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Патент USA US3069607

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Dec. 18, 1962
A. E. FEINBERG
3,069,597
ELECTROMAGNETIC SQUARE WAVE PRODUCING DEVICE
Filed Nov. 14, 1952
44
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72 33 72 70
47'
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17
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United States Patent 0 “ice
3,069,597
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
2
1
the flux wave is at a maximum, the voltage is zero. In a
3,069,597
ELECTROMAGNETIC SQUARE WAVE
PRODUCING DEVICE
Albert E. Feinberg, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Advance
Transformer Co., Chicago, 11]., a corporation of Illinois
Filed Nov. 14, 1952, Ser. No. 320,470
18 Claims. (Cl. 315--254)
constricted ?ux path such as this small bridging projec
tion or protuberance, the permeability of the area will be _
large when the ?ux is near zero (and the voltage maxi
mum) and the permeability will drop practically to that
the character which When energized will produce .a sub
of the surrounding air space due to its saturation when
the ?ux increases at zero voltage. Now, as the flux de
creases toward zero, the permeability of the restricted
area will continue to increase until it will be very great
near zero ?ux. At this point the ?ux will suddenly in
crease rapidly in the opposite direction until the con
stantially square or clipped wave.
stricted area is once more saturated and the reluctance
This invention relates generally to transformers and
more particularly is concerned with a transformer of
In the electrical lighting industry, high leakage react
ance transformers are used to provide the necessary bal
last in the use of gaseous discharge devices such as flu
orescent lamps, gaseous discharge tubes and the like.
It is required at times that a device in a circuit draw
of that path approaches that of the air space surround
ing this area. As the voltage decreases from that point
15 onward, the ?ux will continue to increase but at a slow
er rate. Obviously then, this would cause the peak at the
crest of the volt-age wave, because the ?ux rate of change
at the zero point suddenly increases.
This invention, therefore, has as a principal object
leading current. Under such circumstances, the trans
former must provide, in addition to the high leakage
reactance between the primary and the secondary serving 20 thereof the elimination of the peaked voltage wave from
the electromagnetic structure of character described
the leading gaseous discharge device, means to produce
7 wherein the secondary may be carrying a leading current.
additionall leakage react-ance rat a point in the magnetic
A further object of the invention is the provision of
circuit in common with both the primary and the lead
a novel electromagnetic device which will produce a
ing secondary windings in order to prevent saturation in
the magnetic core. In the case of a simple transformer
generally square current wave in the secondary thereof,
whereby when used with gaseous discharge devices pro
for use with a single gaseous discharge device, this may
take the form of a non-magnetic gap at the end of the
common magnetic leg. This type of structure is also
found advantageous in the case of lagging secondaries,
but the likelihood of saturation .is not as great.
For example, in a shell type of transformer in which
there is a rectangular frame-like portion and a central
longitudinal winding leg having the winding disposed
viding illumination, greater lighting efficiency will be
obtained.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a
30 transformer of the character described in which the mag
netic high leakage reactance shunt between the primary
and secondary windings is provided with highly con
stricted bridging portions whereby to offset and over
come the tendency of the leading secondary to produce
thereon, the two windings are separated by a magnetic
shunt including air gaps, and the end of the winding leg 35 peaked crest current waves.
adjacent the secondary winding is also provided with an
A still further object of the invention is to provide
air gap. This produces leakage reactance which is
a transformer which will produce a generally square or
common to both the primary and the secondary magnet
clipped voltage wave and is capable of delivering a cur
izing fluxes. The construction as described prevents
rent of like wave shape to a ‘load.
40
saturation in the core in the vicinity of the secondary
Many other objects will occur to those skilled in the
Winding, which is an undesirable characteristic of sec
art to which the invention appertains, but all within
ondaries drawing leading current.
the purview and scope of the invention. For the pur
Mechanically, it is practically necessary that there be
pose of complying with the patent statutes 1 have illus
at least a very small bridging projection or protuberance 45 trated preferred embodiments of the invention which,
on one or the other .of the juxtaposed faces of the gap.
when considered in connection with the description will
This protuberance is needed for support and to prevent
clearly demonstrate the advance that I have made in the
the chattering .or buzzing which may be caused by such
arts and sciences.
