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Патент USA US3071103

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Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,094
R. LEROUX
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed Oct. 22, 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 1
I
BY
INVENTOR
RENE LEROUX
KENWAY, JENNEY, WHTER & HILDRETH
’ ATTORNEYS
Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,094
R. LEROUX
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed Oct. 22. 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG.2
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INVENTOIR
RENE LEROUX
BY
KENWAY, JENNEY, WITTER & HILDRETH
ATTORNEYS
Jan. 1, 1963
R. LEROUX
3,071,094
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed 001;. 22, 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTOR
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R E N E L E ROUX
BY
KENWAY. JENNEY, WITTER & HILDRETH
ATTORNEYS
Jan. 1, 1963
R. LEROUX
3,071,094
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed Oct. 22, 1959
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Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,094
R. LEROUX
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed Oct. 22. 1959
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INVENTOR
RENE LEROUX
BY
KENWAY, JENNEY, WITTER & HILDRETH
ATTORNEYS
Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,094
R. LEROUX ’
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed Oct. 22. 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 6
I .
‘INVENTOR
RENE LEROUX
BY
KENWAY, JENNEY, WITTER & HILDRETH
ATTORNEYS
Jan. 1, 1963
R. LEROUX
3,071,094
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed. Oct. 22, 1959
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9 Sheets-Sheet '7
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Jan. 1, 1963
R. LEROUX
3,071,094
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIED HYDROCARBONS
Filed 001;. 22. 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 8
72%
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Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,094
R. LEROUX
VESSEL FOR TRANSPORTING LIQUEFIEDHYDROCARBONS
Filed 001:. 22. 1959
9 Sheets-Sheet 9
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'iUnited grates harem @??ce
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Patented Jan. ll, 1.953
1
A?
3,071,094
lowing the contours of the vessel and supported in such
VESSEL FUR TRANSPGRTENG LHQUEETED
HYDROCARBGNS
Rene Leroux, Nantes-Chantenay, France, assignor of one
half to Société Anonyme des Anciens (:hantiers Du
bigeon, Nantes-Chantenay, France, a corporation of
France
a fashion as to allow for expansion and contraction of
the tanks as well as ?exing of the ship’s bulkheads and
structural members.
Yet another object of this invention is to mount a
tank within a vessel in such a fashion as to constitute an
aperiodic system.
Fiied Get. 22, 1959, Ser. No. 848,112
One feature of this invention comprises the ?tting out
Claims priority, application France June 2, 1959
of a system of hydraulic jacks between the hull of the
'7 Claims. (Cl.'114--74)
10 ship and the tanks. These jacks are disposed at various
This invention relates to the storing and shipping of
locations so as to support the tanks vertically, laterally
lique?ed hydrocarbons and more particularly comprises
and longitudinally. Another feature of this invention
improvements in the construction of those maritime ves
comprises a movable connection between the jacks and
sels which transport lique?ed hydrocarbons at very low
the tanks to compensate for the relative movement be
temperatures.
15 tween the tanks and the vessel proper which together
It is well known that hydrocarbons, which are in a
with the jacks prevent the transmission of abnormal
gaseous state in normal conditions of temperature and
pressure, may be reduced to a lique?ed state by high
pressure or low temperature or a combination of both.
stresses between the tanks and the vessel structure. More
over, the invention comprises a jack running. under a
speci?ed stress in the outward direction and under a
Regardless of which system is used to store and transport
higher and duly speci?ed stress in the inward direction.
lique?ed hydrocarbons there are a number of difficult
Moreover, the installation is designed so that sliding
problems that are presented. For instance, the tanks
movements created by thermal contraction are absorbed
used to store the lique?ed hydrocarbons under pressure
by a system of slides ?tted in the direction of the expan
must be strong enough to resist the high pressures needed
sion. In some cases, these slides can be replaced by
to liquefy the gas. The weight involved in such tanks 25 ball or roller bearings.
is often objectionable because it comprises a substantial
Still another feature of this invention resides in the
portion of the total weight of the vessel.
forming of a thermal insulating barrier between the tanks
If low temperature is to be the medium for transport
and the jacks to avoid subjecting the portions outside of
ing the hydrocarbon in a lique?ed state then problems of
the tanks to the low temperature.
a di?erent sort are encountered. In the case of methane 30
These and other features and objects will be more ap
a temperature of about —16r1° .C. is required to achieve
parent upon a detailed description of the invention taken
and maintain lique?cation at the atmospheric pressure.
