# Патент USA US3070712

код для вставкиDec. 25, 1962 3,070,702 A. J. MARKO ELECTROLUMINESCENT ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT Filed July 15, 1960 44 46 46’ / 0/ 42) 5e </ 50 ‘i 40 / > 52 Q 72 74 75 56} K ( 1 54 / 798 70 as’ 52 26 _i’__‘ ga (24 31% ? 32 35 F {4 I0 50 I2 ? 1,6 I Pad/ER _ 3 SUPPLY I =1; r ()2 54 /4 ‘£120 _ . . _ 76’ I06 /00 I02 I04 INVENTOR ALBERT J. MAR/(0 BY . , ATTORNEY “United States Patent Ori?ce ' ‘attain Patented Dec. 25, 1962 2 l 3,676,7{1 EiECTlQOLUMiNEgrCENT ARETHWETHC CIRCUKT Albert 3. Marko, Deer Park, N.Y., assignor to General Telephone and Electronics Laboratories, Inc, a corpo ration of Delaware Fried July 15, 196i), Ser. No. 43,200 7 Claims. (Cl. 250—213) My invention relates to arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuits are designed to perform arithmetic An illustrative embodiment of ‘my invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein: I *; FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an embodiment of my invention; 1 \ P16. 2 is a cross sectional view of one of the ?rst set of electroluminescent cells of FIG. 1 together with its electrical connections; and FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of one of the second set operations as for example addition, subtraction, multi 10 of electroluminescent cells of FIG. 1 together with its electrical connections. plication and division. I have invented a new type of Referring now to FIG. 1 there is shown a ?rst set of arithmetic circuit capable of carrying out the above iden electroluminescent cells, in this example, cells 10, 12 and ti?ed operations without the use of any active circuit 14. Each of these cells is connected in series with the components such as tubes or transistors. Accordingly it is an object of my invention to provide 15 corresponding one of switches 16, 18 and 20 across the terminals of power supply 34. When any of these a new type of arithmetic circuit of the character indicated. switches is closed, the corresponding electroluminescent Another object is to provide a new type of arithmetic cell is energized and emits light. When this switch is circuit utilizing combinations of electroluminescent and opened, the corresponding electroluminescent cell is de photoconductive cells. Still another object is to provide a new type of arith 20 energized and dark. There is further provided a second set of electrolumi metic circuit having a plurality of circuit paths and nescent cells, in this example, electroluminescent cells 22, adapted to process two numbers, the impedance levels of 24 and 26. Each of cells 22, 24 and 26 is connected in said path uniquely specifying the sum, product, remainder series with the corresponding one of switches 28, 30 and or quotient of these numbers. These and other objects of my invention will either be 25 32 across the terminals of power supply 34. This second set of electroluminescent cells operates in the same fashion explained or will become apparent hereinafter. as the ?rst set of electroluminescent cells. In accordance with my invention I provide a ?rst set I further provide a ?rst group of photoconductive cells, of electroluminescent‘ cells and a ?rst group of photo in this example, photoconductive cells 36, 50 and 64 which conductive cells. The number of cells in the ?rst set is are electrically isolated from, but optically coupled to, equal to the number of cells in the ?rst group. Each a corresponding one of the ?rst set of electroluminescent photoconductive cell in the ?rst group is optically coupled cells 10, 12 and 14. One contact of each photoconductive to the correspondingelectroluminescent cell in the ?rst cell'36, 50 and 64 is coupled in common to terminal 78 set. One end of each of the ?rst group cells is con of power supply 34. With each of photoconductive cells nected to a common terminal. I further provide a plurality of photoconductive means 35 36, 50 and 64 is associated a separate photoconductive means. Each photoconductive means includes a plurality equal in number to the number of cells in the ?rst set. of photoconductive elements. (In this example each Each photoconductive means includes a di?erent plurality means includes three photoconductive elements.) More of photoconductive elements.’ One end of each of the particularly, the photoconductive means associated with elements in any photoconductive means is connected in common to the other end of the ?rst group cell corre 40 photoconductive cell 36 includes photoconductive ele ments 38, 40 and 42. These photoconductive elements sponding to this photoconductive means. The other end (which are actually photoconductive cells) have one con of each element is connected to a corresponding output tact connected in common to the side of photoconductive terminal thus establishing parallel circuit paths between cell 36 which is remote from the power supply. The the common terminal and eachv of the output terminals. In addition, I provide a second set of electrolumines 45 other contacts of each of these photoconductive elements are coupled to corresponding output terminals‘ 44, 46 and cent cells equal in number to the plurality of