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Патент USA US3070712

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Dec. 25, 1962
3,070,702
A. J. MARKO
ELECTROLUMINESCENT ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT
Filed July 15, 1960
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INVENTOR
ALBERT J. MAR/(0
BY
. ,
ATTORNEY
“United States Patent Ori?ce
' ‘attain
Patented Dec. 25, 1962
2
l
3,676,7{1
EiECTlQOLUMiNEgrCENT ARETHWETHC CIRCUKT
Albert 3. Marko, Deer Park, N.Y., assignor to General
Telephone and Electronics Laboratories, Inc, a corpo
ration of Delaware
Fried July 15, 196i), Ser. No. 43,200
7 Claims. (Cl. 250—213)
My invention relates to arithmetic circuits.
Arithmetic circuits are designed to perform arithmetic
An illustrative embodiment of ‘my invention will now
be described with reference to the accompanying drawings
wherein:
I
*;
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an embodiment of my
invention;
1 \
P16. 2 is a cross sectional view of one of the ?rst set
of electroluminescent cells of FIG. 1 together with its
electrical connections; and
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of one of the second set
operations as for example addition, subtraction, multi 10 of electroluminescent cells of FIG. 1 together with its
electrical connections.
plication and division. I have invented a new type of
Referring now to FIG. 1 there is shown a ?rst set of
arithmetic circuit capable of carrying out the above iden
electroluminescent cells, in this example, cells 10, 12 and
ti?ed operations without the use of any active circuit
14. Each of these cells is connected in series with the
components such as tubes or transistors.
Accordingly it is an object of my invention to provide 15 corresponding one of switches 16, 18 and 20 across the
terminals of power supply 34. When any of these
a new type of arithmetic circuit of the character indicated.
switches is closed, the corresponding electroluminescent
Another object is to provide a new type of arithmetic
cell
is energized and emits light. When this switch is
circuit utilizing combinations of electroluminescent and
opened, the corresponding electroluminescent cell is de
photoconductive cells.
Still another object is to provide a new type of arith 20 energized and dark.
There is further provided a second set of electrolumi
metic circuit having a plurality of circuit paths and
nescent
cells, in this example, electroluminescent cells 22,
adapted to process two numbers, the impedance levels of
24 and 26. Each of cells 22, 24 and 26 is connected in
said path uniquely specifying the sum, product, remainder
series with the corresponding one of switches 28, 30 and
or quotient of these numbers.
These and other objects of my invention will either be 25 32 across the terminals of power supply 34. This second
set of electroluminescent cells operates in the same fashion
explained or will become apparent hereinafter.
as the ?rst set of electroluminescent cells.
In accordance with my invention I provide a ?rst set
I further provide a ?rst group of photoconductive cells,
of electroluminescent‘ cells and a ?rst group of photo
in this example, photoconductive cells 36, 50 and 64 which
conductive cells. The number of cells in the ?rst set is
are electrically isolated from, but optically coupled to,
equal to the number of cells in the ?rst group. Each
a corresponding one of the ?rst set of electroluminescent
photoconductive cell in the ?rst group is optically coupled
cells 10, 12 and 14. One contact of each photoconductive
to the correspondingelectroluminescent cell in the ?rst
cell'36, 50 and 64 is coupled in common to terminal 78
set. One end of each of the ?rst group cells is con
of power supply 34. With each of photoconductive cells
nected to a common terminal.
I further provide a plurality of photoconductive means 35 36, 50 and 64 is associated a separate photoconductive
means. Each photoconductive means includes a plurality
equal in number to the number of cells in the ?rst set.
of photoconductive elements. (In this example each
Each photoconductive means includes a di?erent plurality
means
includes three photoconductive elements.) More
of photoconductive elements.’ One end of each of the
particularly, the photoconductive means associated with
elements in any photoconductive means is connected in
common to the other end of the ?rst group cell corre 40 photoconductive cell 36 includes photoconductive ele
ments 38, 40 and 42. These photoconductive elements
sponding to this photoconductive means. The other end
(which are actually photoconductive cells) have one con
of each element is connected to a corresponding output
tact connected in common to the side of photoconductive
terminal thus establishing parallel circuit paths between
cell 36 which is remote from the power supply. The
the common terminal and eachv of the output terminals.
