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Патент USA US3070359

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Dec. 25, 1962
3,070,349
W. L. STEWART ETAL
MULTISTAGE lMULTIPLE-REENTRY TURBINE
Filed April 27, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
m
INVENTORS'
WARNER L.STEWART
I
DAVID G. EVANS
‘BY
ATTORNEY
Dec. 25, 1962
w. |_. STEWART ETAL
3,070,349
MULTISTAGE MULTIPLE-REENTRY TURBINE
Filed April 27, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
29
9
======. .
/2
32
15
25
38
36
27
FIG.
INVENTORS
WARNER L.$TEWART
_
DAVID G.EVANS
BY
ATTORNEY
Dec. 25, 1962
w, L, STEWART ETAL
3,070,349
MULTISTAGE?MULTIPLE-REENTRY TURBINE
Filed April 27, 1960
'
'
‘
3 Sheets-Sheet s
nqvarqro'izfl
WARNER L-STEVMRT
DAVID G. EVANS
jwak
BY
ATTORNEY
3,@70,349
United grates atent
Fatented Dec. 25, 1962
2
l
vided to receive the partially expended ?uid after it makes
3 976,349
MULTEdTAGE lld‘ULTllE‘LEsREENTRY TUEFJHNE
Warner L. Stewart, Parana,
David G. Evans, Avon
Lake, @hio, assignors to the United States of America
as represented by the Administrator oi‘ the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration
Filed. Apr. 27, 196%, Ser. No. 25,175
3 ?laims. (Cl. ESE-66)
(Granted under Title 35,
Qode (W52), sec. 265)
the second pass over the rotor blades. The reentry ducts
that receive the stream after making its second pass at
‘the rotor, again direct the ?uid back to the side of the
rotor that initially received the inlet ?uid, and cause the
fluid to make a third pass at the turbine rotor blades.
This process of reentry may be repeated continually
around the periphery of the turbine rotor until all of the
work of the incoming ?uid is expended. In the particu
10 lar application disclosed in this invention there is a three
The invention described herein may be manufactured
and used by or for the Government of the United States of
stage turbine wherein two reentry ducts comprise the sec
or greatly increased. An additional disadvantage of the
conventional multistage turbine is that there is an in
a given turbine-inlet temperature.
A. still additional object of the invention is to provide
ond stage reentry ducting and three ducts comprise the
third stage reentry ducting.
America for governmental purposes without the payment
In view of the aforegoing description, an object of this
of any royalties thereon or therefor.
invention is to provide a multistageaxial-?ow turbine of
The invention herein disclosed provides a novel multi
relatively small size.
ple-reentry, pressure-staged axial ?ow turbine.
Another object of this invention is to provide a multi
Previous to this invention, multistage turbines used in
stage axialdiow turbine of low ‘weight.
the majority of all multistage applications have been either
An additional object of the invention is to provide
conventional multi-rotar axial or mixed-?ow turbines of
multiple~reentry
multistage axial-?ow turbine having me
20
either full-admission or partial-admission design or of the
chanical simplicity.
’
relatively low etliciency impulse type of reentry turbine
A further object of the invention is to provide a mul~
such as the Terry turbine. By adding stages to a conven
tiple-reentry multistage axial-flow turbine having a low
tional turbine in order to multistage it, an increase in its
rotating mass.
speci?c work output is obtained. However, attendant with
Still another object of the invention is ‘to provide a
the increase in speci?c work output, the size, weight, com 25 multiple-reentry multistage axial-?ow turbine having
plexity, and thus the cost of the turbine is proportionately
comparatively low rotor blade operating temperatures for
crease in the rotating mass of the turbine reducing its ac
multiple-reentry multistage axial-flow turbine having high
celeration and thus its operational ?exibility. 1|Further
more, the turbine inlet temperature and thus the speci?c
work output is limited by the high temperature properties
of existing rotor blading materials or by the practicality
of turbine blade cooling. Turbine efficiency also suffers
in high speci?c work turbines because inlet blade heights
become quite small.
rotor blade heights.
