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Патент USA US3069640

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Dec. 18, 1962
3,069,630
R. T. ADAMS ETAL
DIVERSITY RECEIVING SYSTEM
Filed March 14, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVEN'TORS.
R0854’? r. ADAMS
By
GARRY M. M/NDES
G. Hill?
AGENT
Dec. 18, 1962
R. T. ADAMS ETAL
3,069,630
DIVERSITY RECEIVING SYSTEM
5+c
‘ OUTPUT
28
_
CONTROL
s/qzvm.
.
INVENTORS.
Roam?‘ r. ADAMS
By BARRY M. M/NDES
AGENT
a
Fine
.
1%
3,669,630
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
2
.1
of a ?rst phase comparator responding to the associated
input signal and a signal having a reference phase to
3.,d69,63t}
Robert T. Adams, Short Hiiis, NFL, and Barry M. Mindes,
New York, Nfitl, assignors to international Telephone
DWERSETY RECEIVING SYiiTEM
cooperate in dividing the associated input signal into
quadrature components inphase with the reference phase
having an amplitude proportional to the cosine of the
phase angle between the associated input signal and the
reference phase and a second phase comparator respond
ing to the associated input signal phase shifted 90 degrees
and the signal inphase with the reference phase to cooper
This invention relates to diversity receiving systems 10 ate in dividing the 90 degree phase shifted associated in
and more particularly to predetection signal combining
put signal into quadrature components, the quadrature
systems therefor.
component inphase with the reference phase having an
A predetection signal combining system known as an
amplitude proportional to the sine of the phase angle
equal-gain or phase combining system has been employed
between the associated input signal and the signal inphase
with great success in over-the-horizon communication
with the reference phase. When the inphase quadrature
systems. In this combiner system, a pair of received
components produced by the ?rst and second phase com
diversity signals are applied to individual signal channels
parators are combined inphase, the resultant signal is
and translated to a common frequency, such as a pre
equal in magnitude to the magnitude of the associated
determined intermediate frequency. The common fre
input signal and provides at least a component of the
quency diversity signals are coupled to a signal combiner
signal inphase with the reference phase.
such as a resistor or hybrid circuit, to provide a single
The abovementioned and other features and objects
output signal having diversity advantage. Prior to the
of this invention will become more apparent by reference
combiner the diversity signals are coupled to a phase
to the following description taken in conjunction with
and Telegraph Qorporation, Nntiey, N.3l., a corporation
of Maryland
Filed Mar. 14, 15150. Ser. No. 14,955
Ztl Claims. (61. 323-433)
comparator to compare the phase difference therebetween
the accompanying drawings, in which:
'
and produce a control signal proportional to this phase 25
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram in block form of a
difference. This phase control signal is then coupled to
diversity receiving system utlizing the predetection signal
an oscillator contained in at least one of the signal chan
combining system in accordance with the principles of
nels to correct the phase of the signal generated in this
oscillator to thereby dispose the diversity signals in a
predetermined phase relationship with respect to each
other for inphase combining of the diversity signals in
this invention;
30
the combiner.
An object of the present invention is to provide a
circuit to control the phase of a signal with respect to a
reference phase without resort to the usual automatic
phase control feedback loop.
'
'
F565. 2, 3 and 4 are vector diagrams useful in explain
ing the operation of the predetection combining system
of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating one form of
balanced modulator which may be employed in the system
of FIG. 1.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is illustrated therein a diver
sity receiving system including a plurality of diversity
Another object of this invention is to provide a pre
signal sources 1 and 2 coupled to the signal combining
detection signal combining system to combine a plurality
system of this invention. Although only two sources of
of signals inphase eliminating automatic phase control
diversity signals are illustrated it is to be understood as
feedback loop employed in the predetection signal corn 40 indicated in FIG. 1 that any number of folds of diversity
binlng system described hereinabove.
(diversity signals) may be employed with the predetec
A further object of this invention is to provide a pre
tion combining system of this invention, the number of
detection signal combining system synthesizing an output
signal inphase with a reference phase having a magni 45
tude directly proportional to the sum of the magnitude of
a plurality of input signals each having varying phase
folds depending upon the reliability required. The diver
sity receiving system incorporating the predetection com
bining system of this invention may be employed with
plitude of the resultant signal equal to the amplitude of
the input signal and to dispose the resultant signal in
phase with a reference phase.
Another feature of this invention is the provision of
a predetection signal combining system including one of
described hereinbelow in greater detail, it being under
any of the well known types of diversity systems utilizing
with respect to the reference phase and each other.
well known diversity techniques. For instance, space,
A feature of this invention is the provision of a phase
polarization and frequency diversity techniques are direct
control system including ?rst and second circuits coupled 50 ly applicable to the system illustrated in FIG. 1. By pro
in parallel to the output of a signal source and a com~
vidng the appropriate time delay at the output of one
bining means coupled to the output of the ?rst and second
of the sources, the receiving arrangement of FIG. 1 would
circuits to combine the output signals therefrom to
be applicable to a time diversity system. The combining
provide a resultant signal. A control means is coupled
arrangement of FIG. 1 likewise would be applicable to
to the ?rst and second circuits and the output of the com
the relatively new diversity technique known as angle
diversity.
bining means to control the amplitude of the output
signals of the ?rst and second circuits to render the am
The phase control system coupled to source 1 will be
the above-described phase control systems for each source
of input signals and a means to combine the resultant
stood that the phase control system coupled to source 2
and any other source will include the same components
and operate in an identical manner to enable the inphase
combining of the plurality of signals of a multifold diver
sity receiver. Components in source 2 and the phase
control system coupled thereto will have the reference
signals of each phase control system.
