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Патент USA US3070982

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Jan. 1, 1963
L. w. ATCHISON
3,070,972
AUTOMATIC CONTROLS FOR ROOM AIR,CONDITIONING UNIT
Filed D90. 22, 1960
United States Patent O?tice
1
3,970,972
Patented Jan. 1, 1963
2
3,070,972
In’ order to circulate air streams through the inner and
outer compartments 4 and 7, there are provided a pair
of fans 11 and 12 mounted respectively within the in
eral Electric Company, a corporation of New York
by a common motor 13 which may be mounted on the
Filed Dec. 22, 196i), Ser. No. 77,665
2 Claims. (Cl. 62-180)
barrier '3 of the unit; Outside air is circulated over the
condenser 8 by the fan 12 and ?ows toward the barrier
AUTOMATI€ CQNTROLS FOR ROOM AIR
CGNDITIGNING UNIT
Leonard W. Atchison, Louisville, Ky., assignor to Gen
The present invention relates to and has for its princi
pal object the provision of an improved room-air condi—
tioning unit of the self-contained type incorporating an
arrangement for substantially reducing the fan noise pro
ner and outer compartments and arranged to be driven
3 where it is diverted upwardly and then discharged
back to the outdoors through suitable outlet openings 5
in the rear of the casing. This air stream extracts heat
from the condenser 8. The evaporator fan 11 pulls a
stream of air from within the enclosure through the
duced by such a unit when the temperature of the room
heat exchanger or evaporator 7 into the inner compart
air is such as to satisfy the thermostat setting of the unit
ment 4. This ‘air is directed rearwardly against the bar
and the refrigeration system is, therefore, not in opera 15 rier 3 and diverted upwardly along the barrier to be
tion.
discharged back into the enclosure again through the
According to the present invention there is provided
an air conditioning unit of the self-contained type in
upper portions of the unit. Suitable ducting is provided
within the casing 2 to promote the flow of air into and
cluding a case adapted for mounting in an outer wall
out of the respective compartments.
.
of a room and having compartments therein communi 20
Many of the ‘air conditioning units of the-self-contained
cating respectively with room air and outdoor air. The
unit includes ‘a refrigeration system having a pair of heat
exchangers and a condenser arranged in refrigerant flow
relationship. Indoor and outdoor fans are provided for
circulating separate streams of air from inside the room
and from the outside respectively over the heat ex
changers of the unit. A temperature control means is
provided within the unit for energizing and de-energiz
ing the refrigeration system according to the tempera
ture of the air stream entering the unit from the room.
Switch means, also actuated by the temperature control
means, are provided for cycling the indoor fan from a
high or other normal operating speed, whenever the re
frigeration system is in operation, to a very low speed
operation whenever the refrigeration system is de-ener
type now on the market provide a temperature control
means or thermostat control for controlling the opera
tion of the refrigeration system according to the tem
perature of the air ?owing through the evaporator com
partment from the room. In the illustrated embodiment
of the invention, a temperature control means or a ther
mostat 14, of ‘a type well known in the market for sens
ing the temperature of the air, is provided on a control
panel 15 on the front of the air conditioning unit. The
thermostat 14 is adjustable over a wide range to permit
the occupants of the room to select a satisfactory tem
perature for the air within the room. The temperature
control means includes a temperature responsive element
or bulb 16 disposed in the air stream ?owing into the
gized.
evaporator compartment 4 so that the bulb 16 senses
‘For a better understanding of the invention, reference
may be had to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing an air condition
ing unit of a self-contained type having the air tempera
ture control of the present invention;
!FIG. 2 is a diagrammatical view illustrating the auto~
matic fan speed control of the present invention; and
‘FIG. 3 is a diagrammatical view illustrating a fan
bulb is connected by means of a tubing 17 to a conven
speed control arrangement as applied to a heat pump.
Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown an air condition
ing unit of the self-contained type adapted for mount
ing in a window or opening in the outer wall of an en
closure. The unit is enclosed within a case 2 which, in
temperature conditions of the air ?owing thereover. The
tional ?uid type responsive member or bellows 18
(shown in FIG. 2) and forms with these components
a conventional ?uid type thermostat. The bulb l6, tub
ing 17, and bellows 18 together provide a closed cham
ber for an expansible liquid or vapor. As is well un
derstood in the art, the pressure within the bellows mem
ber 18 is a function of the temperature of the bulb 16
and this pressure causes the bellows 18 to operate switch
ing means in the thermostat adapted to energize or de
energize the refrigeration system. As will be hereinafter
explained, movement of the bellows 18 also modi?es the
operation of the fan motor‘simultaneously with the en
the illustrated embodiment of the invention, is divided by 50 ergization or deenergization of the refrigeration system.
a barrier 3 into a pair of separate compartments, here
inafter referred to as the inner or evaporator compart
As may be seen in FIG. 2, which illustrates in sche
matic form the above-described air conditioner, power
ment 4 and the outer or condenser compartment 6. The
is supplied to the components of the air conditioning
unit is provided with a pair of heat exchangers 7 and 8
unit through the power lines marked L1 and L2. L2
mounted respectively within the inner and outer com 55 forms a line having leads connecting with the compressor
partments 4 and 6.
The heat exchangers 7 and 8 are
connected in refrigerant ?ow relationship by suitable tub
ing to a compressor 9, which is also disposed in the out
9 and the fan motor 13 and L1 completes the circuit
through these units through the thermostat, generally
designated 14 and included within the dotted line por
tion of FIG. 2. During normal operation of the air
In those types of air conditioning units normally uti 60 conditioning unit, air circulated over the evaporator 7
lized for cooling an enclosure, the heat exchanger 7 is
by the fan 11 causes the bulb 16 to energize and de
operated as an evaporator to extract heat from the air
energize the compressor 9 according to the temperature
circulated through the evaporator compartment 4 and
sensed by the bulb 16. When the temperature of the
the heat exchanger 7 from within the enclosure. The
bulb 16 is such as to call for cooling of the air passing
er or condenser compartment 6.
heat exchanger 8 is operated as a condenser and dis
charges heat taken up by the refrigerant ?owing through
the evaporator 7 to the outdoor air circulated through
the outer compartment 6. Suitable means are provided,
thereover, the expansible member or bellows 18 moves
the compressor switch 21 across the contacts 22 and 23
thereby completing the circuit across the power lines L1
and L2 through the compressor. At the same time that
such as the capillary tube 10 (see only in FIG. 2), for
the switch 21 is moved across the contacts 22 and 23, a
providing a pressure drop between the evaporator 7 and 70 second or fan switch means 24, also energized by the
the condenser 8 to promote vaporization of the refriger
bellows 18, is moved into a ?rst position in which it
ant ?owing from the condenser 8 to the evaporator 7.
engages contacts 26 and 27 thereby completing a ?rst or
seeders
A
rm.
high speed fan circuit, including line 28, to energize the
fan motor 13. When the fan circuit is energized in this
manner, the fan motor 13 operates at its normal or other
selected operating speed.
Whenever the temperature of the room air, tlowing
over the temperature sensing bulb 16, drops below a pre
determined temperature set on the thermostat 14 ‘by the
temperature control knob 1? on the front of the unit,
then the bellows moves the compressor switch 21 away
from its contacts 22 and 23, thereby de-energizing the ‘
compressor 9. Simultaneously with the movement of
the switch 21 away from contacts 22 and 23 the fan
switch 24 is moved to a second position in which it dis
for example, include a second temperature sensing
means, such as the bulb 16a, tube 17a, and bellows 18a
for actuating the switches of the thermostat whenever
the thermostat is conditioned to control the refrigeration
system according to temperature decreases in the en
closure air stream.
It should be understood that FIG.
3 is only a schematic diagram and that bulbs 16 and 16a
and their associated ‘bellows 18 and 18a operate the
thermostat switches independently from each other and,
‘as stated above, the knob 19 may be employed to con
dition the thermostat so that the switches are responsive
to one or the other of the bulbs, depending upon whether
speed fan circuit leading to the fan motor 13, including
the conditioner is to be operated for cooling or heating
purposes. Whenever the thermostat 14a is conditioned
to operate in accordance with conditions sensed by ‘the
bulb 16a, the compressor switch 21 disengages from con
'the line 32 and reactance 33. When the reactance 33 is
connected into the fan motor circuit there is a great re
the temperature in the enclosure rises above the prede
engages contacts 26 and 27 and is connected across con
tacts 29 and 31. This completes a second circuit or low
duction in the fan speed and, thus, a great reduction in
the noise output of the fans. Any type of reactance =
may be used, such as an inductive or capacitive reactance
or some combination of these. it is contemplated, how
ever, that the reactance be su?icient to reduce the fan
speed very drastically so that there is little or no audi
ble noise output from these fans. It is only necessary to
have su?’icient fan speed to move a very small quantity
of room air over the bulb 16 so that control of the room
temperature may be adequately maintained.