The novel reentry turbine of this invention provides an
e'?icient means of delivering high speci?c work output or,
in other words, a high work output per unit weight of ?uid
multiple-reentry multistage axial-?ow turbine having a
?owing through it. In principle, the turbine is equivalent
operational ?exibility.
I
Que other object of the invention is to provide a mul
tiple-reentry multistage axial-?ow turbine having high
,
'A stil further object of ‘the invention is to provide a
multiple-reentry multistage axial-?ow turbine having high
rotative acceleration.
One additional object of the invention is to provide a
high e?iciency.
to the conventional pressure-staged multistage axial-?ow
turbine. However, it overcomes the disadvantages that
Other objects and many attendant advantages of the
present invention will be apparent from the following
detailed description when taken together with the accom
are unique with multistage applications where turbine size,
panying drawings in which:
weig. t, ?ow, mechanical complexity, and rotor blade tem
peratures must be inin mired while maintaining the high
est possible rate of turbine acceleration, turbine inlet tem~
perature, and overall el‘l‘lciency.
The novel turbine of the invention consists of a single
rotor having a plurality of blades circumferentially placed
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the multiple-reentry mul
tistage
?ow turbine.
FIG. 2 is a partially-sectioned pictorial frontal view of
a multiple-reentry multistage axial-?ow turbine.
FIG. 3 is the rear view of the turbine shown in FIG. 2.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference
around the periphery of the rotor. An inlet duct is pro
characters designate like or corresponding parts through
vided to direct the incoming ?uid to one side of the rotor
out the several views, there is schematically shown in
blades and serves to keep a supply of ?uid within the tur
FIG. 1 a three—stage reentry turbine of full—admission, re
bine. After the fluid passes across the rotor blades and
action-staged design wherein the flow enters through the
work is expended, a reentry duct is provided to receive 55 inlet duct 18. The ?ow then passes through the ?rst
this outlet stream. The reentry duct then conducts the
stage segment of the turbine as it passes from station 11
fluid back to the opposite side of the turbine rotor blades
to station 12 crossing the rotor blading 17. The ?ow is
thus discharged into the second-stage reentry ducting 19
or, in other Words, back to the side of the rotor where the
being directed from station 12 to the second-stage seg
inlet duct origi_ ally directed the incoming stream. The
passage of the incoming fluid from the inlet duct across 60 ment of the turbine at station 13. The flow then passes
from station 13 to station 14 across the rotor blading l7
he blades and into the reentry duct comprises the ?rst
and enters the third stage reentry ducting 21. The par
stage of the turbine. As can readily be seen, more than
tially expended flow is carried in the reentry ducting 21
one duct may be provided to receive the incoming ?uid
from station 14 to the third-stage segment of the tur
after it has passed across the rotor blades and such plu
rality of ducts conduct the partially expended ?uid back 65 bine at station 15. The ?ow then passes from station 15
to station 16 across the rotor blading 17 and exits from
to the opposite side of the turbine rotor. The reentry
duct or plurality of reentry ducts which receive the fluid
of the ?rst stage are called second stage reentry ducts
since they direct the ?uid to the second stage of the tur
bine. When the reentry ducts comprising the first stage
of the turbine direct the iluid back to pass over the rotor
blades a second \time,.|additional reentry ducts are pro
the turbine through the turbine exit ducting 22. As is
apparent from the ?gure, the total cross-sectional area
of reentry ducting of each reentry stage increases with
each successive stage whereby a greater number of blades
are affected in each of the successive stages. Thus, the
volume of» fluid and ducting is increased with each of
3,070,349
A.
