close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3071535

код для вставки
Jan. 1, 1963
N. c. CHRISTOFILOS
3,071,525
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS
Filed Aug. 19, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
\
2
LHE_
W////
\
A’. C
U
n
4/7
0
W
m“
A L6
‘
%f
-
O
O
A
INVENTOR.
NICHOLAS C. CHRISTOFOLIS
ATTORNEY.
Jan. 1, 1963
N. c. CHRISTOFILOS
3,071,525
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS
Fil'ed Aug. 19, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
NICHOLAS C. CHRISTOFOLIS
BY
ATTORNEY
Jan. 1, 1963
N. c. CHRISTOFILOS
3,071,525‘
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS
Filed Aug. 19, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
ACELRTO
P
@2
47
54
ACELRTO
53
POWER
SUPPLY
GAS
SUPPLY
54
53
POWER
SUPPLY
53
44
POWER
SUPPLY
POWER
SUPPLY
55
48
POWER
49
SUPPLY
(272346.
INVENTOR.
NICHOLAS C. CHRISTOFOLIS
BY
ATTORNEY.
Jan. 1, 1963
‘
N. c. CHRISTOFILOS
3,071,525
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS
Filed Aug. 19, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
NICHOLAS C. CHRISTOF/LOS
ATTORNEY.
United States Patent Ori?ce
3,®7l,525
Patented Jan. 1, 1963
l
‘
3,671,525
METHQD AND APPARATUS FGR PRODUCING
THERMONUCLEAR REACTEONS
Nicholas (1. Christo?los, 3151A Eton Ave,
particles, radiant energy, heat and other products emer
gent therefrom, which products are thereafter employed
for various utilitarian applications. The invention is par
ticularly adapted to the production of controlled thermo
nuclear reactions on the large scale required in industrial
Berkeley, Calif.
applications such as the production of electrical power.
Filed Aug. 19, 1958, Ser. No. 756,044
Controlled thermonuclear reactors employing the fore
25 Cla'uns. (Cl. 204-1542)
going method of producing and con?ning a thermonuclear
reaction plasma have come to be known by the generic
This application is a continuation-in-part of my appli
cation “Method and Means to Generate Controllable 10 term “Astron thermonuclear reactors.”
Accordingly, it is an object of my invention to provide
Thermonuclear Reactions in Industrial Scale and Utiliza
controlled thermonuclear reactors and reaction methods
tion of the Released Energy,” Serial No. 337,994, ?led
in which a layer of electrons of relativistic energies ro
February 20, 1953, now abandoned.
The present invention has for its goal the production of
conrolled thermonuclear reactions and, more particu
larly, to methods and apparatus for producing such reac
tions wherein a layer of relativistic electrons rotating in a
magnetic ?eld is employed to effect necessary operations
including ionization, heating, con?nement, production
and utilization of a ‘thermonuclear reaction plasma.
tating in a magnetic ?eld in an evacuated region are em
ployed for the production, con?nement and heating of a
thermonuclear reaction plasma.
Another object of my invention is to provide controlled
thermonuclear reactors and reaction methods in which
relativistic electrons are injected into an axially sym
metric magnetic ?eld substantially parallel to the axis of
Thermonuclear reactions occur between the ions of
symmetry in an evacuated space to form a rotating sheath
light elements, e.g., H+ and Li+ and especially certain
isotopes thereof, e.g., T+ and D+, when present in a sys
of said layer in combination with said axially symmetric
tern in suf?cient density and at a kinetic temperature of
adequate magnitude in accordance with well understood
principles. Generally speaking, thermonuclear condi
tions have been de?ned as the achievement of an ade
quately con?ned plasma having a temperature and den—
sity su?iciently high to produce a signi?cant release of
of electrons therein whereby the electro-magnetic ?eld
magnetic ?eld creates an electromagnetic ?eld pattern
wherein plasma can be established and heated to ignition
temperature by macroscopic and microscopic electrical
interactions with relativistic electrons of said layer.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
come apparent by consideration of ‘the following descrip
tion taken in conjunction with the accompanying draw
ing of which:
energy from fusion reactions. However, in order to pro
vide a self-sustaining fusion-reaction, the temperature
must exceed the ideal ignition temperature which ranges
from 5 to 40 kev. for various isotopes of the light ele
ments. The ideal ignition temperature as employed here
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of the apparatus partially in
cross-section.
in is de?ned as the temperature at which the thermonu
through the line 2-2 of FiGURE 1;
clear energy yield released into the plasma is equal to
the bremsstrahlung and other plasma losses. Moreover,
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view along the line 3-3
of FIGURE 2 to indicate the arrangement of the elec
tron injectors;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of in
it is contemplated that excess energy in amounts suitable
for external utilization corresponding to usual industrial
scale may be obtained by producing and con?ning a '
plasma comprising hydrogen isotopes or mixtures thereof
having densities in the range of 1014 to a few times 1015
ions per cc. at kinetic temperatures in the range of about
10 to 100 kev. or even greater (1 kev.=ll.6><1()5° K.).
Plasmas of the latter category should provide power out
puts per unit of volume of manageable magnitude where
fore an apparatus of economical design and which may
be constructed in accordance with usual engineering de
sign.