For this system 65 character of their counterpart in source 1 and its asso
ciated phase control system applied thereto but followed
control means thereof to the means combining the re
by the letter “a.”
sultant signals rather than means combining the output
As depicted in FIG. 1, diversity signal source 1 may
each phase control system is modi?ed to connect the
signals of the ?rst and second circuits. The combined
resultant signals establish the reference phase for each
phase control system.
Still another feature of this invention is the provision
include an antenna 3 which receives energy in the form
of electromagnetic Waves for application to a radio fre
quency ampli?er 4. The signal output therefrom is
coupled to mixer 5 for heterodyning with the signal of
aceasso
4
oscillator 6 to provide a signal at the desired intermedi
intelligence thereon for utilization in a utilization de
vice IS.
The purpose of low pass ?lters l4 and 16 coupled, re
spectively, to the output of phase comparators 13 and 15
are for the purpose of removing noise from the control
signals and also to prevent the control signals from fol
lowing rapid changes in phase, such as will occur due to
ate frequency for ampli?cation in intermediate frequency
ampli?er 7. The signals to be combined must have the
same center frequency. Thus, the output of intermediate
frequency ampli?ers 7 and 7a must be at the same fre
quency as indicated by the letter F on the output lead
of: sources 1 and 2. This common frequency is readily
obtained regardless of thetechniques employed by appro
priately adjusting the frequency of the oscillators 6
angular modulation present on the input signals. Thus,
the control signal at the output of the phase comparators
and 6a.
10 will be able to follow the variations produced in signal
The signal output of source 1 having a phase varying
strength resulting from multipath effects but yet will not
with respect to a reference phase is coupled to a ?rst
follow the angular modulation components of the input
signal.
circuit which includes therein a translation means illus
trated in one form thereof as a balanced modulator 8.
Referring to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, there is illustrated there
The signal at the output of source 1 is likewise coupled 15 in three vector diagrams which will be employed in con
to a second circuit having a second translation means
junction with FIG. 1 to explain in greater detail the
therein illustrated in one form thereof as a balanced
operation of the phase control system of this invention
modulator 9. The signal coupled to the input of bal
enabling the inphase combining of a plurality of diversity
anced modulator 9 is disposed in a 90 degree phase re
signals prior to modulation detection. FIG. 2 is a vector
lationship with respect to the signal input to balanced 20 diagram representative of the operation of phase com
modulator 8 by means of the 90 degrees phase shifter 10
coupled-to the output of source 1. The outputs of bal
anced modulators 8 and 9 after being operated thereupon
parator 13 while PEG. 3 is a vector diagram of the opera
tion of phase comparator 15. FIG. 4 is a vector diagram
illustrating the combined action of balanced modulators
8 and 9 in conjunction with their associated phase com
acommon output-means, illustrated to be conductor 11 25 parators l3 and 15, respectively, to provide the resultant
to provide a single resultant signal which is inphase with
signal on conductor 11. The minus signs and the (:—|—90°)
the‘ reference‘ phase andhas an amplitude equal to the
notations employed in the vector diagrams are for the
amplitude ‘o-fthe'signal at the output of source ll. These
purpose of showing direction of a quantity and the phase
phase and amplitude relationships of the resultant signal
displacement of the input signal and do not have any
are provided by an arrangement coupled to balanced
thing to do with the magnitude of the signal or the phase
ina' manner to be described hereinbelow are coupled to
displacement of the resultant signals.
Referring with greater particularity to FIGS. 1 and 2,
modulators 8 and 9 and the output of a signal combiner,
such. as limiter-ampli?er 12, coupled to conductor 11
which controls theamplitude of the output signal from
the output of limiter-ampli?er 12 is illustrated as the
balanced modulators 8 and 9.
vector EB and the input signal applied to phase com
In accordance with the principles of this invention, the 35 parator 13 is illustrated as a vector S disposed from the
reference phaselis the phase of the output signal from
limiter-ampli?er 12.
reference phase, vector EB, by an angle 0. Angle 0 equals
the average phase angle between the reference signal and
the input signal, since the phase angle of vector S will
To control the output signal of
balanced modulators 8 and 9, there is provided a phase
vary in accordance with the angular modulation present
comparator 13 which compares the phase of the output
signal of source 1 with the phase of the output signal of 40 thereon. In the operation of the combining system, it is
assumed that the absolute value EB is very much greater
limiter-ampli?er 12, in other words, the reference phase,
than the absolute value of the signal S. This assumption
to provide a control signal having an amplitude propor
is provided practically by the operation of limiter
tional to the phase difference detected in phase com~
ampli?er 12. Thus, the following conditions are present:
parator 13. The output of phase comparator 113 is cou
pled through low pass ?lter 14 to balanced modulator 8
Angle A=0 then cos Azl
to divide the signal of source 1 into quadrature com
Angle C=0 then cos C=1
ponents With the quadrature component inphase with the
where cos is equal to cosine.
