding pulse solenoids. The current sources
may accordingly advantageously be capacitor banks peril
odically charged to high voltage by a direct current volt
age supply with the capacitance of the banks being se
lected relative to the inductance of the pulse solenoids to
produce periods of sinusoidal current oscillation in the
resultant oscillatory circuits commensurate with the de
sired rise times. The pulsed current sources may in addi
tion include variable resistors in the output circuits thereof
to facilitate adjustment or" the magnitude of current flow
through the solenoids to substantially any desired value.
More particularly, the pulse current sources 32, 33, 34
are preferably arranged to produce current pulse rise
times in the corresponding solenoids 21, 2.2, and 23, 24
of progressively longer durations. The peak current mag
nitude in pulse solenoid 22 moreover is adjusted such that
the corresponding peak intensity H1’ (see the dashed line
curves of FIG. 2) of pulsed magnetic ?eld component
thereby generated in compression chamber 16 when com
bined with the direct current ?eld component of intensity
H1 exceeds the direct current ?eld intensity of H3 estab
lished in compression chamber 18. Similarly, the peak
magnitude of pulse current supplied from source 33 to
solenoid 22 is adjusted such that the resulting peak inten
sity 1-12’ of pulsed magnetic ?eld component established
in compression chamber 17 in combination with the direct
current ?eld component intensity H2 established therein,
exceeds the intensity of re?ector ?eld peak H,. The
pulse current peak magnitude supplied from source 34 to
solenoids 23, 24 is also of a value such that the peak in
tensities Hrl, Hl-z of the spaced re?ector ?eld regions
thereby established in compression chamber 18 when
combined with the direct current ?eld component intensity
H3 exceed the intensity of direct current re?ector ?eld Hr
by substantially any desired amount.
To facilitate establishment of the foregoing pulse ?eld
components H ’, H2’, Hg, and Hi2, in respective suc
cession, pulse current sources 32, 33, 34 ‘are connected
to pulse solenoids ‘.21, 22,
and
through suitable
sequential switching means 36. Such switching means
are designed to initially effect connection of source 32
to solenoid 21; whereupon such solenoid is energized with
fast time rising current and the time rising pulse compo
nent of magnetic ?eld is generated in compression chamber
16. By virtue of the turns-density distribution in the
various sections of solenoid
and the stepped con?gu~
ration of the direct current ?eld component within
creases axially from the value H2 in chamber 17 to a
value of greater intensity Hm in the terminal region of
chamber 16. The magnetic ?eld within chambers 16,
17 at time t3 is accordingly de?ned by a region of the
intensity H2 within chamber 17 terminally bounded on
one side by the region of greater intensity Hm within
chamber 16 and on the other side by the region of rela
tively greater intensity H3 existing within chamber 18.
The ?eld intensity within chamber 16 continues to in_
crease until at a time tm the current pulse applied to
solenoid 21 attains peak amplitude. The nodal magnetic
?eld established within compression chamber 16 at time
in. is accordingly of the peak intensity, H1’, of previ~
ous mention which is greater than the direct current
?eld intensity H3 existing within compression chamber 18.
Substantially simultaneously with the attainment of
maximum current in solenoid 2'1 (i.e., at time tm), se
quential switching means 36 effects connection of pulse
current source 33 to solenoid 2-2. Time rising pulsed
current thus commences to ?ow through solenoid 2'2 and
the con?guration of the overall magnetic compression
?eld established Within compression chamber 17 is ini
tially generally similar to that previously existing at
time t1 within chamber 16 as described above.
More
particularly, the compression ?eld within chamber 17 in
cludes a central region of relatively low intensity ter
minally bounded on one side by the stepped region of
relatively high intensity H3 established in compression
chamber 18 and on the other side by a time rising nodal
region of relatively high intensity.
The intensities of
the central region and nodal region continue to increase
with respect to time until the current pulse applied to
solenoid
attains maximum amplitude at which time
the central ?eld region exceeds the intensity H3 Within
compression chamber 18. The magnetic ?eld con?gura
tion at this time is accordingly as depicted by the pro
?le curve H;.—H3—H2' of FIG. 2.
Upon the attainment of peak current in solenoid 2.2,
sequential switching means 36 effects connection of pulse
current source 3/} to solenoids 23, 2-1- resulting in the
generation of axially spaced gradientially-intensi?ed re
tlector ?eld regions bounding a less intense central region
within compression chamber 18.
The intensity of the
foregoing ?eld rises in time until peak current ?ows
through solenoids 23, 24-‘, and the peak magnetic intensity
pro?le curve H_‘.1——I-lr2 of FIG. 2 is attained.