Under the conditions indicated a pressure of the 4
order of about 100 kg./ sq. cm. is required which pressure
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus
jector end portions of the apparatus of FlGURE 2 show
ing details of the injector end of the vessel;
FIGURE 5 is a two-dimensional curve showing the
variation in time and along the axial direction, of the
vector (magnetic) potential, employed to eiiect injection
of the relativistic electrons.
-
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged cross-section of the steam
generating elements constituting the inner-Wall of the
evacuated vessel;
FIGURE 7 is a block diagram schematically illustrat
ing the Way in which the various auxiliary components
must be supplied by some means such as a magnetic ?eld.
are arranged in a typical thermonuclear electrical power
acting on the thermonuclear reaction plasma since solid
generating installation;
material walls are not suitable.
In accordance with my invention a thermonuclear reac
tion of the character described is produced in an evacuated
vessel in which there is ?rst established an elongated gen
FIGURE 8 is a schematic illustration of an end por
tion of the reactor showing boundary con?guration at an
early stage of plasma formation; and
FIGURE 9 shows schematically how compressed gas
erally axially symmetric magnetic ?eld. Relativistic elec
in a venturi tube can be heated by a dilfused plasma beam
trons accelerated to a velocity at which their mass is sev
emerging from the reactor for thermonuclear utilization
in a ramjet type device.
eral times the rest mass, i.e., above several mev., are in
jected into such ?eld to form a rotating layer or sheath,
In general, the present invention contemplates the pro
hereinafter termed E-layer, which encloses an elongated
cylindrical volume within said vessel. Thereafter, a
thermonuclear fuel material is introduced into said vessel
being therein ionized, trapped, heated or otherwise ma
duction of a controlled thermonuclear reaction plasma
in an evacuated vessel utilizing the electromagnetic
nipulated by forces generated by the E-layer acting in
layer or sheath of high energy electrons with an elon
_ gated axially symmetric magnetic ?eld. More particu
conjunction with said magnetic ?eld and the resultant
magnetic and electric ?elds to provide a thermonuclear
reaction plasma con?ned under the density, pressure and
?eld pattern produced by the interaction of the electro
magnetic ?eld of a rotating substantially cylindrical E
larly, the axially symmetric magnetic ?eld is established
at a low level as the initial operation and subsequently
temperature conditions whereat a controlled thermonu 70 the energetic electrons are injected and trapped therein
to form said E-layer 71 which is de?ned by the helical
clear reaction is initiated and proceeds with the coin
cident production of signi?cant quantities of energetic
paths of the electrons rotating about the axis of symmetry
of said ?eld.
.5
As an increasing number of electrons is
accumulated in said layer the magnetic ?eld is progres
sively increased as required to maintain the radius of
d
the azimuthal and total momentum of the electrons in
the E-layer.
gyration of the electrons of the E-layer approximately
The initial value ‘of the external ?eld at the moment
the injection of the electrons is initiated can be found
constant and for other purposes noted hereinafter.
from Equation 2 by setting q=0.
Con
currently with the accumulation of electrons in the
The net value of the magnetic ?eld within the enclosed
E-layer, the electron charge per unit length increases.
volume is
Since the rotating charges constitute an electrical current,
V-q cos 6
an associated magnetic ?eld is created within the cylin
B i:
drical volume enclosed by the E-layer while an electric 10
From Equation 3 it can be seen that the direction of B;
?eld is also created between the surface of the layer and
is opposite to the direction of the external ?eld when
the wall of the vessel due to the charge of the electrons.
Since the E-layer has a ?nite thickness an electric ?eld
q>V. As soon as this condition is met, the magnetic
l?ux within the enclosed volume is negative with respect
also exists within the thickness of the layer. However,
to the magnetic flux outside the layer. Considering a
the volume enclosed by the layer itself is ?eld-free at
least in the regions remote from the end regions. Neu
cylinder of radius r0 (where r0>r1) so that the flux con~
tral molecules or atoms introduced anywhere within the
?ned between the cylinders of radius re and r1 respectively
evacuated vessel enter the E-layer and are ionized by
is equal to the ?ux, (D, (where <I>=B11rr12) within the vol
the electrons of said layer at any time subsequent to for
ume enclosed by the E-layer, it becomes obvious that all
mation thereof and the resultant ions are attracted and
of the magnetic ?eld lines lying on the surface of the
accelerated towards central regions of the enclosed vol
cylinder of radius r0 are bent near the ends of the layer
ume Whereas the detached electrons produced by ioniza
and return along the axis of symmetry. This a pattern
tion are accelerated towards the vessel walls. As fuel
of closed magnetic lines is created by the generation of
ions are accumulated or concentrated within the enclosed
the E-layer which pattern constitutes the magnetic ele
space a positive space charge develops therein and some 25 ment of the desired electromagnetic ?eld pattern.
electrons remain with the ions thereby forming a plasma.