Under these conditions,
reference phase comparator 13. Phase comparator 15 is
utilized to compare the phase difference between the out
the control signal developed at the output of comparator
put’ of phase shifter 16, in other words, the output of
source 1 shifted 90 degrees, with the output signal of
13 will be equal to EA—-EB or EC—EB and it can be
shown that these control signals are proportional to the
phase angle 6 and, in fact, proportional to cos 6 as
limiter-ampli?er 12 to provide a second control signal
follows:
having a value proportional to the phase difference de
tected in comparator 13. The second control signal is
coupled through low pass ?lter 16 to balanced modulator 55
9 to divide the signal at the output of phase shifter 10
into quadrature components with the quadrature com
ponent inphase with the reference phase having an ampli
tude proportional to the detected phase difference in
phase comparator 13. The sum of the magnitude of the
cos 6:
a::
sin 6:
lator 9 ‘and the magnitude of the inphase quadrature
component at the output of modulator S as found on
cos A:
conductor 11 is equal to the magnitude of the signal of
65
as a reference for the phase control circuits coupled to
and
each signal source and the resultant output signals there
from are inphase with the output signal of limiter
ampli?er 12, these resultant signals are added together 70
cophasally at theinput of limiter-ampli?er 12 and result
in‘va singlecornbined output signal therefrom having the
bike
y=S sin 0
where sin is equal to sine.
inphase quadrature component. as the output of modu
source 1.
' Sincethe output signal of limiter-ampli?er 12 is used
cost)
EB+S cos 0
EA
EA=EB+S cos 0
EA—EB=S cos 0
cos C:
EB—S COS 6
Es
EC=EB—S cos 0
desired diversity advantage. The combined output signal
isithencoupled- to aldiscriminator 17 {for recovery of‘ the 75 Thus, from the‘ above trigonometric relationships relative
3,069,636
5
to FIG. 2 the output of phase comparator 13 is a DC.
quantity varying in accordance with cos 0.
we have in balanced modulators 8 and 9 two vectors that
are mutually perpendicular one to the other whose vector
sum is vector R. Thus, one way of looking at the oper
ation of the phase control system of this invention is that
through the action of the ba‘anced modulators 8 and 9
and their associated phase comparators 13 and 15 there
Referring to FIG. 3, We observe therein a vector dia
gram representing the operation that takes place in phase
comparator 15.
Again the vector EB is utilized as the
reference with the input signal to phase shifter it) indi
cated by the vector S displaced from the reference phase
by angle 0. The action of phase shifter 16 is to displace
were produced tWo mutually perpendicular vectors each
having their amplitude controlled by a signal propor
tional to the phase difference between the reference phase
the vector S by 90 degrees as is indicated by the vector
labeled (5-1-90") displaced from the reference phase by 10 and the input signal to provide on conductor 11 a re
sultant signal having an amplitude equal to the ampli
angle (DA-90°). The same assumptions that were made
hereinabove with respect to FIG. 2, as made practical
tude of the input signal and in phase with the reference
phase.
by the action of limiter-ampli?er 12, are likewise made
with respect to the action taking place in phase compara
Another way of looking at the operation which takes
tor 15 as illustrated in FIG. 3. Namely,
15 place in the circuit of this invention is that the action of
the balanced modulators t5 and 9 not only reduce the
Angle D—_—O; cos D=1
amplitude of the signal applied at their inputs in propor
Angle E=Q; cos E=l
tion to the phase angle 0, but also divide the reduced
amplitude signals into quadrature components. Thus, the
The control signal generated at the output of phase com
vector
S cos 0 in balanced modulator 8 is divided into a
parator 15 is equal to Ely-EB or EE—EB and it can be
quadrature component vector R1 inphase with the refer
shown that these control signals are proportional to the
ence phase and a quadrature component vector 19 while
phase angle 0 and, in fact, proportional to sin 6 as fol
the vector —(S+90°) sin 0 in balanced modulator 9 is
lows:
divided into a quadrature component vector R2 inphase
25 with the reference phase and a quadrature component
vector Ztl. The resultant signal on conductor 11, there
fore, is the sum of R1+R2, or as indicated, R, while the
quadrature components 19 and 20 are cancelled due to
their equal magnitude but opposite phase relationship.
The trigonometric relations set forth hereinbelow with
respect to FIG. 4 prove in four different ways that the
resultant R is equal to the input signal S at a zero phase
cos D:
angle with respect to the reference phase. The trigono
metric relations under A below indicate that the ampli
tude of the quadrature components of the input signal
are adjusted by the control signal until the vector sum
thereof is equal in amplitude to the amplitude of the
input signal and inphase with the reference phase. The
trigonometric relations under B indicate that effectively
40 the action of the balanced modulators i8 and 9 is to re
and
duce the amplitude of the signals applied to their input
to an amplitude equal to the control signals (S cos 0 and
S sin 0) from the phase comparators 13 and 15, respec
tively, and then divide these signals to produce an out
put signal from each of the modulators having an am
plitude equal to the amplitude of the quadrature com
ponent of the reduced amplitude signal therein inphase
with the reference phase. In deriving the following rela
tionships it should be remembered that
Thus, from the above trigonometric relationships rela
50
tive to FIG. 3 the output of phase comparator 15 is a
DC. quantity varying in accordance with sin 6.
Referring now to FIG. 4, there is illustrated therein a
vector diagram representing the composite operation of
balanced modulators 8 and 9 to provide a resultant signal
on conductor 11 having a phase equal to the phase of
the output signal of limiter-ampli?er l2 and having an
amplitude equal to the amplitude of the input signal S.