In the drawings:
structures. It has been found, however, that such struc
FIG. 1 is semi-diagrammatic view generally in section
tures, while providing current that is fairly sinusoidal, 50
nevertheless cause an undesirable type of distortion char
acterized by a very sharp peak of high amplitude super
showing the construction of a transformer or the like
of the kind to which the invention may be applied, illus
imposed on the resulting voltage wave. Two important
trating prior constructions.
disadvantages arise by virtue of this peak. In the first
FIG. 2 is a schematic electrical diagram of a circuit
place, the sharp peak is tov some extent reflected in the 55 utilizing the device of FIG. 1 for the ignition and opera
current wave and decreases lighting efficiency. In the
tion of a gaseous discharge tube for lighting purposes.
second place, in the type of gaseous discharge device
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view of the end of a device
which is required to be preheated before ignition, such
of the type shown in FIG. 1 but having a modi?ed form
peaking of the voltage Wave will give rise to preeignition,
of the prior construction.
Under these circumstances, the ?laments of such devices 60
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic representation of the voltage
will be bombarded by heavy ions during the time that
wave
produced in the secondary of the device of FIG. 1
their emitting faculties are being built up, thereby short
or FIG. 3, showing the peaked crests.
ening the life of such ?laments.
FIG. 5 is a semi-diagrammatic view generally in sec
I believe that the peaking is caused by a sudden increase
tion
similar to that of FIG. 1 but showing the construction
in the permeability of the small bridging connection or 65
of the invention.
protuberance at the top of the voltage Wave giving rise
FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 are fragmentary views of the center
to a surge or sudden increase in the rate of change of
of a transformer or other magnetic device similar to that
?ux. The voltage in a device of this kind lags the in
of FIG. 5 but showing modi?ed forms of the invention.
stantaneous magnetic flux and the magnetizing current
FIGS. 9 and 10 are diagrammatic representations of
by 90° and is proportional to the rate of change of ?ux. 70
voltage waves produced in the secondaries of the devices
Thus when the ?ux wave passes through zero, the volt
of FIGS. 5 to 8 inclusive and showing the manner in
age is a maximum, i.e., reaches its peak. Likewise, when
3,069,597
3
4
which the crests of the waves are ?attened because of the
invention.
In FIG. 1 there is illustrated a transformer of the gen
eral type with ‘which we are concerned. Although illus
trated with only one secondary winding, it is to be under
stood =that same may have more than one.
These wind
ings may be of any character such as for example, lagging
windings, split windings, etc.
The phenomena with which we are here concerned arise
by virtue of the existence of an end gap. Such end gaps
are especially useful in preventing saturation which might
occur in the vicinity of the secondary winding in the
event the secondary winding was designed to carry a lead
ing current. However, due to the improvement in wave
shape, under certain circumstances, the secondary may
carry lagging current. The invention is applicable to both
types of secondaries.
There is shown a transformer 2t}, having a shell-like
outer core 21 having bridging ends 22 and
The trans
former is formed of two windings, a primary P and a
former connection. The operation of the device is well
known and consists of the ignition of the lamp 43 by
virtue of the open circuit voltage developed across both
windings followed by the protection of relatively large re
actance whereby to limit the ?ow of current in the lamp.
The circuit may be varied by the addition of other wind
ings as previously mentioned herein and instead of the
instant-start lamp illustrated, a pre-heat type of ?uores
cent lamp may be used.
In FIG. 4» I have shown the positive and negative cycles
10
of a voltage wave which results from the phenomena here
tofore discussed. The general con?guration of the wave
is that of a sine wave as indicated at 47 but, it will be
seen that the great increase in rate of change of ?ux which
occurs when the voltage is a maximum results in peaks
48 superimposed upon the sine wave 47. It has been
found desirable to produce a current in the. lamp 43 which
is fairly ?at topped in order to achieve maximum bril
liance during the greatest part of the cycle. Obviously
secondary 5 both of which are mounted upon a central
the current wave which would result by reason of the
voltage wave of FIG. 4- would likewise be peaked and cer
winding leg 24 and are spaced apart sufficient to clear the
magnetic shunt 26 between the windings. The left hand
end of the winding leg 24 matingiy engages at 25 in the
tainly not flat topped. Furthermore, as pointed out the
peaks which are caused by the construction heretofore
bridging end. 22 with good magnetic contact and the right
hand end of the winding leg 24‘ has been foreshortened
to provide a space or air gap 27 at that point. There is a
used also may produce pro-ignition in the pre-heat type
of fluorescent lamp.
