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Патент USA US3071094

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-, Jan. l,l 1963
Filed July 6, 19,59
4 Sheets-Sheet 2:
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Jan. 1, 1963
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Filed July e, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Jan. 1., 1963
Filed July 6, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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United States Patent O Fice
Willard L. Morrison, Lake Forest, Ill., assigner to Lique
freeze Company, Inc., New York, N.Y., a corporation
of New York
Filed July 6, 1959, Ser. No. 825,154
5 Claims. (Cl. 10S-366)
This invention relates to improvements in freight cars
and shipper containers carried thereby, and has for one
object to provide a freight car and portable shipper con
tainer combination wherein `a multiplicity of portable
shipper containers may be carried by `a single, flat rail
road car and may be separately and independently locked
in place thereon.
Another object is to provide an arrangement wherein
each container may be separately and independently un
locked and removed from the car.
Patented Jan. 1, 1963
container inhibits movement of the container along the
The track and skids are so positioned that when the
container is in place, there is clearance between adjacent
containers. That clearance is -iilled at the top by a buffer
member which extends for the full length of the container
and is supported by cross struts pivoted at their lower
ends on the car and at their upper ends on the buffer.
Since there is a buffer between each pair of containers,
struts associated with each of the two adjacent containers
are anchored on the buffer bar and these struts extending
diagonally across the ends of the containers in opposite
directions not only hold the buffer bar in place but lock
the containers »against movement across the railroad car
15 and support the tops of the containers Iagainst 'longitudinal
displacement, thus furnishing locking means to protect
the container structure against undue stresses.
The struts on one side may lbe rotated to open the door
This invention is especially useful in connection with
so that the container may be loaded or unloaded on the
insulated shipper containers of relatively small size. 20 car or if desired, with the struts on one side out of the
Such shipper containers are intended for the shipment of
way, the container itself may be removed from the oar
frozen food which at the point of origin is frozen, prefer
laterally across the car axis.
ably in the container, to temperatures far below zero
The invention is illustrated more or less diagram
degrees F., temperatures so ‘low that no further refrig
matically in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
eration is needed until the shipper container reaches its 25 FIGURE 1 is a perspective of a railroad car showing
destination. This makes it very Vimportant that the con
one container open about to be loaded;
tainer in transit be not subjected to any dangerous stresses
FIGURE 2 is a detail side elevation of a plurality of
which might »break down the insulation. Therefore, one
shipper containers on the freight car;
object of this invention is to provide a support on the
FIGURE 3 is a detail part plan view of FIGURE 2;
railroad freight car such that the shipper container will 30
FIGURE 4 is a section along the line 4-4 of FIGURE
not be damaged by any of the shocks or blows resulting
from railroad freight shipment.
FIGURE 5 is a detail plan view of a section of a freight
Such frozen food should be handled in separate units
car with the container about to be removed to a truck;
from origin to destination. For instance, if a chain store
FIGURE 6` is a detail similar to FIGURE 5 showing
in New York is to receive a shipper container ñlled with 35 the container about to be returned from a truck to a
frozen food from California, it is highly desirable that
freight car;
the container be not opened, after the low shipping tern
FIGURE 7 is a plan view showing the container about
peratures ‘are obtained, until destination is reached. The
to be moved from a truck to a loading dock;
destination may well 4be the dock of the chain store rather
‘FIGURE 8 is a similar view showing the container
than some -warehouse in the railroad yard.
40 about to be returned from the loading dock to a truck;
It is desirable that a small shipper container holding
FIGURE 9 is a detail perspective showing the ap
perhaps six tons of frozen food be the unit, six tons being
paratus for chilling the contents of the container.
less than carload lot pays a relatively high freight rate.
Like parts are indicated by like characters throughout
The need, therefore, is to ship this frozen food under
the speciñcation ‘and drawings.
circumstances such that the LCL higher rate will not be 45
The railroad flat car ll carries a plurality of insulated
shipper containers 2r. They are just long enough to fit
If, for example, a freight car is organized so that ten
on the flat car and when arranged side by side lill
six-ton containers may be locked in place for unit ship
the entire effective `door area or bed of the car. Each
ment, then the car carries sixty tons and the lower freight
container has at opposite ends insulated door 3,
rate is paid.
which may be opened and closed and locked in the
Since each shipper container is separately locked in
usual manner, the details forming no part of the inven
position, independent of all the others any one or more
tion being not illustrated. Each shipper container is
may be removed without replacement and still the re~
ported in a plurality-in this case preferably 5--spaced`
maining shipper containers will be safely carried, locked
in position.