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
At such temperatures ordinary steel becomes brittle, gen
PEG. 1 is a sectional view in end elevation of a vessel
erally losing its mechanical qualities, and rendering it
made in accordance with this invention,
35
incapable of withstanding the stresses and strains to which
FIGS. 2 and 3 are sectional views side and end eleva
the structural portions of a vessel are normally subject.
tion respectively showing details in the construction of
The smallest leak in these tanks creates a contact be
tween the transported product and shell plating, which
is built in ordinary steel, and can possibly damage it,
then create a leakage and therefore the loss of the vessel.
It will be realized that a ship’s motion (rolling and
pitching) creates considerable stress on longitudinal and
transverse bulkheads.
These stresses are due to a com
ponent of the gravity created by the ship’s heeling and
mainly to the orbitary movement of the swell which, by
rough weather creates acceleration of inertia of approxi
mately the same order as the acceleration of gravity. In
case the ship is aground, considerable stress can then be
transmitted to the bottom of tanks and this tact has to
the jacks seen ?tted to the ship’s bottom in FIG. 1,
FIG. 4 is a sectional view in end elevation showing de
tails in the construction of the jacks seen ?tted to the
side of the vessel in FIG. 1,
FIG. 5 is similar to FIG. 4 but on a larger scale,
FIG. 6 is a sectional plan view showing a portion of
a vessel made in accordance with this invention,
FIG. 7 is a sectional view in side elevation showing
a portion of the vessel illustrated in FIG. 1,
FIG. 8 is a detailed perspective view with certain parts
being broken away showing the construction of the hull
and the arrangement of trunks, ‘passageways and re
cesses,
50
be prevented.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view in end elevation of a modi
Further, tanks for lique?ed hydrocarbons are subject to
?cation of the device illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3,
a certain de?nite amount of expansion and contraction
FIG. 10 is a sectional view in side elevation showing
occasioned by the wide variations in temperature to which
in detail a modi?cation of the device illustrated in FIGS.
they are subject. Bearing these points in mind it would
2 and 3,
be desirable to arrange the tanks within the vessel in such 55
FIG. 11 is a view similar to FIG. it) but showing a
a fashion that they would not be rigidly connected to
further modi?cation of the FIGS. 2 and 3 construction,
the structural portions of the vessel. It is also desirable
FIG. 12. is a sectional plan view corresponding to the
that the tanks be ?rmly supported to prevent unwarranted
H6. 11 embodiment,
movement and vibration thereof and mounted in such a
FIG. 13 is a detailed view corresponding to FIG. 12
fashion that the structural portions of the vessel are not 60 but on an enlarged scale,
subjected to the low temperatures within the tank. It is
FIG. 14 is a sectional view in side elevation of a vessel
therefore necessary to secure the tanks to ship’s bottom
constructed according to this invention and including a
and sides providing a transmission of stress correspond
schematic view of the hydraulic system,
ing approximately to the weight of tanks when ?lled up
FIG. 15 is a sectional plan view corresponding to
65 H6. 14-,
with liquids without creating abnormal stress.
It is a general object of this invention to improve the
FIG. 16 is a detailed view in side elevation somewhat
storing and transporting of lique?ed hydrocarbons at
schematic showing the compressor plant of FIGS. 14 and
low temperatures.
15, and
Another object of this invention is to provide a mari
FIG. 17 is a view similar to FIG. 16 but showing the
time vessel for transporting lique?ed hydrocarbon, the 70 jacks with their associated piping.
vessel having low temperature storage tanks generally fol
Referring now to the drawings the reference character
3,071,094
3
A trunk 33 is provided between adiacent tanks, extend
I indicates the chamber of a tank 3 suitable for con
taining a quantity of a lique?ed hydrocarbon such as
methane at low temperature. The walls of the tanks in
this case are generally nearly parallelpipedic and conform as much as possible to the shape of the hold. In
order to maintain the methane in a lique?ed state the
ing bulkhead water tightness and offering access to the
ship’s bottom as well as to the jacks 30. This trunk
has openings 34 and 35 to recesses 29 as well as to the
tank side wall situated near the bulkhead. A ladder 32
is provided for personnel to reach the jacks 31.