The invention as previously stated has as its principal
object the elimination of the peak and the production in
very small bridging projection 28 in the center of the
end face of the winding leg which engages the opposite
stead of a relatively ?at-topped wave. This is done by
the elimination of the protuberance 23 at the right hand
face of the gap 27 ‘so as to support the central winding 30 end of the win-ding leg 24 such that the great rate of
leg 24. in proper position within the shell core 21.
change of flux is impossible. Furthermore, by providing
In the fabrication of this transformer it) it is usual
such a protuberance at the magnetic shunt 26, there is
that the center winding leg 24‘ be punched out of the
provided a ‘by-passing of flux at the magnetic shunt 26
large plates forming the laminations of the core 21 so
which will automatically decrease the voltage developed
that there is exact ?t at the 'uncture 25. The gaps 2'7
in the secondary at the point of maximum voltage. This
and St) in the shunt are then shaved. The windings P
results in just the opposite of the phenomena described so
and S are pro-wound, slipped over the ends of the wind
that instead of the peak
as shown in FIG. 4 there is a
ing leg 24 and the assembled winding leg is pressed home
dip as shown at 49 in FIG. 9. By suitable design the dip
into the core. The connections are taken out of the
may be modi?ed to provide a relatively ?at topped
cannister in which the transformer is disposed, with per
wave which is illustrated in FIG. 10.
haps condensers and other electrical elements suitably
I believe that this is caused by the same general prin
connected, and the entire device is potted, i.e., covered
with pitch, and sealed.
Returning now to the construction of the transformer
2%), the magnetic shunt may be formed of extensions
from the sides of the core 20 which face the sides of the
winding leg, or, as in the case illustrated in FIG. 1, the
sides of the core and the winding leg may be provided
with short extensions 32 and 353 which are spaced apart
sumcient to provide the gaps 30.
In FIG. 3, instead of the protuberance 28, the trans
former 26 ‘may have the central winding leg seated in a
shallow recess formed in the bridging end, the recess in
turn having a portion narrower than the width of the
winding leg so that there are formed corner support
notches 34 for the winding leg 2-4. The effect is the same
as in FIG. 1.
ciples which give rise to the peaking. The permeability
of the protuberance at the shunt 26 is increased as the
voltage increases, while the ?ux approaches zero, so that
the ?ux tends to pass through these protuberances instead
of through the end gap 27. This compresses the ?ux wave
so that the rate of change as the flux wave passes through
zero (point of maximum voltage) is considerably re
duced. Obviously, with voltage being proportional to
rate of change of flux, there will be no sharp peak at the
voltage crest.
FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8 illustrate the forms Which the in
vention may take. Thus, in PEG. 5 there is shown a
transformer 50 whose construction is similar to that of
the transformer 26 in FIG. 1 with certain important ex
ceptions. The gap 27 in transformer 50 is unobstructed
by reason of the elimination of the protuberance 2S and
Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown the diagram of
the winding leg 24 is supported by means of a protuber
the circuit of the transformers of FIGS. 1 and 2. This,
ance 51 carried by each of the extensions 33 of the mag
together with the transformer form no part of the inven 60 netic shunt 26. In order to eliminate end-wise play of
tion but merely illustrate the di?iculty which the inven
the winding leg 24 the gaps 3d‘ are slanted downwardly
and towards the right, so that any tendency of the winding
tion overcomes. The circuit shows the transformer 29
leg to pull away from the connection 25 will result merely
being designated in the conventional manner and having
the primary P and the secondary S connected end to end
in a tight wedging engagement of the extensions 32 with
at the juncture 40. The primary P is connected across CT: LI the protuberances 51.
In FIG. 6 there is shown a modi?ed form of the in
the line which is indicated by the terminals 41 and 42.
vention. In this instance transformer 6t? is provided with
The core ‘26 and the shunt 26 are designated by groups of
inwardly extending parts 53 which stop just short of the
lines in the conventional manner. In this instance the
central winding leg 24. The central winding leg 24 is also
secondary S is intended to draw a leading current. There
is shown a gaseous discharge device in the form of a
?uorescent lighting tube 43 connected across both of the
windings P and S by the left hand lead 44 which extends
to the terminal 42 and the right hand lead 45 which ex
tends to the right hand end of the secondary S and has a
condenser C in series therein. This is an auto-trans
provided with outwardly extending parts 54 which extend
to just short of the. inner edges of the core 21. The ver
tical facing surfaces of the extensions 53 and 54 are also
spaced apart so that a relatively long air gap 55 is formed.