In addition, I provide a second set of electrolumines 45 other contacts of each of these photoconductive elements
are coupled to corresponding output terminals‘ 44, 46 and
cent cells equal in number to the plurality of photocon
48 respectively. The photoconductive means associated
ductive means. Corresponding elements in each of said
with photoconductive cell 50 includes photoconductive
photoconductive means are optically coupled to the corre
elements 52, 54 and 56 which are connected to corre
sponding cell in the second set.
sponding output terminals 58, 60 and 62 and are also
Each electroluminescent cell, when electrically ener
connected in common to photoconductive cell 50. Simi
gized, emits light, the photoconductive cell or photocon
larly, photoconductive elements 66, 68 and 70 are con
ductive elements optically coupled to the energized cell
nected in common to photoconductive cell 64 and are also
being triggered from a high impedance state to a low
individually connected to terminals 72, 74 and 76 respec
impedance state. Upon the cessation of light or in the
absence of light, the impedance level of the photocon 65 tivelv. Photoconductive elements 38, 52 and 66 are elec
trically isolated from, but optically coupled to, electro
ductive cell or photoconductive elements remains high.
luminescent cell 22. Photoconductive elements 40, 54
A di?erent number is assigned to each electrolumines
and 68 are electrically isolated from, but optically coupled
cent cell in the ?rst set and to each electroluminescent
to, electroluminescent cell 24; and photoconductive ele
cell in the second set. A different number is assigned
to each of the output terminals. Depending upon the 60 ments 42, 56 and 70 are electrically isolated from, but
optically coupled to, electroluminescent cell 26.
type of arithmetic operation desired, each of the terminal
Each of the photoconductive cells and photoconductive
numbers represents the sum, product, remainder or quo
elements has an electrical characteristic at which, when
tient of the two numbers assigned to the ?rst and second
the associated electroluminescent cell is dark, the photo
set electroluminescent cells associated with each path.
In order to perform the operation, a selected cell in each 65 conductive element or cell represents a high impedance.
When the electroluminescent cell is lit, the corresponding
of the two sets is energized. As a consequence, a selected
photoconductive cell or element is triggered to a low
one of the circuit paths will have a low impedance level
impedance state.
while all other circuit paths will have high impedance
levels. The number assigned to the output terminal of
When all electroluminescent cells are dark, each of the
the selected path will then be the sum, product, remainder 70 output terminals is connected through high impedance
or quotient of the two numbers assigned to the two
photoconductive cells and elements to the power supply,
thus forming a plurality of parallel high impedance cir
selected cells.
8,070,702
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4
3
cuit paths. When any one of switches 28, 30 and 32 is
‘closed, the appropriate photoconductive elements are trig
.gered into the low impedance state. However, the im
Jpedances of photoconductive cells 36, 5t) and 64 remain
high and, as a result, each of the output terminalsis
lstill connected through a high impedance path to the
power supply. However, if nowone of switches 16, 18
and 20 is closed, its associated photoconductive cell will
of electroluminescent cells 16, i3 and 29 together with
an associated photoconductive cell, switch, and various
electrical connections.
It will be seen that the electro
luminescent cell is of a conventional type having an elec—
troluminescent layer 102 subtended between a bottom
electrode 104 and a top transparent electrode Hit). The
photoconductive cell is of the so-called gap type with a
cadmium sul?de layer interposed between two horizon
be triggered into its low impedance state and one selected
ta-lly spaced electrodes. The photoconductive cell is elec
output terminal will be connected to the power supply l0 trically isolated from the electroluminescent cell by means
through a low impedance path, while all other impedance
of a transparent insulating ?lm 106.
paths remain high. Speci?cally, for example, it switches
FIG. 3 shows a corresponding cross sectional View of
28 and .16 are closed, a low impedance is established be
any one of electroluminescent cells 22, 24 and 26. It is
tween output terminal 48 and power supply terminal 78,
constructed in the same manner as the cell of FlG. 2
while all other paths to this terminal 78 and any of the 15 except that three photoconductive elements are associated
other output terminals remain a high impedance path.
with it (as contrasted to the one photoconductive cell
Thus, by closing a selected one of switches 23, 3t} and 32
associated with each of the electroluminescent cells of
and at the same time closing a selected one of switches
FIG. 2). It will be noted that the photoconductive ele
16, 18 and 20, any selected one of the circuit impedance
ments and the photoconductive cells are complete equiv
paths can be switched to a low impedance state while all 20 alents, being constructed in the same manner and having
other circuit‘ paths remain at a. high impedance state.
equivalent optical and electrical characteristics.