The dotted vectors labeled +k1S and —k1S represent
the plus and minus vector values of the signals applied
at the input of balanced modulator 8 while the dotted
vectors k2 (S+90°) and the dotted vector labeled -——k2
(S+90°) represent the plus and minus vector quantities
of the signal applied to balanced modulator 9. Through 65
the action of phase comparator 13 the amplitude of the
input signal coupled to balanced modulator 8 is controlled
to provide a signal having a magnitude proportional to
the cos 9, the control signal coupled to modulator 8 from
phase comparator 13 as is indicated by the vector S cos
0. The action of the control signal from comparator 15
as applied to modulator 9“ results in the control of the
amplitude of the signal applied at the input thereof to
provide a signal whose amplitude is proportional to the
sin 0 as indicated by the vector —-(S+90°) sin 0. Thus, 75
—-(S+90°) sin?
cos (90°—6)=cos 90° cos 0+sin 90 sin 0=sin 0
.
R2
Sm 6—S sin 0
R2=S sin”
3,069,630
8
is coupled to the common circuit means for cophasal
addition with the appropriate quadrature component of
its coacting balanced modulator to provide a resultant
signal equal to the amplitude of the input signal and
_R cos 0
_
cos 0
inphase with the reference phase.
In summary, the signal combining system of this inven
tion employs a phase control circuit in which the input
R:
S sin 0__
sin 0 _
S/io
signal is split into quadrature components each of which
is operated upon by a control signal proportional to the
10 phase relation of the signal with respect to a reference
phase in a translation device, such as a balanced modu
eferring to FIG.'5, there is illustrated therein a sche
lator to synthesize a resultant signal having the magni
tude of the input signal and inphase with respect to a
matic diagram of one form of balanced modulators that
could be used for modulators 8 and 9. In accordance
reference phase, the reference phase being supplied by
with this invention, the signal from source 1 or phase 15 the combined output of the balanced modulators. By
shifter 10 would be coupled to transformer 21 having a
employing a plurality of these arrangements to operate
primary winding 22 and a center tapped secondary wind
ing 23 with the center tap connected to ground as illus
trated. The signals applied at the input terminal are
coupled through the transformer 21 to the grids of tubes
‘24 and 25 inphase opposition, that is, 180 degrees out
of phase. The anodes of tubes 24 and 25 are coupled
to an output transformer 26 including a primary winding
‘27 and a secondary winding 28 connected as illustrated.
The cathodes of ‘tubes 24 and 25 are connected to ground 25
or to an appropriate voltage source so that with no con
trol'voltage on the grids of‘ tubes '24 and ‘25 ‘both of these
tubes will be conducting. It should be further pointed
on each of a plurality of input diversity signals, there is
provided a single output signal having a magnitude sub
stantially equal to the sum of the magnitude of each of
the signals coupled to the diversity receiver at a phase
angle of zero with respect to the reference phase, the
reference phase for this arrangement being provided by
the single output signal.
'
The action of the predetection combiner described
hereinabove employing a balanced modulator as the
translation means is similar to that of a ratio squared
combiner in that Weak signals are suppressed more than
stronger signals if the balanced modulator is a product
out that the control signal as applied from the phase
taking device (multiplier) providing an output signal pro
comparator circuits are ‘coupled to the balanced modu '30 portional to the product of the signals applied to the in
lators in a push-pull arrangement. In other Words, if
the control signal is a plus value, it is applied as ‘a plus
value to one of the tubes and a negative value to the
other of the tubes and if the control signal is a negative
puts thereof. In the present system, the output signal
is proportional to the square of the signal of the source
of signals since the control signal applied to one input
of the balanced modulator is directly proportional to the
value the polarity of the signal applied to the tubes will
be reversed. This is indicated by the plus and minus
signs associated with the two control ‘signal terminals 29
amplitude of the input signal applied to the other input
of the balanced modulator. Thus, the weak signals do
and 30 in FIG. 5. If there is no control signal, both
tubes 24 and 25 will conduct thereby providing at the
‘output of tube 24 a negative version of a positive input
proportion as the stronger signals, thereby approximating
the ratio squared combining techniques which have here—
tofore been employed mainly in post-detection signal
combining systems. By so reducing the weaker signals
signal applied to the grid thereof and at the output ‘of
tube 25 a positive version of the negative input signal
‘applied to the grid thereof. Since both of these tubes
'24 and 25 are conducting equally and providing wave
forms of opposite polarity the resultant output of the 45
‘circuit will be zero due to the cancellation that takes
place in the primary winding 27 of transformer 26. Now
not contribute to the single output signal in the same
in accordance with the ratio squared combining tech
niques, the contribution of noise from source or channel
of this weaker signal is reduced and, hence, the overall
combined signal—to-noise ratio is improved. By utilizing
a balanced mixer as the translation means in place of the
balanced modulator, it is possible to obtain linear addi
let us assume that a ‘negative control signal is coupled
tion of the plurality of diversity signals, that is, an out
to tube 24 and a positive control signal is coupled to
put signal from the balanced mixer which is linearly re
tube 25. Under these conditions, tube 24 will be ren 50 lated to the signals applied to the inputs thereof.