Referring again to the jacks 5 supporting the bottom of
the tanks, a pair of slide plates 7 and 8 (FIGS. 2 and 3)
are provided between each jack and the tank. These
slide plates allow for horizontal movement of the wooden
blocks 9, secured to the tank 3, occasioned by thermal
contraction of the tank. Therefore the slides have no
etfect on the center of deformation 1t} (FIGS. 1 and 6)
temperature of the methane at atmospheric pressure
must be lowered to about -l6\l° C.
T0 maintain this
extremely low temperature a thick layer of insulating
material 2 is ?tted about the tanks 3 with an outer pro
tective metal sheet 4 covering the insulating material.
Certain variations may be made in the construction of
the insulated tanks. For instance in the embodiment
illustrated in FIG. 9 the insulation may be applied to the
which is placed near the center of gravity of the tank ‘
interior of the tanks 54 and coated on its internal face 15 bottom. The slide plates are required only on the bot
tom and along the sides and connected in such a manner
with a thin sheet 53 of special liquid-proof metal. In
that displacement follows a line which goes through the
this fashion the outside vessel which is constructed of
center of expansion. If desired suitably lubricated brass
plates 55 and '56 (FIG. 10) may be interposed between
The tank 3 is preferably reinforced with stitfening 20 the slide plates 7 and 8. Ball or roller bearings (FIGS.
ordinary steel, is not submitted to the effects of thermal
contraction.
'
ll, 12 and 13) may be substituted if the side of the tank
permits it. In this modi?cation a plurality of roller bear
ings 57 may be arranged in parallel relation between
blocks of wood 9, equal in thickness to the insulating
bearing plates 58 and 59 with the roller end portions
material 2, are secured to the rigid tank 3. Through these
blocks the tank can lay on the pistons of a plurality of 25 61 mounted in spaced brackets 60.
It will be noted also that the wooden blocks 9 (which
jacks located between the tank and the inner hull of the
may be of oak) resting on the side jacks also permit a
vessel. The jacks supporting the bottom of the tanks are
small sliding movement at the time of thermal deforma
indicated by reference character 5 in FIGS. 1 and 6 and
tion, the transmitted stress being relatively weak when
are shown in detail in FIGS. 2 and 3.
These bottom jacks 5 are ?tted in line between longi 30 the liquid is introduced at low temperature since at that
time the ship will be moored in port where the sea is
tudinal girders 12 and 13 which constitute three coupled
calm. This sliding movement is absorbed by friction of
systems in the ship’s bottom. Each one is mounted on
a brass plate 11 (FIG. 4) fastened on the wooden piece
a carling l4 and adjoining immediately a floor plate 15
5, against the steel piston head 37 of the jack.
built in a web frame 16. Fastening of the jacks with
frames (not shown) so that its bottom and sides are
supported at a certain number of points. At these points,
vessel is therefore particularly strong and they can With
stand considerable stress. It is to be noted that the height
of the decks leaves a passage under the tank for inspec
tion of the condition of this tank and of the operation
of the jacks.
Side jacks 6 are placed (FIGS. 1 and 6) in side re
cesses 17 which are located in the wing ballast tank 18
and watertight with respect to this tank.
Thus, jack 6
can be supported (FIG. 4) on the web frame 16 com
35
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate details in the construction of
the bottom jacks 5 which are generally stronger than
the side jacks 6, 3t} and 31 since they support most of
the weight of the tank. Each jack 5 comprises a body
section 36 having a cylindrical chamber formed therein
to accommodate a piston 37. A gland 38 is provided
to form an oil tight seal between the piston and the body
section. Hydraulic oil is introduced to the jack via a
conduit 39 to a manifold 40.
The manifold houses a non-return valve 41 discharg~
posed of a ?at portion 20 and base 21, through a wedge 19.
These side jacks 16 (FIGS. 1 and 6) are arranged in 45 ing to the cylinder. A relief valve 42, set to lift at a
pressure higher than the pressure required to operate the
several vertical recesses 17, situated one above the other
and, next to each group of recesses, a trunk 22, water
tight with respect to the ballast tank, has openings 23
leading into the recesses 17 to permit access to the jack
6. The trunk 22 is also provided with opening 24- lead
ing to the hold which contains the tank 3 to permit in
spection of its side wall. The trunk 22 extends to the
ship’s bottom and offers ‘an access to a lower compart
ment 25 (FIG. 1) whereby access may be obtained ‘for
examining the tank bottom and the bottom jacks.