The arrangement described above can be used to per
What is claimed is:
form arithmetic operations. .For example, if particular
1. A device comprising a ?rst set of electroluminescent
numbers are assigned to each of the electroluminescent
cells; a ?rst group of photoconductive cells, the number
cells and the output terminals, any selected multiplication,
division, subtraction or addition operation can be carried
out. To use the embodiment of FIG. 1 for multiplica
tion, for example, numbers 1, 2 and 3 can be assigned to
of cells in said ?rst set being equal to the number of
cells in the ?rst group, ‘each photoconductive cell in the
first group being optically coupled to the corresponding
electroluminescent cell in said ?rst set; a plurality of pho
electroluminescent cells 10, 12 and 14 respectively. Simi
toconductive means, the number of said means being equal
larly, numbers 1, 2 and 3 can be assigned to electro 30 to the number of cells in said ?rst set, each photoconduc
luminescent cells 22, 24 and 26 respectively. Then num
tive means including another plurality of photoconduc
hers I, 2 and 3 can be assigned to the respective output
tive elements, the elements of each means being elec
terminals 44, 46 and 48, while numbers 2, 4 and 6 are
trically connected in common to the corresponding pho
assigned. to output terminals 58, 60 and 62 and numbers
toconductive cell in said ?rst group, and a second set of
3, 6 and 9 are assigned to output terminals 72, 74 and 76, 35 electroluminescent cells, the number of cells in said sec
respectively. Multiplication is then carried out in the fol
ond set being equal to said another plurality, correspond‘
lowing manner. By closing one of switches 16, 18 and 20
ing elements in each of said means being optically cou
and one of switches 28, 30 and 32, the product of the
pled in common to the corresponding cell in said second
numbers represented by the electroluminescent cells‘ con
set.
trolled by these switches will be represented by the output
2. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec
terminal coupled to the circuit path of low impedance.
troluminescent' cells; a ?rst group of M different photo
For example, if switches 30 and 20 are closed (represent
conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically
ing numbers 2 and‘ 3 respectively), the circuit path be
coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell; M different
tween terminals 74 and 78 will be a low impedance path
photoconductive means, each means including N different
and the number (6) associated with terminal 74 repre
photoconductive elements, one end of each of the ele
sents. the product of the numbers.
_
ments of each means being electrically connected in com
By assigning different numbers to the various output
mon to the corresponding first group cell; and a second
terminals, it will be apparent that any arithmetic com
set of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding
putation of the type indicated above can be carried out.
elements in each of said means being optically coupled
For example, if the numbers 1, 2, . . . 9 are assigned 50 in common to the corresponding second set cell.
to terminals 44, 46, . . .t 76, then the embodiment can
3. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec
be used for addition.
troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo
Further, when the numbers associated with the ?rst set
conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically
of electroluminescent cells represent the subtrahends, then
coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact
the subtraction operation can be performed if the num 55 of each of said photoconductive cells being connected
bers 0, 1, 2, —l, O, 1-, -2, 1 and 0 are assigned to ter
to a common terminal; M different photoconductive
minals 44, 46, 48, 58, 60, 62, 72, Y74 and 76 respectively.
means, each means including N different photoconductive
However, when the numbers associated with the ?rst set
elements, one contact of each of the elements of each
of electroluminescent cells represent the divisor‘ and the
means being connected in common to the other contact
numbers associated with the second set of electrolumi 60 of the corresponding ?rst group cell; and a second set
nescent cells represent the dividends, then the division
of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele
operation can be performed if the numbers 1, 2, 3, 1/2', 1,
ments in each of said‘ means being optically coupled in
11/2, 1/3, % and 1 are assigned to terminals 44, 46, 48, 58,
common to the corresponding second set cell.