tacts 22 and 23 to deenergize the compressor 9 vwhenever
termined temperature set on the thermostat.
As in the
operation of the arrangement shown in FIG. 2, the fan
switch 24- also disengages contacts 36 and 27 and moves
across contacts 29 and 31 when the thermal sensing bulb
15a senses a temperature above that set on the thermo
stat. This electrically connects the fan motor 13 into
its second or low speed circuit in which the reactor 33
is placed in series with the fan motor 13. The fan then
operates at reduced speed greatly reducing the air ?ow
through the inner compartment and the noise of the fan
is reduced accordingly. When the room temperature as
sensed by the bulb 16a drops, then the bellows 18a
This may
be a fan speed of only 200 to 599 r.p m. as compared
to the normal fan speed of 1000 to 1600 r.p.m. It is
moves the switch 21 across the compressor circuit cir
cuit contacts 22 and 23 and simultaneously moves the
probably desirable to utilize an inductive type reactance,
capable of reducing the fan speed very drastically, with
switch 24 across the high speed contacts 26 ‘and 27 to
connect the fan motor 13 into its high speed circuit.
Of course, during operation of the unit on the cooling
cycle, the thermostat 14a is conditioned to operate in the
manner previously described with respect to the embodi
such ‘as inductive windings in the stator of the fan Ino
ment shown in FIG. 2 and bellows 18 and bulb 16 con
tor itself could be energized by the second circuit in or
trols the movement of the fan switch 24 and compressor
der to reduce the speed of the fan motor.
switch 21. it will be noted that air at a very reduced
40
Referring now to FIG. 3 there is shown an arrange
velocity always ?ows through the unit when the room
ment of the invention as applied to an air conditioning
temperature has satis?ed the conditions set on the ther
apparatus designed for both heating and cooling air from
mostat. This permits continual sensing of the room tem
an enclosure. The refrigeration system of this apparatus
out too great a power loss or heat dissipation in the re
actance itself. In the illustrated embodiment of the in
vention, the reactance 33 is shown external to the fan
motor 13. However, it is very likely that other means
contains a reversing valve 33 which connects to the com
pressor 9 through suction inlet and exhaust lines 36 and
37 respectively. The reversing valve may be conditioned
to selectively direct high pressure discharge gas from the
perature and gives complete control of the temperature
I, of the room air, yet permits operation of the fan 13 at
reduced speed whenever the total capacity of the unit is
not required and thereby greatly reduces the overall noise
output of the unit at these times.
compressor either into the line 39 leading to the outer
heat exchanger 8 or into the line 40 leading to the inner
By the present invention there has been provided an
air conditioning unit of the self-contained type
heat exchanger 7. Whenever the reversing valve 38 dis 50 improved
in
which
the
temperature sensing device utilized for cy
charges hot gas into the line in} leading to the heat ex
cling
the
refrigeration
system on and oil, according to
changer 7, which is the heat exchanger exposed to room
the temperature of the room air entering the unit, also
air, the unit then heats air from the enclosure. And
varies the operating speed of the fan motor simultane
correspondingly, ‘when hot discharge gas is directed into
ously with the on and off cycles of the refrigeration
the line 39 leading to the outer heat exchanger 8, the '
system.
unit functions to cool air from the enclosure. Means
While in accordance with the patent statutes there has
such as the knob 38a on the front of the unit is provided
been described what at present is considered to be the
for selectively adjusting the reversing valve 35 to oper
preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be un
ate the unit on a heating or cooling cycle according to
derstood by those skilled in the art that various changes
the wishes of the operator. The reversing valve 38 may it) and modi?cations may be made therein ‘without depart
either be manually moved to its respective positions or
ing from the invention, and it is, therefore, the aim of
may be operated by a solenoid which is energized when
the appended claims to cover all such changes and modi
the operator turns the knob 38a. Reversing valves and
the operation thereof are well known in the art and a
more detailed description thereof is not believed neces
sary for a full understanding of the present invention.