55 points, the ports being closed by movable caps 4. These
These shipper containers will be preferably rectangular
and for example will be eight feet long, six feet wide and
six feet high with a door at each end and will extend
across the freight car with a door at each side of the car.
ports furnish access to the insulated storage chamber
in the shipper container. The conveyor 5 movable along
the loading platform 6 brings packages of frozen food 7
from any suitable food freezing plant and discharges
Ten of them can be supported on a single sixty foot long 60 them at the opening of the container so that they can ,
be packed in the container »by the workmen who only
freight car.
handle the `frozen food packages for the very short
Each container will be provided with skids at the bot
time between their discharge from the conveyor and
tom, preferably extending the entire length thereof. Car
their entry into the shipper container.
ried on the floor of the car will be a plurality of pairs of
When the shipper container has been ñlled with
channel tracks extending across the car, there being one 65
frozen food and the door has been closed, the hood 3
for each skid of each container, the tracks being open at
will be placed over the shipper container, being thus
both ends and spaced somewhat above the iloor of the
in register with the entire top thereof. Liquid nitrogen
car. Thus the shipper container can slide cross-wise of
will be supplied ‘from any suitable source through the
the car along the tracks in either direction for loading or
duct 9 to the manifold 10 which is in register with all
unloading of the container on the car and the interengage
íive of the ports and liquid nitrogen will be poured into
ment of the skid and the track across the bottom of the
the shipper container in direct contact with the food.
This liquid nitrogen will be at substantially atmospheric
door 3 can then be opened and the container can be
pressure at a temperature in the order of _320 degrees
filled. When filled, the cross bars 15 and 16 are brought
back into position across the door and across the end
F. and so it will be caused to boil by the relatively
warm frozen food, will evaporate and the resultant gas
will rush rapidly out into the hood 8 and be carried
away through the gas discharge pipe 11 to a suitable
reliquefaction plant which reliquefies the nitrogen for
return through the duct 9. The gas will be drawn out
through the duct 11 at a high rate of speed and as a
result it will leave the shipper container having given
up in the main only latent heat so that it returns to the
liquefier at a low temperature and can be easily re
of the container and it is ready for shipment.
When the ñat car reaches destination, it is spotted on
the side track and the truck 24 is backed up to the freight
car. Portable channel bridge tracks 25 are socketed at
their opposite ends respectively on the car and on the
rear end of the truck platform Z6. Cables 27 are hooked
onto the rings 2S at the ends of the skids 12 and the winch
29 is operated to pull the container toward the truck from
the channel tracks 13 on the car along the tracks 25 onto
the truck platform, the bridge tracks 25 furnishing the
along the track to register with these elements, depending
pressure connection so that the tension on the cables Z7
will not tend to cause displacement of truck or car. The
bridge tracks are carried on the truck and they make it
on the circumstances.
All the shipper containers are the same and are inter
unnecessary to spot the truck with micrometric accuracy.
As long as the truck cornes fairly near to alignment and
The conveyor 5 and the hood S may be moved along
the track if desired or the railroad car may be moved
fairly near to proper position, the bridge tracks insure
changeable. Each shipper container has on its bottom
parallel skids 12. These skids are received in channel 20 smooth movement of the container from the car to the
truck. Once the container is on the car, the cables can
tracks 13, on the iloor of the car so that the bottom of
be disconnected from the hooks on the forward side, the
the shipper container is raised above the floor of the
bridge tracks may be put back on the truck and the truck
car. These channel tracks are open at both ends and
can then take the container to its destination which may,
when the container is in place on the car, the inter
locking of the skid and track inhibits movement of the 25 for example, be the loading dock 30 of the chain store
grocery shown in FIGURE 7. The cable 27 will be led
container longitudinally of the car.
from the winch along the floor of the truck to pass around
‘Each container is held against movement transversely
portable sheaves 31 which may be removably socketed
of the car by a pair of cross braces which cross braces
in the loading dock 34) back to the rings 28 as shown
also bar the door in additional to the usual door lock.