This provides a large gap area, especially needed in the
cases where S is to carry a lagging current. The facing
3,069,597
6
5
the transformer and including an air gap on opposite sides
of the central winding leg, at least one minute protuber
ance bridging each of the last-mentioned gaps for main
7 surfaces of the extension 53 are each provided with small
protuberances 56 whose purpose is the same as the pro
tuberance 51 of FIG. 5. In FIGS. 7 and 8 no provision
is shown to prevent end wise movement of the central
taining the spacing of the gaps and serving as a flux by
pass path at maximum open circuit voltage, whereby to
flatten the voltage crest.
2. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gas
eous discharge device and adapted to ignite and there
?lled with some non-magnetic substance such as ?bre,
after regulate the operation of the same from a relatively
paper or the like. In the case of the transformer 70 the
outwardly extending portions 32 are each provided with 10 low voltage source of AC. voltage, including at least
a primary winding and a secondary winding, the primary
a pair of protuberances 72 to produce the necessary effect.
winding being connected with the source to be ener
In the case of the transformer 80 the inwardly extending
gized thereby, and physically separated from the sec
portions 33 are each provided with a single protuberance
ondary winding, the windings being connected in trans
82 also for the purpose set forth above. Obviously in
former relationship, and the gaseous discharge device
each of the forms of FIGS. 5 through 8 there may be
being connected to the secondary so that the secondary
one or more small protuberances used if desired, de
current will ?ow through the discharge device, a shell
pending upon the results expected.
like core mounting said windings and including a cen
The wave shape which is produced in the current of the
winding leg 24 and it is presumed that some expedient
'Will be used to counter this movement during operation of
‘the transformer. For example, the end gaps 27 may be
secondary S as a result of these constructions has been
tral winding leg, the secondary winding being positioned
found to produce considerably better illumination than
vwith a relatively peaked wave. The ratio of peak to
at an end of the said winding leg within the shell-like
of the invention as used in connection with gaseous dis
tioned gaps slanting inwardly toward the winding leg
core, the core including a bridging end member, the
end of the winding leg mounting said secondary Winding
R.M.S. voltage can be made less than 1.414 with excellent
being slightly spaced from the bridging member and
results.
totally free therefrom to provide an end gap, a magnetic
The constructional details of transformer 20‘ shown in
FIG. 1 and the circuit thereof shown in FIG. 2 are known 25 shunt separating the secondary winding from the remain
der of the transformer and including an air gap on op
in the prior art. The dimensions of the examples of
posite sides of the central winding leg, at least one mi~
FIGS. 5 to 8 are of the same general proportion with
nute protuberance bridging each of the last-mentioned
the protuberances 51, 56, 72 and 82 of a practical size
gaps for maintaining the spacing of the gaps and serving
to maintain the gap spacing and ?rmly hold the respec
as a flux by~pass path at maximum open circuit voltage,
tive winding legs 24- in place.
whereby to ?atten the voltage crest, the said last men
While I have shown and described speci?c examples
charge devices, it is pointed out that the device has much
broader application. 'In many cases in which a square
and end of the transformer having said end gap where
by any endwise movement of the central winding leg
toward the said eng gap will be resisted by the said pro
tuberances.
3. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gase
ous discharge device and adapted to ignite and thereafter
regulate the operation of the same from a relatively low
40 voltage source of A.C. voltage, including at least a primary
wave is desired, and where from the type of load electro
magnetic means are appropriate, the invention may be
applied. Likewise the constructions which have been
shown and described by way of examples are capable
of wide variation. The device may for example be con
structed of L-shaped laminations arranged one opposite
the other in which case there is no central winding leg.
In this case, the windings are usually each split into
halves and placed on opposite legs of the respective Us
The shunt between the secondary and the rest of the de
vice may be a stack of laminations added, and may
have only one gap instead of two. Similar variations
of structure are obviously possible.