dered nonconductive and tube 25 will remain conducting
The phase control system employed in the signal com
providing at the output of tube 24 no voltage and at the
bining arrangement of this invention is a forward-locking
output of tube 25, a positive voltage equal in magnitude
control system and is started much in the same manner
to R1 or R2, depending upon which of the circuits the
as an oscillator starts its operation. That is, a small
balanced modulator is located in, but at a phase angle 55 amount of noise or other signal will leak through limiter
of 180 degrees with respect to the reference phase due to
ampli?er 12 to its output which will have a component
the 180 degree phase relationship which takes place in
transformer 26. Hence, the positive signal at the out~
equal in frequency to the signal applied from the signal
sources to start the circuit into operation. Once started
put of tube 25 is converted to a negative signal at the
there will be provided more and more signals at the out
output of the circuit, namely, the secondary winding 28 60 put of limiter-ampli?er 12 until such time as the signal
of transformer 26. Now if a positive control signal is
reaches the desired operating level.
coupled to tube 24 and a negative control signal is
As in the operation of equal-gain and most other forms
coupled to tube 25 the conduction conditions will be re
of predetection combining systems, it is preferred that the
versed, that is, tube 25 will be rendered nonconductive
receiver gain from the antenna to the point of combining
and tube 24 will remain conducting. The output signal 65 be precisely constant or proportional in all channels. To
of tube 24 will be a negative version of the input signal
accomplish this, automatic gain control systems have
coupled thereto and no output from tube 25. The re
been employed and such a system is indicated in FIG. 1
sultant output at secondary winding 28 will be equal to
including AGC detector 29 whose output signal, propor
R1 or R2 depending upon whether the circuit is coupled
tional to the amplitude of the combined signals, is coupled
to the output of source 1 or phase shifter 10 at a phase 70 to IF ampli?ers 7 and 7a of sources I and 2 to control
angle of zero degrees relative to the reference phase. The
the gain of these sources equally. The output of AGC
magnitude of the control signal determines the reduction
detector 29 would be coupled to similar ampli?ers of
in magnitude of the signal applied to the input of the
the other folds of diversity coupled to this combining
tubes 24 and 25 and, hence, the magnitude of the quadra
arrangement.
ture component thereof inphase with the reference which 75 While we have described above the principles of our
3,069,630
9
invention in connection with speci?c apparatus, it is to be
clearly understood that this description is made only by
way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of
our invention as set forth in the objects thereof and in
the accompanying claims.
We claim:
1. An automatic phase control system comprising a
source of input signals having varying phase with respect
to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
?rst and second circuits and the output of said second
means to control the amplitude of each of said ?rst and
second output signals to render the amplitude of each of
said resultant signals equal to the amplitude of the input
signals of the associated one of said sources and to dis
pose each of said resultant signals inphase With said ref
erence phase.
6. An automatic phase control system comprising a plu
rality of sources of input signals each having varying
to produce a ?rst output signal, a second circuit coupled 10 phase with respect to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit
to said source to produce a second output signal, means
coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst output
coupled to the output of said ?rst and second circuits to
signal, a second circuit coupled to each of said sources
combine said ?rst and second output signals to provide a
to produce a second output signal, a ?rst means coupled
resultant signal, and means coupled to said ?rst and sec
to the output of each of said first and second circuits to
ond circuits and the output of said combining means to 15 combine each of said ?rst and second output signals to
control the amplitude of said ?rst and second output sig
provide a resultant signal, a second means coupled to the
nals to render the amplitude of said resultant signal equal
output of each of said ?rst means to combine each of
to the amplitude of said input signals and to dispose said
said resultant signals, and third means coupled to each
resultant signal inphase with said reference phase.
of said ?rst and second circuits and the output of said sec
2. An automatic phase control system comprising a
ond means to control the amplitude of each of said ?rst
source of input signals having varying phase with respect
and second output signals to be proportional to the phase
to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
difference between the input signal of the associated one
to produce a ?rst output signal, a second circuit coupled
of said sources and said reference phase to adjust the am
to said source to produce a second output signal, means
plitude of each of said resultant signals to be equal to
coupled to the output of said ?rst and second circuits to 25 the amplitude of the input signals of said associated one
combine said ?rst and second output signals to provide a
of said sources and to dispose each of said resultant sig
resultant signal, and meansco-upled to said ?rst and sec
nals inphase with said reference phase.
ond circuits and the output of said combining means to
‘7. An automatic phase control system comprising a
render the amplitude of said ?rst and second output sig
plurality of sources of input signals each having vary
nals proportional to the phase difference between said 30 ing phase with respect to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit
input signals and said reference phase to control the am;
coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst output
plitude of said resultant signal to be equal to the am
signal, a second circuit including a 90° phase shifting
plitude of said input signals and to dispose said resultant
signal inphase with said reference phase.
means coupled to each of said sources to produce a
to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
to produce a ?rst output signal, a second circuit including
a 90° phase shifting means coupled to said source to pro
duce a second output signal, means coupled to the output
sultant signal, a second means coupled to the output of
each of said ?rst means to combine each of said resultant
signals, and a third means coupled to each of said ?rst
and second circuits and the output of said second means
to control the amplitude of each of said ?rst and second
second output signal, a ?rst means coupled to the output
3. An automatic phase control system comprising a 35 of each of said ?rst and second circuits to combine each
source of input signals having varying phase with respect
of said ?rst and second output signals to provide a re
of said ?rst and second circuits to combine said ?rst and
second output signals to provide a resultant signal, and
output signals to render the amplitude of each of said
means coupled to said ?rst and second circuits and the
resultant signals equal to the amplitude of the input
output of said combining means to control the amplitude
signals of the associated one of said sources and to dis
of said ?rst and second output signals to render the'am 45 pose each of said resultant signals inphase with said
plitude of said resultant signal equal to the amplitude of
reference phase.