By this arrangement it is possible to dismantle the side
jack from its mounting. Once a wedge 19 has been re
moved then all other parts may be drawn out through
the trunk. Dismounting of the bottom jacks 5 presents
non~return valve 41, is mounted on the manifold and dis
charges to a return outlet 43.
The operation of the jack is governed by a self-acting
hydraulic plant 62 (see FlGS. 14, 15 and 16) including
a pump 64, an accumulator 63 for maintaining hy
draulic pressure at a speci?ed value, and a supply line
65 leading to the jacks with a return line 66 leading
to a sump 67. The slide plates 7 and 8 are arranged
on the upper end of the piston and bear against the wooden
block 9 through an intermediate plastic member 44, made
for example of hardened rubber plate or any similar
material.
The side and transverse jacks (FIGS. 4 and 5) are built
no problem since they can slide horizontally once their 60 in a similar manner, with the exception that they have
a ?exible cushion 45 ?tted about the exposed portion
of the jack so as to prevent accidental contact between
the tank wall and the gland 38. The stroke of the piston
37 is also limited by a shoulder 46 extending from the
stiffeners 27 which are coupled in the same way on the
bottom longitudinal keelsons. On the other hand, these 65 side of the piston into a recess 47.
The operation of the system is as follows: firstly the
jacks and supports have to be very strong to withstand
pistons have been retracted.
With respect to the jacks 3t}, 31, located on the side
bulkhead 26, they are mounted in similar fashion between
all the stresses working in a longitudinal direction, and
they are connected With the bottom keelson and deck
girders through brackets 28 (FIG. 7).
hydraulic plant 62 is started to place the jacks under pres
sure.
This causes the pistons of the bottom jacks to
rise about 10 cm., for example, and support the tank.
By forming a recess 29 in the watertight bulkhead 26 70 The pistons of the side jacks come into contact with the
tank and hold it in position with a moderate e?ort. When
watertight integrity is maintained while at the same time
the low temperature liquid is brought on board the tank
providing accommodation for the jacks 30. The jacks
will contract, but because of the arrangement of the
mounted on the opposite side of the bulkhead and facing
sliding connection between the ‘jacks and the tanks, no
in the opposite direction are ?tted above the recess 29
75 tension will be created.
as seen best in FIG. 7.
3,071,094.
6
ten the ship is underway the jacks will hold the tank
in position despite normal movements due to rolling and
pitching of the vessel.
Should the seas become rough
and cause a violent rolling motion the pressure of the
tank against the jacks may cause some of the relief
valves to lift. The retraction of the pistons which follows
the lifting of the safety valves will produce of slight in
clination of the tank. The pistons of all other jacks will
follow in contact with the tank by projecting outwards
ing a feed pressure thereto, non-return valve means in
terposed in said conduit means for preventing return
?ow of ?uid from said jacks therethrough, return con
duit means for communicating said jacks With the inlet
of said pump, and relief valve means interposed in said
return conduit means for limiting the pressure in said
jacks to a predetermined valve in excess of said feed
pressure.
2. A ship according to claim 1 wherein said jacks are
where necessary. As soon as the excessive pressure is 10 slidably connected with said tank to permit expansion
reduced the relief valves close and the tank will remain
and contraction of said tank.
in its new position until conditions become such as to
3. A ship according to claim 1 wherein said tank is
cause the safety valves of the same or other jacks to
lined with thermal insulating material.
lift. When this takes place the tank will assume a new
4. A ship according to claim 1 wherein selected ones
position.
15 of said jacks are hydraulically connected, whereby the
Normally, every movement of the tank is opposite to
pressure between said jacks may be balanced.
the preceding one, but between each movement there is
5 . A ship according to claim 1 wherein said inner hull
sul?cient delay as to prevent the possibility of resonance
is contoured to de?ne recesses for said jacks and passage
or of dangerous vibration. In any event this movement
ways communicating with said recesses and extending
is very small since the clearance of the side piston is 20 about said tank to permit inspection of said jacks in
limited to about 4 cm. On the other hand, the bottom
said tank.
6. A ship for transporting lique?ed hydrocarbons,
pistons have a clearance of about 10 cm.