Anchor blocks 14 are located on either Side of the car 30 in FIGURE 7. Then the winch 29 will be operated to
draw the container along the bridge tracks 25 between
between each adjacent pair of channel tracks. The
the truck and the loading dock into place on the loading
anchor blocks are of such dimensions that they ñt into
the space between adjacent containers and do not in
any Way interfere with their movement -as will here
dock. When this has occurred, the cables will be un
hooked from the container, the sheaves 31 will be moved
inafter appear, across the car. Each anchor block has 35 into register with an empty container, the truck will be
moved into line therewith and will as shown in FIGURE
pivoted on it two of the cross bars or brace members
5 draw the empty container along the bridge tracks into
15, 16. Each of these cross bars is hinged at 17. The
place on the truck. The truck then returns to the rail
pivot of the cross bars 15, 16 on the anchor blocks 14
is such as to resist longitudinal movement while permit
road yard and as shown in FIGURE 6, the portable
ting lfree pivotal movement. When the cross bars are L10 sheaves are socketed on the car, the container is pulled
in the position shown with respect to all but one of the
back in position for return to the freezing source.
containers in FIGURE 1, they are bolted together where
The use and operation of this invention are as follows:
The flat car having ten of the shipper containers, each
separately, independently anchored in place on the car,
bars 15, 16 support the buffer between the two adjacent 45 is moved to the loading dock of a food freezing plant.
The struts supporting one or more of the shipping con
containers at the top.
These interlocking bolted together cross bars thus
tainers are released and the door of the container is
form a bridge structure holding the shipper `containers
opened, preferably with the container right on the car.
in place on the freight car and inhibit movement of
A conveyor brings the frozen food from the plant to the
the upper portions of the shipper containers, the shipper 50 container and the food is packed therein. The door is
container being thus anchored at the top by the buffers
then closed and the anchoring or locking struts are put
and the cross bars.
back in place. Then the caps closing ñlling openings in
At each end of the car are end anchor `blocks 21 and
the top of the container are removed. The cooling hood
above them are end ‘buffer bars or terminal cross mem
is spotted over the container and liquid nitrogen is run
bers 22. The anchor bars 21 carry only -a single cross 55 through the various nozzles in register with the various
bar 15 and the end buffer 22 is supported by a single
openings until the desired quantity of liquid nitrogen has
cross bar 16.
been inserted, the nitrogen meanwhile evaporating and
Ignoring for the moment the open door shown in
coming out through the openings as gas into the hoo-d
where it is withdrawn for reliquefaction.
FIGURE 1, if we assume that the door is closed and
Since the temperature at which the food was placed
the cross bars are in position, then the freight car moves 60
along the track as a complete tightly held together unit
in the container is known, the character and weight of the
they intersect as at 18. Each one is also bolted to a
buffer or cross member 19, at 20, and the two cross
which can take carload rates because all the containers
with their contents make a full carload.
food is known and the distance to which it is to be
traveled is known, it is a simple, mathematical equation
Referring to FIGURES l and 2, when it is desired
knowing the K factor of the insulation to determine how
to load a shipper container, the cross bars 15, 16 of that 65 many liters of nitrogen must be evaporated to give the
single shipper container will be moved outwardly at
desired low temperature. When the proper amount of
their upper ends to free them `from their bolted -rela
nitrogen has been evaporated, nitrogen feed stops, the
tionship to the buffer 19, this being permitted by the
hood is removed, the cooling ports are closed and the
container is ready for shipment.
hinge 17. The cross bar 15 will rotate counter-clock
wise and the cross bar 16 clockwise into upright posi 70
This process takes place with respect to every one of
tion and be held in by pin 23a in the yoke 23 on the
the containers on the car. When the car is completely
buffer 19. That clears the shipper container and leaves
laden, it is ready for movement in interstate commerce
it `free to be moved across the car, the buffer 19 being
at the lowest rates for bulk shipment of the particular
supported -by the bars 15, 16 respectively in front of the
type of material being handled.
containers on both sides of the free container. The 75
When the car reaches its destination, it is spotted 0n
a side track. A truck backs up to the side of the car
in approximate alignment with the container to be re
moved. The locking struts are moved out of register with
the container, portable tracks supported at one end on
the freight car, at the other end on the truck platform are
put in place in alignment with the tracks on the car.
Cables are attached to the container and the winch on the
truck hauls »on the cables to slide the container along the
portable tracks from the ñxed tracks on the car to the
platform of the truck.
The portable tracks are part of the truck equipment,
they are always available when the truck is to be used to
unload the containers from the freight car. Since the ends
of the portable tracks bridge the gap between the freight
car and the truck it is not essential that positive alignment
occur. Approximate alignment is suflicient to permit the
container to move from the freight car to the truck or vice
When the container is on the truck, the portable tracks
are put back on the truck and carried away by the truck
with the container.