said input signals and to dispose said resultant signal in
8. An automatic phase control system comprising a
phase With said reference phase.
plurality of sources of input signals each having varying
4. An automatic phase control system comprising a
phase relation with respect to a reference phase, a ?rst
source of input signals having varying phase with respect
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst
output signal, a second circuit including a 90° phase
to produce a ?rst output signal, a second circuit including
shifting means coupled to each of said .sourrces to pro
a 90° phase shifting means coupled to said source to pro
duce a second output signal, a ?rst means coupled to the
duce a second output signal, means coupled to the output
output of each of said ?rst and second circuits to com
of said ?rst and second circuits to combine said ?rst and 55 bine each of said ?rst and second output signals to pro
second output signals to provide a resultant signal, and
vide a resultant signal, a second means coupled to each
means coupled to said ?rst and second circuits and the
of said ?rst means to combine each of said resultant sig
output of said combining means to render the amplitude
nals, and a third means coupled to each of said ?rst and
of said ?rst and second output signals proportional to the
second circuits and the output of said second means to
phase difference between said input signals and said ref
control the amplitude of each of said ?rst and second
output signals to be proportional to the phase difference
erence phase to control the amplitude of said resultant
to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
signal to be equal to the amplitude of said input signals
between the input signals of the associated one of said
sources and said reference phase to adjust the ampli
and to dispose said resultant signal inphase with said
tude of each of said resultant signals to be equal to
reference phase.
5. An automatic phase control system comprising a 65 the amplitude of the input signal of said associated one
plurality of sources of input signals each having varying
of said sources and to dispose each of said resultant
signals inphase with said reference phase.
phase with respect to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit
9. An automatic phase control system comprising a
coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst output
source of input signals having varying phase with respect
signal, a second circuit coupled to each of said sources
to produce a second output signal, ?rst means coupled 70 to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
to produce a ?rst output signal a second circuit coupled
to the output of each of said ?rst and second circuits to
combine said ?rst and second output signals to provide
a resultant signal, a second means coupled to the output
of each of said ?rst means to combine each of said re
to said source to produce a second output signal, and a
means coupled to the output of said ?rst and second cir
cuits to combine said ?rst and second output signals to
sultant signals, and a third means coupled to each of said 75 provide a resultant signal having an amplitude substan
8,069,630
ll
12
tially equal to the amplitude of said input signals and
a second means coupled to the output of said ?rst and sec
inphase with said reference phase, said ?rst circuit in
ond paths to combine said ?rst and second output signals
to provide the associated one of said resultant signals
cluding means coupled to said combining means responsive
to said resultant signal and said input signals to provide
having an amplitude substantially equal to the amplitude
said ?rst output signal and said second circuit including
of the input signal of said associated one of said sources
means coupled to said combining means responsive to
and inphase with said reference phase, said ?rst path in
said resultant signal and said input signals to provide
cluding means coupled to said ?rst means responsive to
said second output signal perpendicular to said ?rst out
said combined signal and the input signal of said asso
put signal, said resultant signal being the vector sum
ciated one of said sources to provide said ?rst output
of said ?rst and second output signals.
10 signal disposed at an angle from said reference phase
10. An automatic phase control system comprising a
equal to the phase diiference between the input signal of
'source of input signals having varying phase with respect
said associated one of said sources and said associatedone
to a reference phase, a ?rst circuit coupled to said source
of said resultant signals and having an amplitude propor
to produce a ?rst output signal, a second circuit coupled
tional to said phase difference and said second path in
to said source to produce a second output signal, and a 15 cluding means coupled to said ?rst means responsive to
means coupled to the output of said ?rst and second cir
said combined signal and the input signal of said asso
cuits to combine said ?rst and second output signals
ciated one of said sources to provide said second output
to provide a resultant signal having an amplitude substan
signal perpendicular to said ?rst output signal and having
tially equal to the amplitude of said input signals and in—
an amplitude proportional to said phase difference,said
phase with said reference phase, ‘said ?rst circuit in
associated one of said resultant signals being the vector
cluding means coupled to said combining means re
sum of said ?rst and'second output signals.
sponsive to said resultant signal and said input signals
‘to providessaid ?rst output signal ‘disposed at an angle
with respect to said reference phase equal to the phase
difference between said input signal and said resultant
signal and having an amplitude proportional to said phase
di?erence and said second circuit including means cou
pled to said combining means responsive to said resultant
13. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of diversity signals each having varying phase 'with re
spect 'to‘a reference phase and to each other, a‘?rst cir
cuit coupled to ‘each of ‘said sources to produce a ?rst
output signal, a second circuit coupled to each of said
sources to produce a second ‘output “signal, ?rst means
coupled to the output of each of said ?rst and second
circuits to combine each of said ?rst and second output
signal and said input signal to provide said second output
signal perpendicular to said ?rst output signal and having 30 signals to provide a resultant signal, a second means ‘cou
an amplitude proportional to said phase ditference, said
pled to the output of each of said ?rst'means to combine
resultant signal being the vector sum of said ?rst and
each of said resultant signals, a third means coupled ‘to
second output signals.