photocon 48 respectively. The photoconductive means associated ductive means. Corresponding elements in each of said with photoconductive cell 50 includes photoconductive photoconductive means are optically coupled to the corre elements 52, 54 and 56 which are connected to corre sponding cell in the second set. sponding output terminals 58, 60 and 62 and are also Each electroluminescent cell, when electrically ener connected in common to photoconductive cell 50. Simi gized, emits light, the photoconductive cell or photocon larly, photoconductive elements 66, 68 and 70 are con ductive elements optically coupled to the energized cell nected in common to photoconductive cell 64 and are also being triggered from a high impedance state to a low individually connected to terminals 72, 74 and 76 respec impedance state. Upon the cessation of light or in the absence of light, the impedance level of the photocon 65 tivelv. Photoconductive elements 38, 52 and 66 are elec trically isolated from, but optically coupled to, electro ductive cell or photoconductive elements remains high. luminescent cell 22. Photoconductive elements 40, 54 A di?erent number is assigned to each electrolumines and 68 are electrically isolated from, but optically coupled cent cell in the ?rst set and to each electroluminescent to, electroluminescent cell 24; and photoconductive ele cell in the second set. A different number is assigned to each of the output terminals. Depending upon the 60 ments 42, 56 and 70 are electrically isolated from, but optically coupled to, electroluminescent cell 26. type of arithmetic operation desired, each of the terminal Each of the photoconductive cells and photoconductive numbers represents the sum, product, remainder or quo elements has an electrical characteristic at which, when tient of the two numbers assigned to the ?rst and second the associated electroluminescent cell is dark, the photo set electroluminescent cells associated with each path. In order to perform the operation, a selected cell in each 65 conductive element or cell represents a high impedance. When the electroluminescent cell is lit, the corresponding of the two sets is energized. As a consequence, a selected photoconductive cell or element is triggered to a low one of the circuit paths will have a low impedance level impedance state. while all other circuit paths will have high impedance levels. The number assigned to the output terminal of When all electroluminescent cells are dark, each of the the selected path will then be the sum, product, remainder 70 output terminals is connected through high impedance or quotient of the two numbers assigned to the two photoconductive cells and elements to the power supply, thus forming a plurality of parallel high impedance cir selected cells. 8,070,702 - 4 3 cuit paths. When any one of switches 28, 30 and 32 is ‘closed, the appropriate photoconductive elements are trig .gered into the low impedance state. However, the im Jpedances of photoconductive cells 36, 5t) and 64 remain high and, as a result, each of the output terminalsis lstill connected through a high impedance path to the power supply. However, if nowone of switches 16, 18 and 20 is closed, its associated photoconductive cell will of electroluminescent cells 16, i3 and 29 together with an associated photoconductive cell, switch, and various electrical connections. It will be seen that the electro luminescent cell is of a conventional type having an elec— troluminescent layer 102 subtended between a bottom electrode 104 and a top transparent electrode Hit). The photoconductive cell is of the so-called gap type with a cadmium sul?de layer interposed between two horizon be triggered into its low impedance state and one selected ta-lly spaced electrodes. The photoconductive cell is elec output terminal will be connected to the power supply l0 trically isolated from the electroluminescent cell by means through a low impedance path, while all other impedance of a transparent insulating ?lm 106. paths remain high. Speci?cally, for example, it switches FIG. 3 shows a corresponding cross sectional View of 28 and .16 are closed, a low impedance is established be any one of electroluminescent cells 22, 24 and 26. It is tween output terminal 48 and power supply terminal 78, constructed in the same manner as the cell of FlG. 2 while all other paths to this terminal 78 and any of the 15 except that three photoconductive elements are associated other output terminals remain a high impedance path. with it (as contrasted to the one photoconductive cell Thus, by closing a selected one of switches 23, 3t} and 32 associated with each of the electroluminescent cells of and at the same time closing a selected one of switches FIG. 2). It will be noted that the photoconductive ele 16, 18 and 20, any selected one of the circuit impedance ments and the photoconductive cells are complete equiv paths can be switched to a low impedance state while all 20 alents, being constructed in the same manner and having other circuit‘ paths remain at a. high impedance state. equivalent optical and electrical characteristics. The arrangement described above can