third stage reentry ducts adjacent said rotor and posi
tioned to receive expended ?uid from said blades, said
3
these stages. This is necessary for a pressure-staged tur
bine where the ?uid at each stage has the same velocity
while the pressure head is being expended. The pre
third stage reentry ducts being curved from a ?rst end ad
jacent said downstream side to a second end adjacent said
upstream side, one of said third stage reentry ducts having
the ?rst end thereof in substantial juxtaposition with said
one end of one of said second stage reentry ducts, an~
other ?uid guide vane between said one of said third stage
reentry ducts and said one of said second stage reentry
ferred embodiment shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 of the inven
tion utilizes one inlet duct, two second-stage reentry ducts,
and three third-stage reentry ducts. As can be seen, the
number of reentry ducts comprising each stage may be
varied otherwise than as that shown in the preferred em
bodiment.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, a three-stage multi
ple-reentry axial-?ow turbine 23 is shown having an inlet
ducts at said ?rst end and said one end respectively, a sec
ond ?uid guide member between said third stage reentry
ducts at said second end thereof, one of said third stage re
duct 24 for admitting the incoming ?uid. This incoming
?uid is directed by the inlet duct 24 to the upstream side
of the turbine rotor blading 33. The impingement of the
incoming ?uid upon the rotor blading 33 is directed by
two guide vanes 35 and 36 situated between the end of
the inlet 24- and the rotor blading 33. The inlet ?uid
passing across the turbine blades 33 is received by two
entry ducts having its second end in substantial juxtaposi
tion with said inlet duct, a third ?uid guide member be
tween said one at said third stage reentry ducts and said in
let duct, and an exit duct adjacent said rotor and positioned
to receive expended ?uid from said blades, said exit duct
having one side in substantial juxtaposition with said one
reentry ducts 25 and 26. A guide vane 37 separates the
of said second stage reentry ducts and an opposite side in
two inlets of the respective reentry ducts. As can be 20 substantial juxtaposition with one of said third stage re
seen, the two ducts 25 and 26 comprise the second stage
entry ducts.
reentry ducting of the turbine 23. The ducts 25 and 25
2. In a multistage multiple-reentry reaction turbine,
direct the ?uid back to the turbine blading to enter on
the combination of a rotor having a plurality‘ of blades
the upstream side as did the initial ?uid from the inlet 24.
thereon, a ?uid to drive said rotor, said blades having an
Ducts 27, 28, and 29 comprise the third stage reentry
upstream side at one side of said rotor and a downstream
ducting of the turbine 24. A guide vane Sit} serves to
separate inlet of duct 26' from the inlet of third stage
reentry duct 27. This guide vane 38, as well as guide
vane 36, serves to prevent the incoming ?uid from inlet
side at the opposite side of said rotor, an inlet duct adja
cent said rotor and positioned to admit the incoming ?uid
to the upstream side of said rotor whereby said ?uid
passes over the rotor blading for the ?rst time, second
24- from entering any of the third stage reentry ducting. 30 stage reentry duct means adjacent said rotor and posi—
As can be seen, the reentry duct 29 which is one of the
tioned to receive the partially-expended ?uid at the down
three reentry ducts comprising the third stage ducting,
stream side of said rotor, said second stage reentry duct
brings the ?uid back to the upstream side of the turbine
means being curved to extend around said blades from
and directs it across the rotor blading 33. Said ?uid is
said downstream side to said upstream side for directing
guided across the blades 33 by means of vanes 34 and 35 said ?uid back to said upstream side of said rotor blading
35. The ?uid is ?nally directed ‘to the exit 32 and is
whereby said ?uid passes over said rotor blading for the
exhausted from the turbine 23.
second time, third stage reentry duct means at the down
The reentry duct con?guration may be otherwise than
stream side of the said rotor, said third stage reentry
as speci?cally shown. However, the particular con?g
duct means being curved to extend around said blading
uration used has been found to impart the least amount
from said downstream side to said upstream side for re’
ceiving the further expended ?uid after said ?uid has
of distortion and loss in total pressure to the ?ow. Also,
the preferred con?guration results in a minimum increase
made the second pass over said rotor blading and direct
in the overall size of the turbine and is quite feasible to
ing said ?uid back to said upstream side of said rotor
construct.
blading whereby said ?uid passes over said rotor blading
for the third time, said third stage reentry duct means
The multiple-reentry multistage turbine of this inven~
having a larger total volume than said second stage re—
tion can be used for various applications. The numerous
entry duct means, and an exit duct adjacent said rotor for
advantages of the instant turbine would be desirable in
applications including rocket, torpedo, and automotive
receiving the expended ?uid after said ?uid has made
drive units or auxiliary power units.
the third pass over said rotor blading and exhausting said
While the particular embodiment of the invention is
shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled
in the art that various changes and modi?cations may
be made without departing from the invention in its
expended ?uid from said turbine, said cxit duct being in
substantial juxtaposition with said second stage reentry
duct means and said third stage reentry duct means.