These lines which return through the ends along the
The positive space charge tends to displace the ions out
axis of symmetry are the outermost closed magnetic lines
ward; however, as the E-layer is traversed by ions the
in this electromagnetic pattern. Thus the surface of revo
electrostatic ?eld established between the E-layer and
lution de?ned by these lines is referred to as the bound
the wall re?ectively repels the ions inward. This re?ec
ary of the electromagnetic ?eld pattern. Lines located
tion exerts a pressure on the E-layer which in turn is
beyond this boundary are not closed within the evacuated
transferred to the external magnetic ?eld and thence to
region and are directed outward of this evacuated region
the coil structrue producing the ?eld. Due to the pres~
in a direction generally parallel to the axis of symmetry.
ence of positive ions which gradually di?use into the
The intersection of this boundary surface with a plane
E-layer, the negative charge thereof is gradually neutral
through the axis of symmetry is referred to as the bound
ized and the electrostatic ?eld becomes correlatively
ary line of said electromagnetic ?eld pattern. This sur
smaller. Finally, if adequate time is allowed, the neu
face also constitutes the plasma boundary. In FIG. 8
tralization process proceeds to the point that the electro
the plasma boundary line 72 is shown at an early stage
static forces on the electrons of the E-layer can be con
of the plasma formation and the plasma is confined in
sidered small relative to the magnetic forces. Further 40 the volume 73. Since at this stage the contribution to
more, due to the presence of the ions as well as to in
the electromagnetic ?eld pattern by the plasma current is
troduced neutral gas atoms in the E-layer region, the
negligible, the pattern at this stage is the result of the
superposition of the magnetic ?eld of the E-layer with
the external magnetic ?eld. Hence the shape of this pat
tern at this stage can be derived by elementary calcula
tion of the magnetic ?eld of a cylindrical current sheath,
as represented by the E-layer, located within a substan
tially uniform magnetic ?eld; where the direction of this
uniform ?eld is parallel to the axis of said cylindrical cur
relativistic electrons are scattered thus acquiring a radial
component of momentum. Hence the layer can be con
sidered to have a ?nite thickness, 6, and that the electrons
oscillate radially within the layer about an equilibrium
orbit which is at a distance approximately 6/ 2 from the
external surface of the layer. As more electrons are in
jected the magnetic ?eld within the enclosed volume is in
tensi?ed since the intensity of this ?eld is porportional 50 rent sheath.
to the current per unit length of the E—layer. The orien
Particles which traverse the plasma boundary moving
tation of this magnetic ?eld is in opposition to the ex
towards the exterior region where the magnetic ?eld lines
ternally applied ?eld. Thus the net value of the mag
are open are directed outwardly from‘ the ends of the
netic ?eld within the enclosed volume is continuously
vessel along the axis. Hence the boundary is effectively
reduced as additional electrons are injected and injection 55 the last closed magnetic ?eld line of the pattern. The
of suf?cient electrons reverses the direction of the mag
electric element of the pattern is an electrostatic ?eld
netic ?eld within the enclosed volume. To accomplish
which is normal to said magnetic ?eld pattern. The elec
this result the number of electrons per cm. length of the
trostatic ?eld therefore con?nes the plasma ions and the
layer must exceed a critical number No where
magnetic ?eld the plasma electrons. Since it is funda
60 mental that charged particles Within a magnetic ?eld can
NQ>'Y/ re
move freely along magnetic ?eld lines but not at all across
where ~,/=m/m0 the relativistic mass ratio of electrons
‘the lines, such motion across the lines can occur only by
(~/~2V where V is the electron energy in mev.) and
diffusion which results from Coulomb collisions between
r,3=2.8li.l0-13 cm. the classical electron radius. This re
the particles in the presence of a pressure gradient across
lation expressed differently may be written
65 the ?eld. The di?usion velocity of the ions across the
(111)
q>V
lines is much greater than the corresponding diffusion
where q the charge per unit length of the layer and V
velocity of the plasma electrons. Due to this circum
the electron energy are expressed in e.s.u. (electrostatic
stance the plasma becomts polarized and an electric ?eld
units). The value of the applied ?eld must satisfy the
is established which tends to reduce the diffusion rate of
equation
70 the ions thereby tending to equalize the rate of diffusion
(2)
V
19.1,: jig cos 5 (gauss)
where V and q are expressed is e.s.u., r1 is the desired
radius in cm. of the E-layer and cos 6 is the ratio between
of ions and electrons which electrons are ‘linked to the
magnetic ?eld lines. Hence the rate of ditfusion of the
ions in the system is controlled by the rate of diffusion
of the plasma electrons.
Quantitative calculations of
such electron diffusion rates are presented hereinafter.
3,071,525
5
Since the diffusive loss rate is a rather slow process the
plasma density can be made to increase rapidly as soon as
the closed magnetic lines pattern is created. Introduction
6
magnetic ?eld in the neighborhood of the injection area.
Thus by employing a combination of standing and travel
ing magnetic waves new electrons are injected irreversibly
electromagnetic ?eld pattern with resultant ionization by
into the E-layer and trapped therein while preventing the
loss of electrons previously injected.
the electrons of the E-layer results in an increase of the
plasma density. As the relativistic electrons move with
the following description of apparatus adapted for opera
in this plasma, scattering Coulomb collisions (microscopic
tion in accordance with the invention.
The thermonuclear reactor 10 of the invention is con
of thermonuclear fuel gas atoms or molecules into the
electrical interactions) occur with a resultant energy loss
by the electrons and energy gain of the plasma electrons.