60. 62. 72, 74 and 76 respectively.
4. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec
Obviously the numbers assigned to the electrolumi 65 troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo
nescent cells and output terminals can be varied as‘ re
quired. Further, a plurality of the embodiments of FIG;
conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically
coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact of
1 can be used and connected in cascade, as for example,
each of said photoconductive cells being connected to a
to represent decades, hundreds and thousands in the deci~
common terminal; M different photoconductive means,
mal scale. Moreover, the number of electroluminescent 70 each means including N different photoconductive ele
cells in the ?rst set can differ from the number of electro~
ments, one contact of each of the elements of each means
luminescent cells in the second set, and the number of
being connected in common to the other end of the cor
photoconductive elements used by each photoconductive
responding ?rst group cell; a second set of N different
means can be varied as desired.
electroluminescent cells, corresponding elements in each
‘ FIG; 2 shows a cross sectional view of a typical one
of said means being optically coupled in common to the
3,070,702
6
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corresponding second set cell; and MN different output
terminals, each output terminal being connected to the
other contact of the corresponding photoconductive ele
ment whereby MN different circuit paths are established
between said common terminal and said output terminals.
5. A device comprising a ?rst set of -M different elec
troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo
conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically
are established between said common terminal and said
output terminals; a power supply coupled between said
common terminal and another terminal, said another ter
minal providing a reference potential with respect to
said output terminals; and means coupled to said power
supply to selectively energize one ?rst set cell and one
second set cell whereby one selected circuit path is a
low impedance path and all unselected circuit paths are
coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact
'high impedance paths, the selection being determined by
of each of said photoconductive cells being connected
the particular ?rst and second set cells energized.
to a common terminal; M different photoconductive
means, each means including vN different photoconduc
tive elements, one contact of each of the elements of
each means being connected in common to the other
end of the corresponding ?rst group cell; a second set of
N di?erent electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele
ments in each of said means being optically coupled in
common to the corresponding second set cell; MN differ
ent output terminals, each output terminal being con
nected to the other contact of the corresponding photo 20
conduotive element whereby MN different circuit paths
are established between said common terminal and said
output terminals; and means to selectively energize one
?rst set cell and one second set cell whereby one se
7. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec
troluminescent cells, each ?rst set cell being associated
with a number selected from a ?rst set of numbers; a
?rst group of M different photoconductive cells, each
photoconductive cell being optically coupled to the cor
responding ?rst set cell, one end of each of said photo
conductive cells being connected to a common terminal;
M different photoconductive means, each means includ
ing N different photoconductive elements, one end of
each of the element-s of each means being connected in
common to the other end of the corresponding ?rst
group cell; a second set of N different electroluminescent
cells, corresponding elements in each of said means being
optically coupled in common to the corresponding second
lected circuit path is a low impedance path, the selec 25 set cell, each second set cell being associated with a
number selected from a second set of numbers; and MN
tion being determined by the particular ?rst and second
dilferent output terminals, each output terminal being
set cells energized.
connected to the other end of the corresponding photo
6. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec
conductive element whereby MN di?erent circuit paths
troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo
conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically 30 are established between said common terminal and said
coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact
output terminals, each output terminal being associated
of each of said photoconductive cells being connected
with a number selected from a third set of numbers, the
number associated with any output terminal bearing a
predetermined relation to the two numbers associated
to a common terminal; M different photoconductive
means, each ‘means including N di?erent photoconduc
tive elements, one contact of each of the elements of
each means being connected in common to the other
end of the corresponding ?rst group cell; a second set
of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele
ments in each of said means being optically coupled in
common to the corresponding second set cell; MN differ
ent output terminals, each output terminal being con
nected to the other contact of the corresponding photo
conductive element whereby MN different circuit paths
with the particular ?rst and second set cells optically
coupled to the photoconductive cell and photoconduc
tive element included in the circuit path which includes
said any terminal.
'
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,907,001
Loebner _____________ __ Sept. 29, 1959
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