As regards circuitry which may be employed as se
quential switching means 36, a variety of satisfactory
circuits will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art.
For example, circuits in general
ings of a copending application
of Richard F. Post et al., Serial
ruary 13, 1958, now Patent No.
accordance with teach
for U.S. Letters Patent
No. 715,157, ?led Feb~
3,015,148, issued Janu
ary 2, 1962, may be advantageously employed as the se
quential switching means 36 of the present invention.
It is to be noted that the magnetic compression ?elds
envelope ‘1
4A, the overall compression ?eld con?guration 75
established Within compression chambers lo, l7, 18- in
aces, are
the manner described above are effective in the pro
which ratio is proportional to a squared function of the
gressive densi?cati
initial diameter.
I
'
'
introduced to the ?rst chamber at: in a manner which
As the pulse component of compression ?eld within
follows from the considerations disclosed in the former
chamber 16 rises further with time, and the central ?eld
copending application of Richard F. Post, Serial No. Cl region of the overall ?eld exceeds the direct current ?eld
intensity H2 in chamber 1'7 (note the pro?le curve
443,447, and which are described hereinafter. Accord
ingly, to introduce charged particles as a space charge
H3-—H2--H,t3 of PEG. 3), the densi?ed and energized
particles are transferred longitudinally into chamber 17.
neutralized mixture to compression chamber 18, a suit
able source 37, or array thereof, is mounted within the
Moreover, the fast time rising ?eld in chamber 16 prefer
Source 37 10 entially accelerates the particles of greatest energy into
chamber 17. At time tm, corresponding to peak intensity
may include conventional ion sources and electron guns
of the pulse ?eld component in compression chamber 16
to inject ions and electrons in neutralized qu. ‘ities.
the accelerated particles of selected high energy occupy
Alternatively, a plasma ‘generator may ‘be employed as
chamber 17, and at the same time sequential switching
source 37. For a detailed description of a suitable plasma
means as effects cnergization of pulse solenoid 22. As
generator, reference may be had to a copending appli
the pulse component of ?eld rises in time, the overall
cation for US. Letters Patent of Winston H. Bostick
compression ?eld con?guration within chamber 17 is gen
et al., Serial No. 589,831, ?led June 6, 1956, now Pat
erally similar to that previously established in chamber
ent No. 2,900,548. Source 37, moreover, is preferably
16' as described above, but of a higher initial intensity.
pulsed and is disposed axially outward from pulse sole
The charged particles are further densi?ed and energized
noid 21. The source is thus located in the direct cur
in chamber 17 in the manner hereinbefore described in
rent component of magnetic compression ?eld of in
relation to chamber 16, and the particles are similarly
tensity Ll and outside of the pulsed component of ?eld
transferred selectively as to energy longitudinally into
generated by solenoid 21. Source 3-7 is preferably trig
chamber 18.
gered at a time prior to the generation of the pulsed ?eld
Simultaneously with the attainment of maximum ?eld
and to accomplish this end the source is responsively a
in chamber 17, pulse solenoids 23, 24 are simultaneously
connected to a trigger generator 31°». The output of the
energized by action of sequential switching means 36.
trigger generator is also coupled through suitable time
chamber interiorly of envelope section» 12;.
The time rising magnetic containment ?eld depicted by
delay means 39 to sequential switching means 36 for
the pro?le curve Hrl—Hr2 of FIG. 2 is thereby gener
the purpose of commencing operation of the latter in
30 ated resulting in trapping and further densi?cation and
delayed time relation to the triggering of source 37.
energization of the particles in chamber 18. There is
With the apparatus of the present invention constructed
thus provided in the last chamber 18, an extremely dense,
and energized as described above, a cycle of operation
energetic accumulation of charged particles in a plasma.
is commenced by the generation of a pulse at the output
of trigger generator 38.
The plasma particles may be extracted axially from cham
Such pulse triggers particle
source 37 resulting in the generation of plasma particles
in the ?rst compression chamber 16 established within
envelope section 12. The particles di?use along helical
paths centered about the magnetic lines of force estab
ber 18 for use in utilization apparatus as by simultane
ously decreasing the intensities of pulse re?ector ?eld
H12 and direct current re?ector ?eld 1-1,. The foregoing
may be accomplished by simultaneously short circuiting
lished within the chamber due to the direct current corn—
solenoids 24, 29 with‘appropriate electronic switches or
equivalent means (not shown). Where a suf?cient num
ber of compression chambers are employed with ?elds
ponent of magnetic compression ?eld of intensity H1.