The rate of energy loss of the E-layer electrons is given
by the well-known Bethe formula
dv
——=—c401rreZ
In A
dt
More speci?c details of the process will be set forth in
struotecl with an elongated cylindrical vessel 11 enclosing
a space 12 and provided terminally with evacuation con
duits 13 coupled to vacuum pump (not shown) and dis
posed in radiation shield 14. The cylindrical portion of
vessel 11 is preferably constructed with a plurality of
(4)
15 channel passages 15 extending longitudinally with abut
ting inner wall pontions welded vacuum tight at 16 and
where c is the light velocity, no the density of the plasma
bounded exteriorly by pressure shell 17 as shown in
electrons, re the classical electron radius and ln A depends
FIGURE 6. The surfaces 18 are heated by reaction prod
on the maximum to minimum interaction distance of the
electrons depending'on temperature and density of the
ucts and accordingly pressurized water sprayed through
plasma.
conduits 19 from water manifold passage 20 against sur~
faces 18 in passages 15 is vaporized and the steam may
In the present case lnA~20. Hence
be extracted through conduits 21 into manifold system 22
for utilization exteriorly.
wherein 0'0 is the mean Coulombic interaction cross section.
The channels 15 must be formed of a material having
This energy loss of the injected relativistic electrons is an 25 good thermal conductivity and structural strength at high
energy gain for the plasma electrons which energy is in
turn transferred by Coulomb collisions to the plasma ions.
temperatures to withstand the high pressure of generated
Plasma electrons which diffuse outward are considered
lost as soon as they reach the last closed magnetic line.
joined by welding or grazing to elements 17' forming the
steam. The channels 15 are preferably U-shaped and are
inner Wall of the channel 29. Calculations show that
Hence at this boundary the plasma pressure is considered 30 with this arrangement a speci?c load of about 500 watts
to be negligible. Since inwards from the boundary line,
per square centimeter on the surface 18 can be tolerated.
in the neighborhood of the E-layer, the plasma has a ?nite
An elongated segmented solenoid 23 is constructed of
density and temperature and an associated ?nite pressure,
individual hollow conductors 25 encircling the vessel 11.
a pressure gradient exists across the magnetic ?eld lines.
These conductors 25 are of conventional construction
This gradient inherently generates a current, 1'0, known as
for water cooling and are assembled in a manner similar
to large industrial coils. The solenoid 23 is energized
the Hall current given by the equation
by a direct current to produce a substantially uniform
__j0>< B
magnetic ?eld within the evacuated region with a direc-.
VP
(5)
_——C
tion substantially parallel to the axis of symmetry of the
The force jOXB/c balances the force created by the pres
vessel 11 identi?ed as a dashed line 30 in the drawings.
sure gradient. The direction of this current is such that
This magnetic ?eld is combined with the electromagnetic
the generated magnetic ‘field pattern of closed magnetic
?eld of the E-layer 71 to form the electromagnetic ?eld
lines is intensi?ed as the plasma pressure is being built
pattern described above for con?ning the plasma. Along
up. Moreover, the electrostatic ?eld which holds the ions
the length of solenoid 23 the number of ampere turns
also rises with the temperature. The value of this electric
per unit length are constant to provide said substantially
?eld is given approximately by the equation
uniform magnetic ?eld. As it is desirable to extend the
(6)
magnetic ?eld uniformity substantially to the ends of the
vessel 11, end coils 24 are disposed adjacent the ends of
the solenoid 23. These end coils 24 are of similar con
where U is the plasma temperature. Both E and U are
struction to solenoid 23 except that same are formed
expressed in the same units. Thus we observe that the 50 with the number of ampere turns increasing progressively
electromagnetic ?eld pattern initially created by the elec
outwards along the axial direction. The segments of
tron layer is further intensi?ed as the plasma builds up.
solenoid 23 and end coils 24 are electrically connected,
Quantitative consideration of this effect is given herein
to form a single electrical path therethrough terminating
after. These calculations will show that the energy de
at a pair of terminals 49' and 51'. As described .above,
livered to the plasma by the scattering mechanism exceeds
the magnetic ?eld is initially at a low level and is built
the diffusive and radiative energy loss. A correlative rela
up progressively during formation of the E-layer and
tion between the permitted plasma density and the re
plasma and is eventually maintained at a selected con
‘quired energy of the relativistic electrons of the E-layer in
stant level in steady state operation; however, the rate of
order to achieve the ignition or reaction temperature will
increase during buildup is very slow so that any accelerat
60
also be disclosed hereinafter. Since the electrons of the
mg effect of the associated electric ?eld is negligible.
E-layer lose energy by scattering the effective life-time in
the E-layer is ?nite. Hence, the energetic electrons of
the E-layer must be replaced continuously by injection
The intensity, B0, of this magnetic ?eld produced by the
excitation of solenoid 23 and end coils 24 is related to
the ampere turns/cm, i0, of the solenoid 23 by the rela
from outside the system. After the ignition temperature
tion:
is attained, thermonuclear fuel gas is injected in suf?cient 65
amounts to replace the expended fuel and continued en
ergy release occurs by thermonuclear reactions thereafter
in accordance with well-known thermonuclear reaction
(6a)
4
.
B0=£zo (gauss)
Electron injection is herein accomplished as indicated
kinetics. The present method provides steady state opera
tion whereby the plasma pressure, temperature and the 70 above by the direction of high energy electron beams
through magnetically shielded injection guide tubes 26
intensity of the applied magnetic ?eld may be maintained
into a ?rst trapping region de?ned between the median
constant in time at any desired level. With steady state
planes of a pair of coils 27 and 28. A second trapping
operation, the injection of the E-layer electrons requires
region de?ned between the median planes of coil 28 and a
an especially adapted procedure which is disclosed herein
after. Basically, injection is effected by varying the 75 third coil 29 receives electrons from the ?rst trapping
3,071,525
7
6
region. These coils are hereinafter termed trapping coils.
