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Патент USA US3069630

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Dec. 18, 1962
Filed Sept. 29. 1959
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
Gerald H. Servos, Elmhurst, lll., assignor to international
Telephone & Telegraph Corporation, New York, NY,
a corporation of Maryland
Furthermore, the alarm means is depicted
generally by a simple relay 7; whereas, any suitable equip
ment may be provided such as electronic devices which
are extremely sensitive to relatively small current flow,
for example. Quite obviously, other examples could be
selected to illustrate the manner in which the terms that
Filed Sept. 29, 1959, Ser. No. 843,245
5 Claims. (Cl. 324—54)
have been used and the items which have been described
This invention relates to testing devices and more par
ticularly to devices for electrically testing dielectric ma
terial to detect physical defects and structural weakness.
It is old to test dielectric material for physical defects
In accordance with this invention, a high potential
eiectrical ?eld is applied uniformly to each side of a
contoured dielectrical material. Referring to FIG. 1, the
dielectric material under test is identi?ed generally by
the reference numeral 2. A ?rst electrode l is provided
or structural weakness by applying high potential, elec
are entitled to a wide range of equivalents.
with a contour which corresponds to the contour of one
trical ?elds to each side of the material under test. If
side of the dielectric material. Second electrodes 4A and
the material is ruptured or has a serious structural de
43 have contours designated generally by the reference
fect, current ?ows across or though the material thus pro
numerals 3A and 3B which correspond to the other side
viding means for causing a suitable alarm to be signaled.
of dielectric material 2. Since dielectric material 2 is
While it is easy to maintain uniformity of an electrical
shown as a cylinder having a rounded or somewhat con
?eld on each side of dielectric material in the form of
vex terminating contour, areas 3A and 3B of electrodes
substantially ?at sheets, the problems of maintaining such
@A and 4B are shaped to provide the inside of a cylinder
uniformity are much more dif?cult when the dielectric
having a mating or complementary concave terminating
material assumes odd shapes.
surface which is lined by any suitable elastic material such
An object of this invention is to provide new and im
as conductive rubber 5.
proved means for testing dielectric materials.
While any suitable means may be provided for mov
Another object of this invention is to impress high 2
ably mounting electrodes 4A and 4B, the drawing dis
potentials on each side of dielectric material to test for
closes a clam shell-like arrangement having a pivot or
physical defects in such materials.
point at 11. When the clam shell-like arrange
Yet another object of this invention is to provide means
ment is in an open position, as shown by the drawing,
for maintaining uniformity of a high potential ?eld which
the dielectric material under test 2 may be ?tted over
may be applied to curved surfaces.
electrode 1. Thereafter, electrodes 4A and 413 may be
In accordance with this invention these and other ob
pivoted at point 11 to close and completely surround the
jects are accomplished by means of a ?rst electrode hav
material under test. The size of electrode 1 and the size
ing contours which are shaped to accommodate one side
of dielectric material being tested and second or mating 3 of the cavities 3A—3B are such that elastic material
which may be conductive rubber 5 is squeezed when the
electrodes having contours which are shaped to conform
clam shell—lil<e arrangement is in a closed position thereby
to the other side of dielectric material being tested. The
contours of at least one of the electrodes is lined with
soft, high carbon content, conductive rubber or other elas
tic material which has good electrical conducting char
The electrodes are adapted to have a tight
?t when in testing position in order that the conductive
elastic material may be squeezed to provide uniform phys
ical contact between the two electrodes. The dielectric
material which is under test is ?tted between the two
electrodes so that any structural defect results in an
alarm indicating ?ow of current from one electrode
through the material under test to the conductive elastic
material lining the other electrode.
The above mentioned and other objects of this inven
tion together with the manner of obtaining them will be
come more apparent and the invention itself will be better
understood by making reference to the following descrip
tion of an embodiment of the invention taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 discloses a cross-sectional view of the testing
device; and
insuring complete physical contact between conductive
material 5 and dielectric material 2.