After the short time delay due to time delay means 39,
during which the charged particles ?ll the volume sur
of suitably high magnitudes and plasma of su?'iciently
rounded by pulse solenoid 21, the pulse generated at the
output of trigger generator 38 initiates operation of se
high initial energy in the apparatus of the present inven
tion, the resulting density and energy of the plasma parti
quential switching means 36. As a result, the pulse sole
cles in the last chamber are commensurate with the initia
noid 21 is energized and the time rising pulsed compo
nent of compression ?eld is established in chamber 16
inwardly from source 37. During the initial portions
of rise time of the pulsed ?eld component the overall
compression ?eld in chamber 16 has a con?guration as
generally depicted by the curve H2—Ht1—~Hm of FIG. 3
and such ?eld con?guration is e?ective in trapping the
charged particles ?lling the volume under solenoid 21.
DU
As the ?eld rises in time, the charged particles are com
before is as follows.
pressed and the diameter of the charged particle column
Vacuum chamber:
Section l6—
trapped between the gradientially-intensi?ed end regions
of the ?eld (e.g., H2 and Hm) decreases. The charged
particle density accordingly increases and the particle
kinetic energy associated with the velocity component
perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic ?eld in
creases. The manner in which the foregoing densi?ca
tion, energization, etc. is accomplished in the compression
?eld is disclosed in the previously referenced application
of Richard F. Post, Serial No. 443,447, and accordingly is
not described in detail herein.
It is to be noted, how
ever, that in the present invention, the compression ?eld
in compression chamber 16 is relatively low and there
fore the initial diameter of the charged particle column
is relatively large. It can be shown that the ?nal particle
energy advantageously is directly proportional to the ini
tial diameter and therefore the particle energies attainable
in the present invention are relatively large. Another ad
vantage resulting from the relatively low initial magnetic
?eld employed is in the increased value of the ratio of
particle energy density to magnetic ?eld energy density,
tion and promotion of controlled thermonuclear reactions.
Various nuclear processes may thereafter be conducted
in chamber 13 in accordance with conventional Pyrotron
practice as disclosed in the copending Post application,
Serial No. 443,447.
One of many possible sets of parameters that might
be employed with the basic apparatus described herein
Length ________________________ __feet__ 7
Diameter ____________________ __inches__ 18
(ii)
Section 17
Length ________________________ _._feet__ 4
Diameter
____________________ __inches__ 9
Section 18-
'
Length _________________________ "feet-.. 4
Diameter _____________________ __inches_.. 4
Plasma source:
Type
stacked deuterated titanium ring
Quantity-9 sources in distributed annular array
Output-M5 X it)“ ions per source (approximately
half 13+ ions and remainder predominantly multi
ply charged titanium ions)
Deuteron current—10‘1 amperes
Output energy-83i) e.v.
3,089,344
Magnetic bias ?eld:
H1
H2
H3
Hr
_
__ _
10
Kilogauss
0.5
2
_____ _ _
creasing along the envelope axis in the direction of en
velope sections of decreasing diameter, the peak intensity
of each of said pulsed ?elds in combination with the uni
12
directional ?eld intensity in each corresponding section
being greater than the unidirectional ?eld intensity in
the next successive section, and plasma generatingmeans
communicating with the section of largest diameter to
inject plasma thereto whereby the plasma is compressed
and translated axially from each section in succession.
24
Pulsed magnetic ?eld:
Hf-combined peak magnitude as superimposed on
bias ?eld-12 kilogauss
Rise time—10 nsec.
Initiation time——10 ,usec.—after sources ?red.
10
H2'—combined peak magnitude as superimposed on
bias ?eld-—24 kilogauss
Rise time-50 ,uSCC.
Initiation time—30 ,usec.—after sources ?red.
Hr2_Hr1"_‘
?eld in successive envelope sections varying inversely as
at least square of the ratio of the diameters thereof.
4. Means as de?ned by claim 2, further de?ned by the
15 rise times of the pulsed ?elds in successive ones of said
envelope sections of decreasing diameter being of progres
Combined peak magnitude of as superimposed
sively longer durations.
on bias ?eld
Re?ector ?elds-150 kilogauss
Central ?eld-75 kilogauss
Rise time—300 asec.
Initiation time-—S0 asec.—after sources ?red
Decay time—msec.
Ion density-—
Initial—1()12 per cc.
Final—5 X 1013 per cc.
3. Means as de?ned by claim 2, further de?ned by the
ratio of the intensities of said unidirectional magnetic
.