The required high energy, high current pulsed electron
beams may be generated by various known devices such
as, for example, linear electron accelerators well within
the knowledge of those skilled in the art. The injection
variation is parabolic in time as long as i<<l,,; where I2,
is the corresponding maximum value.
Since the amplitude of the oscillations of the injected
electrons is required to be less than a value b0 in order to
miss the injector after the ?rst oscillation, it follows that
the current after one oscillation (at time to) must satisfy
coils are disposed with the ?rst coil 27 adjacent to one
of the ends of the vessel and the second coil 28 spaced
therefrom along the axis 30 to de?ne a ?rst electron trap
the inequality
ping region therebetween. The injection tubes 26 extend
(9b)
Z0>2.5'y—:‘5i2Z0—2
.
m c2
h2
into the vessel 11 adjacent to the ?rst injection coil 27 10
Consequently at the end of the injection period the cur
within the ?rst trapping region and the tubes 26 are dis
rent Ii, at the coil 27 must satisfy the inequality
posed so as to be directed tangentially to a cylindrical
surface concentric with the vessel and having a radius
ri, where r, is the desirable radius of the E-layer. The
(10)
to
tubes 26 are inclined to form an angle 91 with a plane nor 15
where T1 is the duration of the injection period. Sub
mal to the axis of symmetry. The injection coils are
.
I.>t 231)
stituting from Equation 9a inequality 9b, and
excited by a modulated direct current of a magnitude and
phase angle speci?ed hereinafter.
For example, the cur~
'ym0C2/€=V/300
rent in these coils can be made to vary with time as
where V is the electron energy in e.v., we obtain
I719;Z 926T; 21 h 4
i=lo(l—cos wt‘). A single direct current coil 31 is lo
cated .at the opposite end of the vessel symmetrically to
coil 29 to assist in re?ecting electrons of the E-layer from
the end region.
(10(1)
Injection is initiated by actuating the
I‘> 120 Th
2 22,)
The amplitude b0 must be smaller than k and in order
accelerators when the current at coil 27 is zero and very
to secure safe clearance of the injection tubes assume
small at coil 28. Owing to the inclination of the injec
tion tubes 26 forming the angle 01 with the axis of sym
metry the injected electrons are caused to rotate in a
helical path of radius r1 within the magnetic ?eld in the
vessel. The electrons accordingly orbit away from the
b~0.7h.
The inequality 10a then becomes
120
ampere turns
After the injection phase is over a ring of rotating elec
injector tubes along paths of radius r1, pitch d=21rr191
trons is trapped in the trough of the magnetic potential
and acquire an axial velocity ‘72:661.
between coils 27 and 28.
As the electron orbits move toward the plane of coil 28
the electrons are re?ected by the radial magnetic ?eld
thereof.
2
The variation of the vector
(or magnetic) potential of the 3 coils 27, 28 and 29 along
the cylindrical surface of radius r1 and as a function of
During this time the current in coil 27 is rising.
time is depicted in FIGURE 5. As shown therein, the
lines 270, 280 and 290 indicate the median planes of the
coils 27, 28 and 29, respectively, the periodic repetition
of the injection process being Te. As indicated in FIG
URE 5 the current in the coil 28 lags the current in the
coil 27 by 60° and the current in coil 29 lags the current
The rate of rise of this current must be adequate so that
the radial magnetic ?eld thereof re?ects the electrons as
they return towards the injecting tube. The effect of
the increasing current in coil 27 is that the injecting tubes
are continuously moving uphill in the magnetic potential
created in this injection region by the current applied to
the coils 27 and 28. Hence, when the injected electrons
return towards the injector after executing one betatron
in coil 28 by 60° so that a 60° phase difference exists be
tween adjacent coils. Hence a traveling wave is created
in the region between coils 27 and 29 which transfers the
ring of electrons to the second region between the coils
28 and 29. Thereafter the current in coil 29 is decreas
ing and the E-layer penetrates into this second region to
a limited extent. Simultaneously the electrons contained
oscillation in this potential trough, they are prevented
from hitting the injecting tubes 26. The radial ?eld be
tween the coils 27 and 28 (at the surface of radius r1) is
given approximately by the equation
in the trapped ring are displaced into the E-layer region
and there merge with the E-layer. In the last phase of
the injection process the E-layer is again pushed out of
and the ?eld gradient by the equation
(7a)
50 the second region, the preinjection conditions are re
established and the injection process is repeated cyclically.