In order to cycle the fan motor 13 to low speed opera
tion whenever the refrigeration system is de-energized,
there is provided a temperature control means or ther
mostat 14a which may also be conditioned by the con
trol knob 19 on the front of the unit to cycle the refrig—
eration system on and off according to temperature rises
in the enclosure as well as according to temperature de
creases in the air from the enclosure. Thermostats adapt
ed for this purpose are well known in the art and may,
?cations as fall within the true spirit and scope of the
.-
invention. '
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent of the United States is:
1. An air circulating apparatus for conditioning the air
within an enclosure comprising a casing, a barrier dividing
said casing into an inner compartment exposed to air
from the enclosure and an outer compartment exposed to
air from outdoors, a refrigeration system mounted in said
casing including a compressor connected in refrigerant
?ow relationship with an inner heat exchanger mounted
in said inner compartment and an outer heat exchanger
aovaozz
6
mounted in said outer compartment, reversing means in
said refrigeration system for reversing the flow of re
refrigerant ?ow relationship; one of said heat exchangers
being mounted in said inner compartment and the other
heat exchanger being mounted in said outer compartment;
frigerant to said heat exchangers thereby to selectively
operate either of said heat exchangers as an evaporator
while operating the other heat exchanger as a condenser
fans for circulating separate air streams from within said
enclosure and from the outdoors over said heat exchangers
to heat or cool air ?owing from said enclosure through
in said inner and outer compartments; at least one motor
said inner compartment, means for selectively condition
for driving said fans; means for conditioning said re
ing said reversing means to operate said unit on a heating
versing valve to operate said inner heat exchanger as a
or cooling cycle, fans for circulating separate air streams
condenser for heating said air stream from said enclosure;
from within said enclosure and from the outdoors over 10 a temperature control means responsive to the temperature
said inner and outer heat exchangers respectively, at
of said air stream being circulated into said inner com
least one motor for driving said fans, means for condi
partment from said enclosure; said temperature control
tioning said temperature control means to energize said
means being adaptable to energize said refrigeration sys
refrigeration system according to rises in the temperature
tem when the temperature of said air stream entering said
of said air stream entering said inner compartment when 15 inner compartment is below a predetermined temperature
the unit is conditioned for operation on the cooling cycle
and for deenergizing said refrigeration system when the
and for energizing said refrigeration system according to
temperature of said air stream entering said inner com
decreases in the temperature of said air stream entering
partment is above a predetermined temperature; a fan
said inner compartment when said unit is conditioned for
switch movable between ?rst and second positions for
operating on the heating cycle, fan switch means movable 20 connecting said fan motor into a high speed circuit or a
between a ?rst position wherein it electrically connects
low speed circuit respectively; and means associated with
said fan motor into a high speed circuit to a second posi
said temperature control means for moving said fan switch
tion wherein it connects said fan motor into a low speed
to said first position when said temperature of said air
fan circuit, means associated with said temperature con
stream is below said predetermined temperature and for
trol means for moving said fan switch means to said ?rst 25 moving said fan switch to said second position when said
position when said refrigeration system is energized by
temperature of said air stream is above said predetermined
said temperature control means and for moving said fan
temperature so that said fans are operated at reduced
switch means to said second position when said refrigera
tion system is de-energized by said temperature control
means thereby greatly reducing the noise of said fans
when said refrigeration system is de~energized.
2. An air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the
speed and produce correspondingly less noise when the
temperature of the air stream from the enclosure is above
30 said predetermined temperature and heating thereof is
not required.
air within an enclosure comprising a casing; a barrier
dividing said easing into an inner compartment and an
outer compartment, a reversible refrigeration system 35
mounted in said casing including a compressor, a reversing
valve and a pair of heat exchangers connected in reversible
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,195,924
2,361,090
Hoesel _-_ ____________ __ Apr. 2, 1940
Dickey ______________ __ Oct. 24, 1944
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