In conclusion, it is desired to emphasize that the theory
of operation of the invention has not been set forth
by way of limitation but only for clari?cation. I de 50
sire to cover all the modi?cations of the invention con
struction as described, irrespective of the theory of op
eration, except of course as limited by the claims ap
Winding and a secondary winding, the primary winding
being connected with the source to be energized thereby,
and physically separated from the secondary winding, the
windings being connected in transformer relationship, and
the gaseous discharge device being connected to the sec
ondary so that the secondary current will flow through
the discharge device, a shell-like core mounting said wind
ings and including a central winding leg, the secondary
winding being positioned at an end of the said winding leg
within the shell-like core, the core including a bridging
end member, the end of the winding leg mounting said
secondary winding being slightly spaced from the bridging
member and totally free therefrom to provide an end gap,
a magnetic shunt separating the secondary winding from
the remainder of the transformer and including an air
What it is desired to claim by Letters Patent of the
gap on opposite sides of the central winding leg, at least
United States, is:
one minute protuberance bridging each of the last-men
1. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gas
tioned gaps for maintaining the spacing of the gaps and
eous discharge device and adapted to ignite and there
serving as a ?ux by-pass path at maximum open circuit
after'regulate the operation of the same from a rela
tively low voltage source of A.C. voltage, including at 60 voltage, whereby to ?atten the voltage crest, there being
an inward extension on each of the core sides adjacent the
least a primary winding and a secondary winding, the
secondary winding, and an outward extension on each
primary winding being connected with the source to be
side of the central winding leg approaching but not meet
energized thereby, and physically separated from the sec
ing the said inward extensions whereby to form said
ondary winding, the windings being connected in trans
former relationship, and the gaseous discharge device 65 shunt and said last mentioned gaps.
4. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gase
being connected to the secondary so that the secondary
ous discharge device and adapted to ignite and thereafter
current will flow through the discharge device, a shell-like
regulate the operation of the same from a relatively low
' core mounting said windings and including a central wind—
voltage source of AC. voltage, including at least a primary
ing leg, the secondary winding being positioned at an
end of the said winding leg within the shell-like core, 70 winding and a secondary winding, the primary winding
being connected with the source to be energized thereby,
the core including a bridging end member, the end of
pended hereto.
the winding leg mounting said secondary winding being
slightly spaced from the bridging member and totally
and physically separated from the secondary winding,
the windings being connected in transformer relationship,
and the gaseous discharge device being connected to the
free therefrom to provide an end gap, a magnetic shunt
separating the secondary winding from the remainder of 75 secondary so that the secondary current will ?ow through
3,069,597
8
the discharge device, a shell-like core mounting said wind
ings and including a central winding leg, the secondary
winding being positioned at an end of the said winding leg
within the shell-like core, the core including a bridging
end member, the end of the winding leg mounting said
secondary winding being slightly spaced from the bridging
of the core sides adjacent the secondary winding, and an
outward extension on each side of the central winding
leg approaching but not meeting the said inward exten
sions whereby to form said shunt and said last mentioned
gaps with adjacent extensions being generally rectangular
in con?guration and having facing edges perpendicular to
member and totally free therefrom to provide an end
gap, a magnetic shunt separating the secondary Winding
from the remainder of the transformer and including an
the central winding leg with the protuberances between
said facing edges.
7. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gas
air gap on opposite sides of the central winding leg, at 10 eous discharge device and adapted to ignite and thereafter
least one minute protuberance bridging each of the last
regulate the operation of the same from a relatively low
mentioned gaps for maintaining the spacing of the gaps
voltage source of AC. voltage, including at least a pri
and serving as a ?ux by-pass path at maximum open
mary winding and a secondary winding, the primary
circuit voltage, whereby to ?atten the voltage crest, there
winding being connected with the source to be energized
being an inward extension on each of the core sides ad
thereby, and physically separated from the secondary
jacent the secondary winding, and an outward extension
winding, the windings being connected in transformer
on each side of the central winding leg approaching but
relationship, and the gaseous discharge device being c011
not meeting the said inward extensions whereby to form
nected to the secondary so that the secondary current
said shunt and said last mentioned gaps, said protuber
will flow through the discharge device, a shell-like core
ances being integral with a pair of extensions.