The maximum value of the current of the coils 28 and
29 must be such that electrons in the E~layer which un
DB’
dergo scattering resulting in an increase of their axial
where i is the current in these coils, z the distance parallel
to the axis from the plane of coil 27 and 2h the distance
between the planes of coils 27 and 28. Rotating elec
trons crossing the plane z=h with an axial velocity
vZ=c01 execute axial oscillations of amplitude b where
b is given by the equation of betatron oscillations
55 momentum are prevented from crossing over the “hill”
of ‘the vector potential created by the current in these
coils, For purposes of illustration, let I0 be the maximum
value of the current in these coils and ¢s be the probable
scattering angle. The electrons will then cross over the
60
“hill” if the scattering angle exceeds the value 00, where
(8)
( 1 2)
The period of one oscillation is
(8a)
12010
2
90>
V
The probability, P, that an electron will be scattered into
65 an angle 90 is
P=e_goz/0i2
From Equations 7a, 8 and 811 we obtain
‘let
70
K=ln (llgram?
then
Since the current in coil 27 varies as (l-cos wt), this 75
(712a)
I0=K1g3sz ampere turns
3,071,525
id‘
where k is of the order of ro-l, L the length of the reac
tion volume and f1 and f2 functions of r to be speci?ed,
and z measured from the median plane of the vessel 11.
From whence it is apparent that the number of electrons
lost in this way becomes negligible for a value of [(wlO.
The maximum value of the current at the re?ecting coil
There are an in?nite number of solutions which meet
31 at the other end of the vessel should be of the same
order or somewhat smaller. The maximum value of the
current in coil 27 should be about twice the value of the
current in coils 28 and 29.
the condition of constancy of the pressure and the ?ux
along the magnetic lines and also satisfy Equation 14
and the other hydrodynamic and Maxwell’s equations.
The plasma particles diffuse outward from the plasma
As the injection of electrons continues the charge in
boundary surface 72 as de?ned above, and encounter
the E-layer rises. Since Equation 2 must be satis?ed
the external ?eld is increased during this operation so that 10 open magnetic lines, for example line 76 in FIGURE 8.
These particles then are linked with this line and travel
the radius of the E-layer remains approximately constant.
therealong to leave the reaction volume of the vessel 11
During this buildup period, the initial plasma formation
following this line 76 or neighboring lines. Hence all
and the creation of the electromagnetic ?eld pattern is
the diffused plasma ?ows out of the vessel 11 in the form
accomplished as described above. Thenceforth operation
is continued as described hereinafter following some theo 15 of two collimated beams moving parallel to the axis of
symmetry and emerging from each end of the vessel.
retical considerations to clarify this operation.
These ‘beams are extracted through tubes 13 and may
be directly utilized as they contain at least a part of the
As soon as the E-layer '71 in combination with the ex
ternal ?eld Bo (produced by the excitations of coils 23,
plasma energy released by the fusion reactions. How
2%) creates the desired electromagnetic ?eld pattern, as
described above, the density of the plasma can be in 20 ever, the di?usion through the end surface of the plasma
boundary 72 can be neglected in the following considera
creased. At this stage the plasma is losing energy mostly
tion of plasma losses inasmuch as the cylindrical part
by diffusion which is a relatively slow process. The dif
of the plasma is very long as compared to its diameter.
fusion loss is considerably reduced as the plasma tem
Hence, in the following only the diffusion loss per cm.
perature rises above i000‘ ev. Above this value the brems
strahlung loss ecomes predominant. in order to cause 25 length of the plasma along the cylindrical part will be
considered. This energy loss by diffusion is:
the plasma temperature to rise, the energy losses of the
plasma must be less than the energy gain obtained by
(16)
the scattering of the plasma electrons by the relativistic
where u is the plasma temperature in e.s.u., and v(r0)
electrons on the E-layer. The allowed plasma density is
the diffusion velocity as given in Equation 13, evaluated
a function of the energy of the electrons of the E-layer
at r=r<,, the radius of the plasma boundary, and N0 the
and this relation is given hereinafter. The diffusion ve
plasma density.
locity is given by the known formula
The energy transferred to the plasma by Coulomb scat
tering of the plasma electrons with the relativistic elec
__ 1 E
arm/sec.
(13)
* rein B2
35 trons of the E~layer is
where re is the classical electron radius, t, the mean-time
(17)
We=(eV0)NCn0o'0 ergs/crn. sec.
between Coulomb collision in the plasma, n the plasma
where N is the number of relativistic electrons per cm.
density, Vp the pressure gradient and B the magnetic
of length of the E-layer, and eVo the rest energy of the
?eld intensity. In order to evaluate the diffusion losses
the values V p, t, n, and B are required to be speci?ed as a 40 electron.
The plasma temperature can rise to any desired value
function of position within the plasma. These quantities
as long as
may be derived from hydrodynamic, diffusion and Max
well’s equations. Since the reaction volume is a long
(18)
cylinder the magnetic lines along this cylinder are parallel
We>mWd
to the axis of symmetry except near the ends where the 45 where cc is the ratio of the plasma losses from all possi
ble processes to the rate of diffusion loss. It may be
magnetic flux emerges from the internal region (the incalculated that under certain conditions the allowed plas~
ternal region is the volume enclosed by the E-layer) and
ma density may be
returns in the opposite direction through the cylindrical
volume enclosed between the E-layer and the plasma
boundary surface of radius r0. In the region where the 50
lines are straight ‘and parallel to the axis it is apparent
As ‘an illustrative example assume
that at any point the following relation applies
cos2 6
( 14)
Sr
vrriz
where B0 is the intensity of the external magnetic ?eld as 55 then
de?ned above in equation 6a, and p, B the pressure and
magnetic ?eld intensity, respectively, at that particular
Calculations indicate that a is very close to unity.
Hence it can be concluded that provided that the energy
point.