each of said ?rst and second circuits and the output of
11. An automatic phase control system comprising a
said second means to control the amplitude of each of
plurality of sources of input signals each having varying 35 said ?rst and second output signals to render the ampli
phase with respect to a reference phase, a circuit cou
pled to each of said sources to produce a resultant signal,
and a ?rst means coupled to the output of each of said
circuits to combine each of said resultant signals to pro
vide a combined signal having an amplitude proportional
to the sum of the amplitudes of the input signals of
each of said sources and inphase with said reference
phase, each of said circuits including a ?rst signal path
coupled‘to the associated one of said sources to produce
‘a ?rst output signal, a second signal path coupled to
said associated one of said sources to produce a second
output signal, and a second means coupled to the output
of said ?rst and second paths to combine said ?rst and
second output signals to provide the associated one of
said resultant signals having an amplitude substantially
equal to the amplitude of the input signal of said associated
tude of the associated one of said resultant signals equal
to the amplitude of the diversity signals of the associated
one of said sources and to dispose the associated'one of
said resultant signals inphase with‘said reference phase,
and'fourth means coupled to the ‘output of'saidrsecond
means to utilize said‘combined resultant signals.
14. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of sources of diversity signals each having varying ‘phase
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a ?rst
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst
output signal, a second circuit coupled to ‘each of said
sources to produce a second output signal, a ?rst means
coupled to the output of each of ‘said ?rst and second
circuits to combine each of said ?rst and second output
signals to provide a resultant signal, a second means cou
pled to the output of each of said ?rst means to combine
each of said resultant signals, a third means coupled to
phase, said ?rst path including means coupled to said
each of said ?rst vand second circuits and the ‘output of
?rst means responsive to said combined signal and the
said second means to render the amplitude of each of
input signal of said associated one of said sources to pro 55 said ?rst and second output'signals proportional to the
vide said ?rst output signal and said second path including
phase di?erence between the diversity signals of an asso
means coupled to said ?rst means responsive to said com
ciated one of said sources and said reference phase to ad
bined signal and the input signal of said associated one
just the amplitude of the associated one of said resultant
of said sources to provide said second output signal
signals to be equal to the amplitude of the diversity signals
perpendicular to said ?rst output signal, said associated 60 of the associated one of said sources and to dispose the
one of said resultant signals being the vector sum of
associated one of said resultant signals inph‘ase'with said
one of said sources and inphase with said reference
said ?rst and second output signals.
12. An automatic phase control system comprising a
plurality of sources of input signals each having varying
phase with respect to a reference phase, a circuit coupled
to each of said sources to produce a resultant signal, and
a ?rst means coupled to the output of each of said circuits
to combine each of said resultant signals to provide a
combined signal having an amplitude proportional to
the sum of the amplitude of the input signals of each of
said sources and inphase with said reference phase, each
of said circuits including a ?rst signal path coupled to
the associated one of said sources to produce a ?rst output
signal, a second signal path coupled to said associated
one of said sources to‘ produce a second output signal, and
reference phase, and fourth means coupled to the output
of said second means to utilize said combined resultant
signals.
15. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a
?rst circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce
a ?rst voutput signal, a second circuit including a 90 de
gree phase shifting means coupled'to each of said sources
to produce a second output signal, a ?rst means coupled
to the output of each of said ?rst and second circuits to
combine each of said ?rst and second output signals to
provide a ‘resultant signal, a second means coupled to the
output of .each of .said ?rst means to Jcombine eachof
8,069,630
13
14
said resultant signals, a third means coupled to each
of said ?rst and second circuits and the output of said
second means to control the amplitude of each of said
?rst and second output signals to render the amplitude
of the associated one of said resultant signals equal to
associated one of said sources to produce a ?rst output
the amplitude of the diversity signals of the associated
one of said sources and to dispose the associated one of
said resultant signals inphase with said reference phase,
signal, a second signal path coupled to said associated
one of said sources to produce a second output signal,
and a third means coupled to the output of said ?rst and
second paths to combine said ?rst and second output
signals to provide the associated one of said resultant
signals having an amplitude substantially equal to the
amplitude of the diversity signals of said associated one
of said sources and inphase with said reference phase,
and fourth means coupled to the output of said second
means to utilize said combined resultant signals.
10 said ?rst path including means coupled to said ?rst means
16. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase
responsive to said combined signal and the diversity signals
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a ?rst
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a ?rst
output signal disposed at an angle with respect to said
reference phase equal to the phase di?erence between the
of said associated one of said sources to provide said ?rst
output signal, a second circuit including a 90 degree phase 15 diversity signals of said associated one of said sources
and said associated one of said resultant signals and
shifting means coupled to each of said sources to produce
having an amplitude proportional to said phase difference
a second output signal, a ?rst means coupled to the out
and said second path including means coupled to said
put of each of said ?rst and second circuits to combine
?rst means responsive to said combined signal and the
each of said ?rst and second output signals to provide a
resultant signal, a second means coupled to each of said 20 diversity signals of said associated one of said sources to
provide said second output signal perpendicular to said
?rst means to combine each of said resultant signals, a
?rst output signal and having an amplitude proportional
third means coupled to each of said ?rst and second cir
to said phase difference, said associated one of said
wits and the output of said second means to render the
resultant signals being the vector sum of said ?rst and
amplitude of each of said ?rst and second output signals
proportional to the phase difference between the diversity 25 second output signals.
19. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
signals of an associated one of said sources and said ref
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase
erence phase to adjust the amplitude of the associated
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a
one of said resultant signals to be equal to the amplitude
‘circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a re
of the diversity signals of the associated one of said sources
and to dispose the associated one of said resultant signals 30 sultant signal, a limiter-ampli?er coupled to the output
of each of said circuits to combine each of said resultant
inphase with said reference phase, and a fourth means
signals to provide a combined signal having an amplitude
coupled to the output of said second means to utilize said
proportional to the sum of the amplitudes of said result
combined resultant signals.
17. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a result
ant signal, a ?rst means coupled to the output of each of
said circuits to combine each of said resultant signals to
ant signals and inphase with said reference phase, and
means coupled to the output of said limiter-ampli?er to
utilize said combined signal, each of said circuits includ
ing a ?rst translation means coupled to the associated one
of said sources, a ?rst phase comparison means coupled to
said associated one of said sources and the output of said
provide a combined signal having an amplitude propor 40 limiter-ampli?er to produce a ?rst control signal pro
tional to the sum of the amplitudes of the diversity signals
of each of said sources and inphase with said reference
phase, and a second means coupled to the output of said
?rst means to utilize said combined signal, each of said
portional to the phase difference between said combined
signal and the diversity signals of said associated one of
said sources, means to couple said ?rst control signal to
said ?rst translation means to produce a ?rst output signal
circuits including a ?rst signal path coupled to the associ 45 having an amplitude proportional to said ?rst control
signal and inphase with said combined signal, a 90 degree
ated one of said sources to produce a ?rst output signal,
phase shifter coupled to said associated one of said
a second signal path coupled to said associated one of
sources, a second translation means coupled to the output
said sources to produce a second output signal, and a third
of said phase shifter, a second phase comparison means
means coupled to the output of said ?rst and second paths
to combine said ?rst and second output signals to provide 50 couple to the output of said phase shifter and the output
of the said limiter-ampli?er to produce a second control
the associated one of said resultant signals having an
amplitude substantially equal to the amplitude of the
diversity signals of said associated one of said sources and
inphase with said reference phase, said ?rst path including
signal proportional to said phase difference, means
coupling said second control signal to said second transla- _
tion device to provide a second output signal having an
means coupled to said ?rst means responsive to said com 55 amplitude proportional to said second control signal and
bined signal and the diversity signals of said associated
one of said sources to provide said ?rst output signal and
said second path including means coupled to said ?rst
inphase with said combined signal, and means coupled to
the output of said ?rst and second translation means to
combine said ?rst and second output signals to provide
the associated one of said resultant signals having an
means responsive to said combined signal and the diversity
signals of said associated one of said sources to provide 60 amplitude equal to the amplitude of the diversity signals
of said associated one of said sources and inphase with
said second output signal perpendicular to said ?rst output
said combined signal.
signal, said associated one of said resultant signals being
20. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
the vector sum of said ?rst and second output signals.
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase
18. A diversity receiving system comprising a plurality
of sources of diversity signals each having varying phase 65 with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a
with respect to a reference phase and to each other, a
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a result
ant signal, a ?rst means coupled to the output of each of
said circuits to combine each of said resultant signals to
circuit coupled to each of said sources to produce a
resultant signal, a limiter-ampli?er coupled to the output
of each of said circuits to combine each. of said resultant
signals to provide a combined signal having an ampltude
proportional to the sum of the amplitudes of said resultant
signals and inphase with said reference phase, and means
coupled to the output of said limiter-ampli?er to utilize
said combined signal, each of said circuits including a
provide a combined signal having an amplitude propor
tional to the sum of the amplitudes of the diversity signals
of each of said sources and inphase with said reference
phase, and a second means coupled to the output of said
?rst translation means coupled to the associated one of
?rst means to utilize said combined signals, each of said
cicuits including a ?rst signal path coupled to the 75 said sources, a ?rst phase comparison means coupled to
3,069,680
15
said associated one of said sources and the output of said
limiter-ampli?er to produce a ?rst control signal equal
to the amplitude of the diversity signals of said associated
one of said sources multiplied by the cosine of the phase
angle between said combined signal and the diversity
signals of said associated one of said sources, a ?rst low
pass ?lter to couple said ?rst control signal to said ?rst
translation means to provide a ?rst output signal having
an amplitude proportional to said ?rst control signal and
inphase with said combined signal, a 90 degree phase
‘shifter coupled to ‘said associated one of said sources, a
second translation means coupled to the output of said
phase shifter, a second phase ‘comparison means coupled
to the output of said phase shifter and the output of said
limiter-ampli?er to produce a second control signal equal 15
to the amplitude of the diversity signals of said associated
its‘
one of said sources multiplied by the sine of said phase
angle, a second low pass ?lter to couple said second
control signal to said second translation means to provide
a second output signal having an amplitude proportional
to said second control signal and inphase With said com
bined signal, and means coupled to the output of said ?rst
and second translation means to combine said ?rst and
second output signals to provide the associated one of
saidrresultant signals having an amplitude equal to the
amplitude of the diversity signals of said associated one
of ‘said sources and-inphase with said combined signal.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,703,380
Fraser ______________ __ Mar. 1, 1955
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