mounting said windings and including a central winding
5. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gase
leg, the secondary winding being positioned at an end
ous discharge device and adapted to ignite and thereafter
. of the said winding leg within the shell-like core, the core
regulate the operation of the same from a relatively low
including a bridging end member, the end of the winding
voltage source of A.C. voltage, including at least a pri
leg mounting said secondary winding being slightly spaced
mary winding and a secondary winding, the primary wind
from the bridging member and totally free therefrom to
ing being connected with the source to be energized there
provide an end gap, a magnetic shunt separating the sec
by, and physically separated from the secondary winding,
ondary winding from the remainder of the transformer
the windings being connected in transformer relationship,
and the gaseous discharge device being connected to the
secondary so that the secondary current will ?ow through
the discharge device, a shell-like core mounting said wind
ings and including a central winding leg, the secondary
winding being positioned at an end of the said winding
leg within the shell-like core, the core including a bridging
end member, the end of the winding leg mounting said
secondary winding being slightly spaced from the bridging
member and totally free therefrom to provide an end gap,
a magnetic shunt separating the secondary winding from
the remainder of the transformer and including an air gap
on opposite sides of the central winding leg, at least one
minute protuberance bridging each of the last~mentioned
gaps for maintaining the spacing of the gaps and serving
as a flux by-pass path at maximum open circuit voltage,
whereby to ?atten the voltage crest, there being an inward
extension on each of the core sides adjacent the secondary
winding, and an outward extension on each side of the
central winding leg approaching but not meeting the said
inward extensions whereby to form said shunt and said last
mentioned gaps with adjacent extensions being generally
rectangular in con?guration and having facing edges per
pendicular to the central winding leg.
and including an air gap on opposite sides of the central
winding leg, at least one minute protuberance bridging
each of the last-mentioned gaps for maintaining the spac
ing of the gaps and serving as a ?ux by-pass path at maxi‘
mum open circuit voltage, whereby to flatten the voltage
crest, there being an inward extension on each of the core
sides adjacent the secondary winding, and an outward
extension on each side of the central winding leg ap
proaching but not meeting the said inward extensions
whereby to form said shunt and said last mentioned gaps
with adjacent extensions being generally rectangular in
con?guration and having facing edges perpendicular to the
central winding leg and having ends terminating short of
the core sides and central winding leg respectively whereby
the gap formed thereby is of relatively great length and
hence large area.
8. An electromagnetic device of the character described
which is designed to provide substantially square wave
of voltage to a gaseous discharge device which com
prises, a rectangular shell core, a central winding leg
matingly seated in the core and having an end thereof
terminated just short of the inner face of an end of the
core and not touching the same whereby to provide an
end gap, a magnetic shunt spaced from the end gap to
provide a winding window and extending between the
sides of the shell core and the winding leg and including
6. An electromagnetic device serving at least one gas
eous discharge device and adapted to ignite and thereafter
regulate the operation of the same from a relatively low
at least a non-magnetic gap, a source of AC. voltage, a
voltage source of AC. voltage, including at least a pri
mary winding and a secondary winding, the primary wind 55 secondary winding disposed in the window, a primary
winding on the winding leg opposite said secondary wind
ing being connected with the source to be energized
thereby, and physically separated from the secondary
winding, the windings being connected in transformer
relationship, and the gaseous discharge device being con
nected to the secondary so that the secondary current
will flow through the discharge device, a shell-like core
mounting said windings and including a central winding
leg, the secondary winding being positioned at an end of
the said winding leg within the shell-like core, the core
including a bridging end member, the end of the winding
leg mounting said secondary winding being slightly spaced
from the bridging member and totally free therefrom to
provide an end gap, a magnetic shunt separating the sec
ing and being connected across said source to be en
ergized thereby, a transformer connection between the
windings whereby the secondary will provide a current
when energized by the primary, a gaseous discharge device
connected with the secondary winding, and a small bridg
ing head of magnetically conducting material rigidly en
gaged in said non-magnetic gap of said shunt.
9. A device as described in claim 8 in which the wind
ings are connected in auto-transformer connection and
the gaseous discharge device is connected across both
windings.
10. A device as described in claim 8 in which the wind
ings are connected in auto-transformer connection and
and including an air gap on opposite sides of the central 70 the gaseous discharge device is connected across both
windings and there is a condenser in series therewith.
winding leg, at least one minute protuberance bridging
11. A transformer providing a ?attened voltage wave
each of the last-mentioned gaps for maintaining the spac~
to a load, comprising a primary winding and a secondary
ing of the gaps and serving as a ?ux by-pass path at
winding connected in transformer relationship, a mag
maximum open circuit voltage, whereby to flatten the
netic core having the windings mounted thereon, a com
voltage crest, there being an inward extension on each
ondary winding from the remainder of the transformer
3,069,597
9
10
mon ?ux path for the flux of said windings in the core
having an air gap therein to limit the flux density in the
vicinity of the said secondary winding, and a saturable
shunt between the windings, said shunt being saturated
throughout substantially all of the output voltage wave of
said transformer, except at the peak of said wave, and
shunt having cross-sectional area very small relative to
the remainder of the ?ux paths of the said core whereby
having relatively high permeability at said peak.