In the event of a very strong impact against the ship’s
comprising an outer hull, an inner hull spaced from said
bottom, as would happen in a grounding, pressure rises
outer hull and de?ning ballast chambers therebetween,
in the bottom jacks and the relief valve lifts. The stress 25 at least one thermally insulated tank disposed within
of the impact is not transmitted to the tanks but is ab
said inner hull, said tank being adapted to contain a
sorbed by the piston retracting into its cylinder.
quantity of lique?ed hydrocarbons at very low tempera
Should the de?ection created by this impact exceed
tures, a plurality of hydraulic jacks mounted along the
10 cm. the end of the piston will rest on the base, but
bottom and side walls of said inner hull and supporting
the tanks will still be protected by the plastic member 44 30 the bottom and side walls of said tank, said jacks being
which will ?atten under the pressure.
adapted to retract or extend as required in response to
In some installations it may be desirable to have
a component of motion of said tank, an hydraulic ?uid
some of the bottom jacks and some of the side jacks in
pump having an inlet and an outlet, conduit means for
communication with one another in order to insure a
communicating the outlet of said pump with said jacks
better distribution of stresses on the bottom and side 35 for applying a feed pressure thereto, non-return valve
walls of the tank. In such a case each jack is provided
means interposed in said conduit means for preventing
with an inlet 48 and a pipe 49 generally of a small di
return ?ow of fluid from said jacks therethrough, return
ameter whereby pressure between the several units may
conduit means for communicating said jacks with the
be balanced. By way of example, all the bottom jacks
inlet of said pump, and relief valve means interposed in
may be in communication with one another or only 40 said return conduit means for limiting: the pressure in
Also it may be
said jacks to a predetermined value in excess of said
preferable to communicate all jacks mounted at the same
level, on the ship’s side and transverse bulkhead. This
will result in a better distribution of stresses, greater
smoothness in tank movements inside the hull, to
gether with a better absorption of these movements close
those in rows may be so arranged.
feed pressure, said jacks constituting an aperiodic system.
to the small diameter of the communicating pipes.
Tanks which have their interior Walls insulated may
7. A ship for transporting lique?ed hydrocarbons,
comprising an outer hull, an inner hull spaced from said
outer hull and de?ning ballast chambers therebetween,
at least one thermally insulated tank disposed within said
inner hull, said tank being adapted to contain a quantity
of lique?ed hydrocarbons at very low temperatures, a
be mounted in a similar manner but the slide plates
plurality of hydraulic jacks mounted along the bottom
and wooden blocks may be omitted.
50 and side walls of said inner hull and supporting the
From what has been said it will be appreciated that
bottom and side walls of said tank, said jacks being
a tank mounted in a vessel incorporating these novel
adapted to retract or extend as required in response to
features may freely expand and contract without creating
a component of motion of said tank, and an hydraulic
an abnormal stress either in the tank or in the hull.
Also violent stresses caused by impacts to the hull will
pump system connected to supply pressurized hydraulic
?uid to said jacks, said jacks being provided with non
not be transmitted to the tank.
It will also be apparent that ‘a great many modi?ca
tions may be made by those skilled in the art without
return fluid inlet valve means, and ?uid pressure relief
valve means whose working pressure is selected to limit
the stress applied to the walls of said tank.
departing from the spirit of my invention.
Having thus disclosed my invention what I claim and 60
desire to obtain by Letters Patent of the United States
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1s:
1. A ship for transporting lique?ed hydrocarbons at
956,810
a low temperature comprising an outer hull, an inner
2,244,782
Jones ______________ .__ June 10, 1941
hull spaced from said outer hull and de?ning ballast 65
chambers therebetween, a tank adapted to contain said
2,520,883
Kornemann et al. ____ __ Aug. 29, 1950
2,700,458
Brown ________ ..-r ____ __ Jan. 25, 1955
2,889,953
2,896,416
2,905,352
2,920,850
2,992,622
Morrison __________ .._i.... June 9, 1959
Henry ______________ _. July 28, 1959
Henry ______________ _._ Sept. 22, 1959
Campbell __________ ._.. Jan. 12, 1960
Maker ______________ __ July 18, 1961
91,767
Norway ____________ __ May 27, 1958
220,768
Australia ______________ __ Oct. 2, 1958
lique?ed hydrocarbons disposed within said inner hull,
a plurality of hydraulic jacks mounted on the bottom
and sides of said inner hull and supporting said tank,
said jacks being" provided with pistons in contact with 70
said tank and being adapted to extend and retract as
required to accommodate bodily movement of said tank
relative to said inner hull, an hydraulic ?uid pump having
an inlet and an outlet, conduit means for communi
eating the outlet of said pump with said jacks for apply 75
Lamasney et a1 __________ __ May 3, 1910
FOREIGN PATENTS
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