3. In a multistage multiple~reentry reaction turbine,
broadest aspects and, therefore, the aim of the appended
claims is to cover all such changes and modi?cations as
fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a ?uid-driven reaction turbine of the multistage
multiple reentry type having a rotor with a plurality of
blades thereon for contacting the ?uid, the improvement
comprising an inlet duct adjacent said rotor and posi
tioned to admit pressurized ?uid to the upstream side of
said blades, second stage reentry ducts adjacent said rotor
and positioned to receive partially-expended ?uid from
the downstream side of said blades, said second stage re
entry ducts being curved from one end adjacent said
downstream side to another end adjacent said upstream
side to direct said partially-expended ?uid to said up
stream side, at least one ?uid guide vane between said
second stage reentry ducts at said one end, said other
end of one of said second stage reentry ducts being in
substantial juxtaposition with said inlet duct, a ?uid guide
member between said inlet duct and said other end of
said one of said second stage reentry ducts for separating
said pressurized ?uid from said partially-expended ?uid,
60
the combination of a rotor having a plurality of blades
thereon, a ?uid to drive said rotor, said blades having an
upstream side at one side of said rotor and a downstream
side at the opposite side of said rotor, an inlet duct adja
cent said rotor and positioned to admit the incoming
?uid to the upstream side of said rotor whereby said ?uid
passes over the rotor blading for the ?rst time, two sec
ond stage reentry ducts adjacent said rotor for receiving
the partially-expended ?uid at the downstream side of
said rotor, said second stage reentry ducts being curved
to extend around said blades from said downstream side
to said upstream side for directing said ?uid back to
said upstream side of said rotor blading whereby said
?uid passes over said rotor blading for the second time,
three third stage reentry ducts adjacent said rotor for re
ceiving the expended ?uid after said ?uid has made the
second pass over said rotor blading at the downstream
side of said rotor, said third stage reentry ducts being in
substantial juxtaposition with said second stage reentry
ducts, each of said third stage reentry ducts being curved
to extend around said rotor blading from said down~
stream side to said upstream side for directing said
?uid back to said upstream side of said rotor blading
3,070,349
6
whereby ‘said ?uid passes over said rotor blading for the
third time, all of said reentry duets being arranged in
succession around the periphery of said rotor, said third
‘stage reentry ducts having a larger total volume than
said second stage reentry ducts, and an exit duct adjacent
said rotor for receiving the expended ?uid after said ?uid
has made the third pass over said rotor bl-ading and ex
hausting said expended ?uid from said turbine, said exit
duct being in substantial juxtaposition with said second
stage reentry ducts and said third stage reentry duets.
10
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
731,009
Zahikjanz ____________ __ June 16, 1903
742,972
816,020
842,21 1\
911,576
923,146
1,137,591
1,161,436
2,419,689
Daw _________________ __ Nov. 3,
Lentz _______________ __ Mar. 27,
Kolb ________________ __ Jan. 29,
Dake ________________ __ Feb. 9,
Curtis _______________ __ June 1,
Ehrhart _____________ __ Apr. 27,
Banner ______________ __ Nov. 23,
1903
1906
1907
1909
1909
1915
1915
McClintock _________ __ Apr. 29, 1947
FOREIGN PATENTS
128,026
443,613
833,044
933,363
Australia _____________ __ July 1,
Italy ________________ __ Dec. 29,
Germany ____________ __ Mar. 3,
Germany ____________ __ Aug. 25,
1948
1948
1952
1955
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