12. A transformer providing a ?attened voltage wave to
said shunt is saturable during operation except at peak
open circuit voltage, at least a part of the said shunt being
of a magnetic material having a relatively low saturable
flux density.
16. A transformer providing a flattened signal to a
load, comprising a magnetic core, a primary winding
connected to an AC. source, a secondary winding in
a. load, comprising a primary winding and a secondary
winding connected in transformer relationship, a magnetic 10 transformer relationship to the primary winding, the wind
core having the windings mounted thereon, a common
flux path for the ?ux of said windings in the core having
an air gap therein to limit the flux density in the vicinity
of the said secondary winding, and a saturable shunt
between the windings for diverting the primary magnetic
?ux during operation or" the transformer, said shunt in
cluding a highly constricted portion completely saturated
ings mounted on said core with a common ?ux path, the
load being connected with at least the secondary winding,
a non-magnetic gap in the core ‘and in the said common
?ux path, a shunt between the windings, at least a part
of the shunt having cross-sectional area very small rela
tive to the remainder of the ?ux paths of the said core
whereby said shunt is saturable during operation except
at peak open circuit voltage, said shunt including at least
at zero open circuit secondary voltage, and having maxi
a non-magnetic gap having a small bridging protuberance
mum permeability at peak open circuit secondary voltage.
13. A transformer providing a ?attened signal to a 20 therein, whereby the protuberance is saturated and of sub
stantially the permeability of the remainder of the gap
load, comprising a magnetic core, a primary winding con
except at peak open circuit voltage.
nected to an AC. source, a secondary winding in trans
17. A high reactance transformer comprising a mag
former relationship to the primary winding, the windings
netic core having a winding leg member and a multileg
mounted on said ‘core with a common ?ux path, the load
being connected with at least the secondary winding, 21 25 yoke member, one end leg of said yoke member abutting
one end of said Winding leg member and the other end
non-magnetic gap in the core and in the said common
leg of said yoke member de?ning a series air gap with
?ux path, a shunt between the windings, and means ren
the other end of said winding leg member, a primary
dering the shunt highly saturable throughout the entire
cycle of the output voltage except at peak amplitude.
winding and a secondary winding in spaced relation on
14. A transformer providing a ?attened signal to a 30 said Winding leg member, said yoke member having a
load, comprising a magnetic core, a primary winding con
nected to an AC. source, a secondary winding in trans
former relationship to the primary winding, the windings
leakage leg extending intermediate said primary and sec
ondary winding toward said winding leg member and de
?ning a shunt air gap with said winding leg member, and
a magnetic bridge across the shunt air gap between said
mounted on said core with a common ?ux path, the load
being connected with at least the secondary winding, a 35 leakage leg and said winding leg, said bridge maintaining
the spacing and position of both said series and shunt air
non-magnetic gap in the core and in the said common ?ux
gaps and reducing the open circuit peak voltage of said
path, a shunt between the windings, at least a part of the
secondary winding.
shunt having cross-sectional area very small relative to
the remainder of the ?ux paths of the said core whereby
18. A high reactance transformer of claim 17 wherein
said shunt is saturable during operation except at peak 40 the magnetic bridge comprises a portion of the leakage
leg abutting said winding leg member.
open circuit voltage.
15. A transformer providing a flattened signal to a
load, comprising a magnetic core, a primary winding con
nected to an A.C. source, a secondary winding in trans
former relationship to the primary winding, the windings 45
mounted on said core with a common flux path, the load
being connected with at least the secondary winding, a
non-magnetic gap in the core and in the said common ?ux
path, a shunt between the windings, at least a part of the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,496,981
2,562,693
2,683,243
Boucher _____________ __ Feb. 7, 1950
Brooks ______________ __ July 31, 1951
Feinberg ____ __ _______ .... July 6, 19,54
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