be used to per What is claimed is: form arithmetic operations. .For example, if particular 1. A device comprising a ?rst set of electroluminescent numbers are assigned to each of the electroluminescent cells; a ?rst group of photoconductive cells, the number cells and the output terminals, any selected multiplication, division, subtraction or addition operation can be carried out. To use the embodiment of FIG. 1 for multiplica tion, for example, numbers 1, 2 and 3 can be assigned to of cells in said ?rst set being equal to the number of cells in the ?rst group, ‘each photoconductive cell in the first group being optically coupled to the corresponding electroluminescent cell in said ?rst set; a plurality of pho electroluminescent cells 10, 12 and 14 respectively. Simi toconductive means, the number of said means being equal larly, numbers 1, 2 and 3 can be assigned to electro 30 to the number of cells in said ?rst set, each photoconduc luminescent cells 22, 24 and 26 respectively. Then num tive means including another plurality of photoconduc hers I, 2 and 3 can be assigned to the respective output tive elements, the elements of each means being elec terminals 44, 46 and 48, while numbers 2, 4 and 6 are trically connected in common to the corresponding pho assigned. to output terminals 58, 60 and 62 and numbers toconductive cell in said ?rst group, and a second set of 3, 6 and 9 are assigned to output terminals 72, 74 and 76, 35 electroluminescent cells, the number of cells in said sec respectively. Multiplication is then carried out in the fol ond set being equal to said another plurality, correspond‘ lowing manner. By closing one of switches 16, 18 and 20 ing elements in each of said means being optically cou and one of switches 28, 30 and 32, the product of the pled in common to the corresponding cell in said second numbers represented by the electroluminescent cells‘ con set. trolled by these switches will be represented by the output 2. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec terminal coupled to the circuit path of low impedance. troluminescent' cells; a ?rst group of M different photo For example, if switches 30 and 20 are closed (represent conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically ing numbers 2 and‘ 3 respectively), the circuit path be coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell; M different tween terminals 74 and 78 will be a low impedance path photoconductive means, each means including N different and the number (6) associated with terminal 74 repre photoconductive elements, one end of each of the ele sents. the product of the numbers. _ ments of each means being electrically connected in com By assigning different numbers to the various output mon to the corresponding first group cell; and a second terminals, it will be apparent that any arithmetic com set of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding putation of the type indicated above can be carried out. elements in each of said means being optically coupled For example, if the numbers 1, 2, . . . 9 are assigned 50 in common to the corresponding second set cell. to terminals 44, 46, . . .t 76, then the embodiment can 3. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec be used for addition. troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo Further, when the numbers associated with the ?rst set conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically of electroluminescent cells represent the subtrahends, then coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact the subtraction operation can be performed if the num 55 of each of said photoconductive cells being connected bers 0, 1, 2, —l, O, 1-, -2, 1 and 0 are assigned to ter to a common terminal; M different photoconductive minals 44, 46, 48, 58, 60, 62, 72, Y74 and 76 respectively. means, each means including N different photoconductive However, when the numbers associated with the ?rst set elements, one contact of each of the elements of each of electroluminescent cells represent the divisor‘ and the means being connected in common to the other contact numbers associated with the second set of electrolumi 60 of the corresponding ?rst group cell; and a second set nescent cells represent the dividends, then the division of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele operation can be performed if the numbers 1, 2, 3, 1/2', 1, ments in each of said‘ means being optically coupled in 11/2, 1/3, % and 1 are assigned to terminals 44, 46, 48, 58, common to the corresponding second set cell. 60. 62. 72, 74 and 76 respectively. 4. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec Obviously the numbers assigned to the electrolumi 65 troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo nescent cells and output terminals can be varied as‘ re quired. Further, a plurality of the embodiments of FIG; conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact of 1 can be used and connected in cascade, as for example, each of said photoconductive cells being connected to a to represent decades, hundreds and thousands in the deci~ common terminal; M different photoconductive means, mal scale. Moreover, the number of electroluminescent 70 each means including N different photoconductive ele cells in the ?rst set can differ from the number of electro~ ments, one contact of each of the elements of each means luminescent cells in the second set, and the number of being connected in common to the other end of the cor photoconductive elements used by each photoconductive responding ?rst group cell; a second set of N different means can be varied as desired. electroluminescent cells, corresponding elements in each ‘ FIG; 2 shows a cross sectional view of a typical one of said means being optically coupled in common to the 3,070,702 6 5 corresponding second set cell; and MN different output terminals, each output terminal being connected to the other contact of the corresponding photoconductive ele ment whereby MN different circuit paths are established between said common terminal and said output terminals. 5. A device comprising a ?rst set of -M different elec troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically are established between said common terminal and said output terminals; a power supply coupled between said common terminal and another terminal, said another ter minal providing a reference potential with respect to said output terminals; and means coupled to said power supply to selectively energize one ?rst set cell and one second set cell whereby one selected circuit path is a low impedance path and all unselected circuit paths are coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact 'high impedance paths, the selection being determined by of each of said photoconductive cells being connected the particular ?rst and second set cells energized. to a common terminal; M different photoconductive means, each means including vN different photoconduc tive elements, one contact of each of the elements of each means being connected in common to the other end of the corresponding ?rst group cell; a second set of N di?erent electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele ments in each of said means being optically coupled in common to the corresponding second set cell; MN differ ent output terminals, each output terminal being con nected to the other contact of the corresponding photo 20 conduotive element whereby MN different circuit paths are established between said common terminal and said output terminals; and means to selectively energize one ?rst set cell and one second set cell whereby one se 7. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec troluminescent cells, each ?rst set cell being associated with a number selected from a ?rst set of numbers; a ?rst group of M different photoconductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically coupled to the cor responding ?rst set cell, one end of each of said photo conductive cells being connected to a common terminal; M different photoconductive means, each means includ ing N different photoconductive elements, one end of each of the element-s of each means being connected in common to the other end of the corresponding ?rst group cell; a second set of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding elements in each of said means being optically coupled in common to the corresponding second lected circuit path is a low impedance path, the selec 25 set cell, each second set cell being associated with a number selected from a second set of numbers; and MN tion being determined by the particular ?rst and second dilferent output terminals, each output terminal being set cells energized. connected to the other end of the corresponding photo 6. A device comprising a ?rst set of M different elec conductive element whereby MN di?erent circuit paths troluminescent cells; a ?rst group of M different photo conductive cells, each photoconductive cell being optically 30 are established between said common terminal and said coupled to the corresponding ?rst set cell, one contact output terminals, each output terminal being associated of each of said photoconductive cells being connected with a number selected from a third set of numbers, the number associated with any output terminal bearing a predetermined relation to the two numbers associated to a common terminal; M different photoconductive means, each ‘means including N di?erent photoconduc tive elements, one contact of each of the elements of each means being connected in common to the other end of the corresponding ?rst group cell; a second set of N different electroluminescent cells, corresponding ele ments in each of said means being optically coupled in common to the corresponding second set cell; MN differ ent output terminals, each output terminal being con nected to the other contact of the corresponding photo conductive element whereby MN different circuit paths with the particular ?rst and second set cells optically coupled to the photoconductive cell and photoconduc tive element included in the circuit path which includes said any terminal. ' References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,907,001 Loebner _____________ __ Sept. 29, 1959

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