5. Apparatus for heating plasma to‘ high kinetic tem
peratures and producing nuclear radiation by nuclear
20 reactions occurring between the energetic constituents of
the plasma comprising an elongated evacuated vacuum
envelope having a plurality of graded cylindrical sections
of progressively decreasing diameter and length, mag
netic ?eld generating means carried by said envelope for
25 generating an axially symmetric unidirectional magnetic
Ion rotational energy—
Initial-400 e.V.
?eld within said envelope with the ?eld intensity in suc
cessive sections of decreasing diameter increasing progres
Final—10 kv.
sive'ly in steps from a minimum in a ?rst section of largest
diameter to a maximum in a last section of smallest diam
Apparatus substantially in accordance with the above 30 eter and rising sharply to a re?ector ?eld peak in the
parameters has produced neutrons. The energy distribu
terminal region of said last section, pulsed magnetic ?eld
tion and yield of the neutrons, analysis of the reaction
generating. means carried by said envelope for generat
ing fast time rising pulsed magnetic ?elds in said sections
products escaping from the device, and other experimental
observations, moreover, all indicate that the neutrons are
of thermonuclear origin.
in respective sequence from the ?rst section to the section
35
preceding said last section, the intensity distribution along
While the salient features of the present invention have
the envelope axis of each pulsed ?eld decreasing in the
been described in detail with respect to but one preferred
direction of said last section, the peak intensity of each
embodiment, it will be apparent that numerous modi?ca
pulsed ?eld in combination with the unidirectional ?eld
tions may be made within the spirit and scope of the in_
intensity in each corresponding section being greater than
vention, and it is therefore not desired to limit the inven 40 the unidirectional ?eld intensity in the next successive
tion to theexact details shown except insofar as they
section, pulsed magnetic re?ector ?eld generating means
may be de?ned in the following claims.
carried by said last section for simultaneously generating
‘What is claimed is:
a pair of axially spaced gradientially-intensi?ed fast time
1. Apparatus for the densi?cation and energization of
charged particles comprising a linear succession of axially
communicating evacuated compression chambers, means
carried by said chambers for generating an axially sym~
metric unidirectional magnetic ?eld therein, said ?eld hav
ing an intensity 'which increases progressively in steps in
each successive compression chamber, pulsed magnetic '
?eld generating means carried by said chambers for gen
erating axially symmetric pulsed magnetic ?elds within
said chambers in superimposition with said unidirectional
?eld and in respective time sequence in the direction of
increasing intensity thereof, the peak intensity of each
of said pulsed ?elds in combination with the unidirec
tional ?eld intensity in each chamber being greater than
the intensity of the unidirectional ?eld in the next suc
cessive chamber, and particle source means communicat
ing with the ?rst one of said chambers for introducing
charged particles thereto.
2. Means for producing a dense accumulation of ener
getic plasma comprising an elongated evacuated vacuum
envelope having a plurality of graded cylindrical sections
rising re?ector ?elds therein sequentially following the
attainment of peak pulsed ?eld intensity in the preceding
section, and plasma generating means communicating
with said ?rst envelope section for injecting plasma there
to ‘whereby the plasma is compressed in and translated
axially from each section in succession to be trapped be
tween said re?ector ?elds in the last section and further
compressed to produce nuclear radiation from nuclear
reactions induced between the resulting energetic con~
stituents of the plasma.
6. Apparatus as de?ned by claim 5, further de?ned
by said pulsed magnetic ?eld generating means compris
ing a plurality of solenoids respectively concentrically
disposed about said envelope sections, the turns~density
of each solenoid diminishing axially toward sections of
decreasing diameter, a corresponding plurality of pulsed
current sources, and sequential switching means coupled
between said sources and corresponding solenoids for con
necting successive sources to the corresponding solenoids
in time sequence.
7. A plasma linear accelerator comprising an elongated
of progressively decreasing diameter and length, magnetic 65 evacuated vacuum envelope having a plurality of graded
?eld generating means carried by said envelope for gen
erating an axially symmetric unidirectional magnetic ?eld
within said envelope, said ?eld having an intensity in
creasing progressively in steps in said graded sections from
a minimum in the section of largest diameter to a maxi
mum in the section of smallest diameter, pulsed magnetic
?eld generating means carried by said envelope for gen
erating fast time rising pulsed magnetic ?elds in said sec
tions in respective sequence from the largest to smallest
diameter sections, the intensity of each pulsed ?eld de 75
cylindrical sections of progressively decreasing diameter
and length, direct current solenoid means disposed con
centrically about each one of said sections for generating
upon energization an axially symmetric unidirectional,
magnetic ?eld within said envelope with the ?eld intensity
in successive sections of decreasing diameter increasing
progressively in steps, direct current source means con
nected to said solenoid means for effecting said energiza
tion, a plurality of pulse solenoids respectively concen
trically disposed about said envelope sections, the turns
3,069,344
.