Since the plasma is axially symmetric, cylindrical co
ordinates r, 0, z, may be employed. Then the vector po
tenial A6 exists only in the azimuthal (0) direction due
to axial symmetry. In addition this vector potential is
a f1 motion of r, and z, only, and no ?eld component exists
in the azimuthal direction, to a ?rst approximation. It
n°<2. 1014/112
60
of the relativistic electrons of the E-layer is high enough
(of the order of 50 mev.) it is possible to raise the tem
perature of a plasma (whose density is a few times 1014)
not only up to ignition temperature but to a much higher
temperature. It should be noted that this can be accom
is known that the quantity rA0 which is proportional to 65 plished without the help of attendant fusion energy.
After reaching the high density and temperature condi
the magnetic ?ux is constant along a magnetic line. The
tion required to obtain the desired reaction rate or power
same applies for the pressure which is also constant along
output fusionable fuel atoms or molecules, e.g., D, T,
Li, etc., can be vintroduced .to produce energy by thermo
lines tend to become parallel to the axis and consequently 70 nuclear reactions. These results are of extreme impor
tance in that it is possible to maintain the plasma at high
independent of z. Therefore the solution for the vector
temperature and density as required for the fusion proc
potential can be written as
ess merely by the mechanism of abstracting energy from
a magnetic line. As one moves from the ends toward
> the median plane of the reaction volume the magnetic
the relativistic electrons. This provides a great ?exibility
(15)
cos_h(lcL)
75 in theoperation of the apparatus. The power level can
3,071,525
11
12
be changed by merely injecting pure hydrogen together
portioning the fuel mixture which is injected in the form
with the fusionable material thus reducing the power level
without the necessity of changing the magnetic ?eld,
of deuterium gas or tritium-deuterium gas, etc.
which is a slow process due to the long time constant
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that
there are many practical applications of the above-de
scribed method and apparatus for producing thermonu
clear reactions on a large scale. A particularly important
application is found in the generation of electrical power
and there follows as examples brief descriptions of two
of coil 23 in the sizes required for large scale operation.
Of course, it is not necessary to inject fusionable atoms
only after the high temperature condition is achieved.
It is obvious that during the process of building up of
the plasma energy obtained the injection of fusionable
such applications.
atoms will expedite achievement of the ?nal operating 10
As a ?rst example of electrical power production, con
conditions. In the above calculations, the assistance from
sider the direct use of the emergent plasma beams or jets
thermonuclear reactions has not been considered during
at the vessel ends. In this case it is desirable to employ
the heating periods in order to demonstrate the feasi
thermonuclear reactions producing charged by-products
bility of reaching ignition temperature utilizing only the
heating mechanism of the E-layer.
Since the plasma particles are continuously lost by dif
fusion they must be replaced by injection of neutral par
and one such type of reaction is:
ticles. The number of such particles which must be in
jected per cm. length of the reaction volume is
byproducts) acquire an energy of 11.2 rnev. each as a
(20)
Np=21rronV(r0)
From Equations 20, 13 and 14 after substituting
result of the reaction. Consequently, the Larmor radius
of these particles is much greater than that of the plasma
ions and as a result, at least a part of these high energy
Ezra?
a-particles will emerge from the plasma to hit the inner
wall before losing their energy to the plasma by Coulomb
collisions. Since these particles have a double charge
y=rAo
Consequently it is possible to develop a potential between
the plasma and the inner wall of the vessel. The value
___(5.105>3/2_ 1
the plasma as a whole becomes negatively charged with
respect to the inner walls of the vessel. The plasma jet
emerging along the axis from the two ends of the react
ing volume contains at least in part more electrons than
* by
they can penetrate a potential ‘difference up to 5.6 mv.
where
and
of this potential is of course less than 5 mv.
T“
u
110500
we obtain:
(21)
In this reaction the two on particles (i.e., the reaction
5
3/2
Np=3ne(s'éo) ~G atoms/cm/sec.
However,
ions and those electrons are more energetic than the aver
where
age plasma electrons since they are accelerated as they
traverse the potential difference between the plasma and
the quantity G is evaluated at r=r0; U is the plasma tem
perature in e.v. The value of G depends on the partic
ular solution for y=rAg selected from the numerous pos
in the thermonuclear reactions is contained in the plasma
jet in the form of an energetic electron beam. This beam
can be guided away within the tube 13 by disposing about
it a suitable focusing arrangement, for example, by strong
‘focusing, as described in my US Patent No. 2,736,799.
The intensity of the energetic electron beam can be mod
the vessel.
sible solutions satisfying the requirements that the quan
tity rAe (magnetic flux) and plasma pressure are con
stant along a magnetic line. The above theoretical calcu
lations are adequate to calculate the required amount of
gas injection during the buildup phase of the plasma.
Thus, at least a part of the energy released
ulated by periodically varying the amount of injected
neutral atoms or molecules. This modulated beam there
fore can be guided by means of appropriate apparatus and
manipulated so that at least a part of the energy can be
abstracted ‘and transformed into utilizable electric energy.