Means is provided for signaling an alarm responsive
to the detection of a physical defect in dielectric material
2. That is, an electrical circuit may be traced from
ground 6 through electrode 1, dielectric material 2, con
ductive rubber S, the winding of relay 7, and fuse 8 to
battery. If the dielectric characteristics of material 2
are satisfactory, no current ?ows, relay 7 remains in an
unoperated condition, and contacts lit remain closed to
provide any suitable control function. On the other hand,
if there is a serious structural defect in dielectric ma
terial 2, current flows from electrode 1 to conductive
rubber 5 and through the winding of relay 7 thus causing
it to operate. If a serious mechanical defect is present,
but dielectric material 2 is not actually ruptured at the
start of a test, an electrostatic ?eld builds-up responsive
to the high potentials applied between electrodes 1 and
4, thus causing an arc that ruptures material 2 and allows
current to ?ow through the winding of relay 7 which
operates. In any event, operation of relay 7 opens con
FIG. 2 discloses a second cross-sectional view taken
tacts 1d and closes contacts 9 to provide any suitable
along line 1(}—1t) of FIG. 1 with electrodes 4A and 4B
control function such as the transmission of a test failure
in a closed position.
60 signal, for example.
Where possible, simple terms are used and speci?c
items are described hereinafter to facilitate an under
standing of the invention; however, it should be under
Next, reference is made to FIG. 2 which is a cross
sectional view of PEG. 1 taken along line l®—1tl' with
clam shell'like arrangement 4A and 4B in a closed posi
tion. Dielectric material 2 is positioned between ?rst
such items are not to act in any manner as a disclaimer 65 electrode 1 and conductive rubber 5 which is squeezed
of the full range of equivalents which is normally given
to assure physical pressure and, therefore, a uniform
under established rules of patent law. For example,
electrical ?eld across material 2.
electrodes 4A and 4B are shown as a clam shell-like
While the principles of this invention have been de
arrangement; whereas, any suitable mounting may be
scribed in connection with speci?c apparatus, it is to be
stood that the use of such terms and the description of
provided. Moreover, the drawing shows a relatively sim
ple and uniform contour for the dielectric material 2 be
ing tested; whereas, many irregular shapes may be ac
clearly understood that this description is made only by
way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of
the invention.
I claim:
1. In a dielectric testing device, the combination com
prising outer electrodes and inner electrodes IldVll'lg com
plementary contours wherein said outer electrode com
prises a clam shell-like arrangement to completely sur
round the inner electrode when in a closed position and
to provide access for inserting a dielectric material for
testing when in an open position, the contour of said inner
electrode corresponding exactly to the contour of one
having a convex end and the other of said electrodes is
shaped to form the inside of a cylinder having a con
cave end.
4. The testing device of claim 1 wherein said clam
shell-like arrangement is shaped to provide a cylindrical
concave cavity when in said closed position.
5. Apparatus for testing dielectric materials having a
pre-determined contour comprising means for applying
a high potential electrical ?eld to each side of said con
side of said dielectric material and the complementary 10 toured dielectrical materials, said means comprising a
contour of said outer electrode corresponding exactly to
?rst electrode having a generally convex surface and a
the contour of the other side of said dielectric material,
second electrode having a mating concave surface, said
means comprising elastic sheet material of good electrical
convex surface corresponding exactly to the inside of
conductive characteristics for lining the inside of said
said pre-determined contour and said concave surface cor
outer electrode, the proportions of said electrode being
responding exactly to the outside of said pre-determined
such that said elastic material is squeezed when said outer
contour, means comprising an elastic electrical conductor
electrode is closed around said inner electrode, means for
for lining at least one of said electrodes, and means for
impressing a high potential ?eld across said electrodes,
giving an alarm failure signal responsive to current ?ow
and means for positioning said dielectric material between
through physical defects in said dielectric material.
said electrodes whereby current ?ows from one of said 20
electrodes to the other of said electrodes only through
References Qited in the file of this patent
physical defects in said dielectric material.
2. The testing deviceof claim 1 and means for operat
ing responsive to current ?ow between said electrodes
Gammeter __________ __ Nov. 12, 1940
through said defects in said dielectric material, and means 25 2,445,808
Stenstrom _____________ _ July 27, 1948
responsive to said last named means for transmitting a
Killian ______________ __ Dec. 16, 1952
test failure signal.
Gammeter ___________ _~ Aug. 25, 1953
3. The testing device of claim 2 wherein one of said
Earle et al. __________ __ Dec. 22, 1953
electrodes is shaped to form the outside of a c3linder
Bendix et al. __________ __ Dec. 7, 1954
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