7
ll
,
,
density of eachv solenoid diminishing axially toward sec
tions of decreasing diameter, a plurality of pulsed current
sources, sequential switchingmeans coupled between said
netic ?eld having anintensity which varies between suc
cessive. sections of decreasing diameter according to the
relation:
sources and said pulse solenoids for sequentially connect
ing the sources to corresponding successive pulse sole
a
H12 of
0,
noids disposed about sections of progressively smaller
diameter upon the attainment of peak current in respec
where:
tive preceding adjacent pulse solenoids, a pulsed plasma
Dlzdiameter of a ?rst section
generator communicating with the envelope section of
D2=diameter of a second section successively adjacent
largest diameter for introducing plasma thereto, a trigger 10
the ?rst section
generator connected to said plasma generator to trigger
H1=magnetic ?eld intensity within the ?rst section
same, and time delay means connected between said trig
H2=magnetic ?eld intensity within the second section,
ger generator and said sequential switching means for
actuating the switching means in delayed time relation to
the triggering of said plasma generator.
8. A plasma injector comprising an elongated vacuum
envelope having a plurality of graded cylindrical sections
of progressively decreasing diameter and length, a plural
ity of direct current solenoids disposed coaxially about
said envelope sect-ions with the turns-density of said sole~
noids progressively increasing as the diameters of said
sections decrease, a source of direct current serially con
nected to said direct current solenoids, a plurality of pulse
solenoids respectively concentrically disposed about said
envelope sections, the turns-density of each pulse sole
noid diminishing axially toward the envelope sections
of decreasing diameter, a plurality of pulsed current
sources, sequential switching means coupled between said
sources and said pulse solenoids to connectvthe sources
to the solenoids in sequence in a direction from largest "
to smallest diameter sections and upon the attainment
of peak current in each respective immediately preceding
pulse solenoid, a pulsed plasma source disposed within
a direct current re?ector ?eld solenoid disposed con
centrically aboutithe end region of said last section to
generate upon energization a re?ector ?eld rising sharply
from the unidirectional ?eld intensity therein to a re?ector
?eld peak, a directcurrentosource connected to said direct
current solenoids and re?ector ?eld solenoid in additive
series to efiect ‘said energization, a plurality of pulse
solenoids respectively concentrically disposed about said
envelope sections from the ?rst section to the section pre
ceding said last section, the turns-density of each pulse
solenoid diminishing axiallyytowardlthe last section, a
plurality of pulsed current sources for connection to said
pulse solenoids, said current sources upon connection to
said pulse solenoids disposed about successive sections of
decreasing diameter producing current pulses having suc
cessively increasing rise times, a pair of axially spaced
pulsed re?ector ?eld solenoids disposed coaxially about
said last section, a pulsed re?ector ?eld current source
for connection; to said’ pulsed re?ector ?eld solenoids in
series, sequential switching means coupled between said
said envelope section of largest diameter, a trigger generj
ator connected to said plasma source to periodically pulse
same and thereby introduce plasma to the envelope sec
tion of largest diameter, and time delay means connected
between said trigger generator and said sequential switch
ing means for actuating the switching means in delayed
pulsed current and pulsed re?ector ?eld current sources
reactions occurring between the energetic constituents of
and time delay means connected between said trigger
generator and said sequential switching means for actuat
and said pulse and pulsed re?ector ?eld solenoids to con
nect the sources to the solenoids in sequence in a direction
from’ the ‘?rst toward the last sections and upon the
attainment of_pe_ak current in respective immediately
preceding solenoids, a pulsed plasma source disposed
40 within said ?rst envelope section, a trigger generator con
time relation to the pulsing of said plasma source. 7
nected to said plasma source to periodically pulse same
9. Apparatus for heating plasma to high kinetic
and thereby introduce plasma to the ?rst envelope section,
temperatures and producing nuclear radiation by nuclear
a plasma comprising an elongated evacuated vacuum
envelope having a plurality of graded cylindrical sections
progressively decreasing in diameter and length from a
?rst section of largest diameter to a last section of
smallest diameter, a plurality of direct current solenoids
disposed in coaxial spaced-apart relation about each sec
tion, saidwsolenoids having turns-densities to generate '
upon energization a unidirectional axially symmetric mag
ing the switching means in delayed time relation to the
pulsing of said plasma source.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Project Sherwood, by Amasa S. Bishop, September
1958, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass,
pp. 61, 63, 64-, 122-426.
’
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