When the truck reaches the grocer’s dock, it backs up
and the same portable tracks are put in place between the
dock and the truck. The cable or cables on the winch
are passed beneath the container through the clearance
defined by the skids, pass over portable sheaves on the
inboard side of the dock and are brought back to couple
on the container, when the winch pulls the container onto
connection to the free end of an associated brace
each of said intermediate cross members having re
leasably secured thereto the upper ends of two brace
each of said brace members being pivotable from a
ñrst position in which it is connected to a cross
member and spans the distance between adjacent
pivot points to a second, substantially vertically posi
tion to thereby provide unobstructed access to the
space between said pairs of pivot points,
the brace members in each pair of brace members
crossing one another when in said first position,
means for securing crossing brace members to one
another to thereby prevent collapse of the brace
members when in said first position, and to support
the terminal and intermediate cross members above
the vehicle bed,
and means for supporting the opposite ends of the
cross member,
said means for supporting the opposite ends of the
cross members being a similar arrangement of brace
and cross members,
each pair of pivotable brace members being located
substantially directly opposite a corresponding pair
of brace members on the opposite side of the vehicle
bed to thereby provide unobstructed, lateral access
to the space between adjacent pivot points when the
the dock and leaves it there to serve as a cold storage
brace members in opposite pairs of brace members
receptacle until the contents of the container has been 30
are all in their second, substantially vertical position.
2. The wheeled vehicle of claim l further including
Meanwhile, the truck having been moved into align
first guide members carried by the vehicle bed, said first
ment with an empty container, the reverse occurs and the
guide members being positioned substantially laterally of
winch pulls the empty container onto the truck, the truck
then returning to the railroad yard backing up in line with
the vehicle bed and cooperable with second guide mem
bers carried by containers to be transported, said first
a vacant place on the freight car. The portable tracks are
guide members being constructed and arranged to enable
put in place, the cable is passed under the container around
a container to be moved laterally across the vehicle bed
sheaves removably mounted on the opposite side of the car
and the winch then hauls the empty container onto the
along a straight path and being effective, when in engage
ment with second guide members, to prevent substantial
car to fill the vacant space after which the struts are put 40 longitudinal displacement of the containers.
in place and the container is ready for its return trip to
3. The wheeled vehicle of claim 2 further character
a freezing plant. Meanwhile, of course, the sheaves which
ized in that the lirst and second guide members are tracks
can be removably attached to the car are removed and
and skids.
put back on the truck so that the truck wherever it is is
4. The wheeled vehicle of claim 1 further character
provided with all the equipment necessary to load and 45 ized in that the width of the cross members in a longi
unload at railroad car or dock and to transport the con
tudinal direction of the wheeled vehicle is substantially
tainer between the two.
equal to the distance between adjacent containers where
I claim:
by the containers, when in position on the vehicle bed,
1. A wheeled vehicle especially adapted for transporta
and cross members form a substantially unitary structure
tion of a plurality of material containers each of which 50 from end to end of the vehicle bed.
extends along only a minor portion of the length of the
5. 'I‘he wheeled vehicle of claim 1 further including
wheeled vehicle, `said wheeled vehicle including in com
abutment members extending upwardly from the vehicle
bed between adjacent containers, the width of the abut
a bed and wheels secured thereto,
ment members in a longitudinal direction of the wheeled
a plurality of pairs of brace members pivotally con 55 vehicle being substantially equal to the distance between
nected at their lower portions to the vehicle bed,
adjacent containers whereby the containers, when in posi
the pivot points of each pair of brace members being
tion on the vehicle bed, and abutment members form
spaced one from the other along the vehicle bed,
a substantially unitary structure from end to end of the
ysaid pivot points being located substantially at the
vehicle bed.
edge of the vehicle' bed and being constructed and 60
References Cited in the file of this patent
arranged to enable the brace members to swing in a
plane generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the vehicle,
the upper end of each brace member being releasably
secured to and supporting a cross member when 65
in operative condition, there being at least one cross
member intermediate the ends of the Wheeled ve
a pair of terminal cross members, one for each end
of the vehicle bed, each of said terminal members 70
being spaced substantially directly above an end of
the vehicle bed and constructed and arranged for
Mebane _______________ __ Oct. 2,
Richardson __________ __ June 27,
Fitch _______________ __ Aug. 16,
Fitch _______________ __ July 25,
Schroeder et Ial ________ __ Dec. 2l,
Shonnard ____________ __ Feb. 18,
Rosenbaum __________ __ Oct. 12,
Leitner et al __________ __ Dec. 25,
Morrison ____________ __ July 14,
Caputo et al. __________ __ Jan. 5, 1960
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