Such apparatus can be, for example, a transformer where
The operation of building-up the plasma is effected as
the primary coil is a hollow tube wherein the electron
follows. After the electromagnetic ?eld pattern is estab
lished by building up the E-layer, the injection of neutral 50 beam is guided by proper focusing means. Such a device
is described in my United States patent applications Serial
particles is continued as prescribed from Equation 21
Nos. 360,576 and 607,841, entitled Magnetic Cable.
while at the same time the external ?eld is raised slowly
The former was issued as Patent No. 2,898,456 on August
from the value BO=Bw up to BO=Bmax where Bmax cor
4, 1959. Since the electron beam current varies in time,
responds to the desirable plasma pressure for the steady
state operation of the apparatus. Hence, Bo varies with 55 this variation induces an electromotive force in the sec
ondary of the transformer. Upon loading the secondary
time as
B0: maxf“)
of the transformer an electromotive force is induced in
opposition to the force producing same so as to decelerate
where F(t) can be arbitrary. The total time, however,
the electrons in the beam, thus abstracting energy from
required for the change of the impressed ?eld B0 from Bw 60 the beam.
to Ems,x cannot be less than several minutes as the time
constant of solenoid 23 is of that order. The tempera
ture and density of the plasma may be measured during
this period by known techniques of measuring brems
strahlung or employing microwaves to measure plasma
density or using neutron counters. These measuring de
vices can be arranged to automatically indicate the num
ber Np required. Thus the operator of the apparatus
A second application of the thermonuclear reactor
hereof to produce electrical power is the utilization of an
intermediate steam cycle and an example of apparatus
suited to this use is schematically illustrated in the block
diagram of FIGURE 7, with details shown in part in
FIGURES 1-6. Referring to FIGURE 7, turbogener-a
tors with their auxiliary apparatus are shown at 40 and
are operated by steam emerging from manifold 22 and
can adjust the gas value and inject the proper amount of
conveyed to the turbogenerators 40 by means of steam
gas. However, this is not critical and even without any 7.0 lines 41, While the condensed coolant is returned, e.g., as
theoretical calculation it is possible to adjust the gas
by pumping through return line 42 to manifold 20 to be
empirically during operation in such a way that the tem
reheated. Suitable switchgear is associated with the
perature indicator keeps rising. As the magnetic ?eld
BU reaches its maximum value one can adjust the amount
of energy released at the desired level by properly pro
turbogenerator, as shown.
Vacuum pumps 43 are cou
pled to vacuum exhaust conduits 13. A fusionable fuel
75 gas supply 44‘ may also be coupled to conduit 13 through
3,071,525
13
14
valves 46 and conduits 47, or, alternatively conduits 47
may lead directly into vessel 11 at any other location as
where u, p0 are the plasma temperature and maximum
pressure respectively and
indicated. A direct current power supply 48 may be
coupled by means of distribution lines 49 and 51 to the
solenoid 23 and end coils 24 in accordance with conven 5
tional practice. Electron accelerators 52 including auxil
iary equipment are arranged to ‘direct an accelerated elec
tron beam through tubes 26, as described above. A plu
(24)
p0=Bo2/81r
where B0 is the intensity of the applied external ?eld
expressed in gauss and the Equations 22a, 22b, one
obtains
.
rality of modulated direct current power sources 53 are
coupled by paired conductors in a transmission line cable 10
where a=1 for fusion reactions between unlike particles
54 to the trapping coils 27, 28 and 29, respectively, while
(T-D ‘for example) and a=2 for reactions between like
a similar conductor pair may be employed to energize
particles.
The quantity 17 is
coil 31 with a steady direct current from a power supply
55, as described above.
D.C. source 53 may be linked
by line 56 to accelerators 52 in order to provide properly. 15 (26)
synchronized electron beam pulse outputs for most ef
The value of 1; in the reactor described herein is almost
?oient injection by triggering the output thereof to begin
unity. Therefore, it will be assumed 11:1 in the follow-v
ing calculations; E is the reaction energy in mev., :1; .is
injection at the time noted above.
' -In the layout of FIGURE 7, use is made of theenergy
released by the thermonuclear reactions in the form of 20 expressed in cm.3/sec.; it is a function of the tempera
ture u and its value is available in the literature. The
kinetic energy of charged particles and neutrons to heat
temperature it in Equation 25 is expressed in electron
the inner wall of the vessel to produce high pressure
volts.
steam as, for example, may be accomplished within the
The power released per cm. length of the reaction vol
special channels 15, as shown in FIGURES 2, 4 and 6,
and described above. This steam can be utilized to drive 25 ume is
turbogenerators to produce electric power. Part of this
Wf=1rr02W0.1O“3 kW./cm.
electric power is utilized for the excitation of the sole
Where r0 is the radius of the plasma boundary as de?ned
noid 23 and end coils 24 employed to establish the ex
above.
ternally applied magnetic ?eld, as'well as of the other
The power per cm. length required to maintain the
auxiliary coils, and to provide the necessary power to 30
E-layer is given by Equation 17 and is, of course, the
operate the accelerators which supply the energetic elec
power carried by the injected electron beam, divided by
trons required to maintain the E-lay'er. The difference
the length of the E-layer. However, the electron ac~
between the power produced by the turbogenerators
celerator has an e?‘iciency less than one and, in practice
minus the power required for these coils and the accelera
the
power required to provide the energetic electrons
tion of the electrons constitutes the net power produc
is several times higher than given in Equation 17. As a
tion of the system. Obviously in order to obtain an
representative example, the ef?ciency of the accelerator
economical utilization of the methods and apparatus pro
may be about 20%. Substituting the values of the con
posed herein, it is necessary to optimize the parameters
stants ‘in Equation 17 one obtains
of the reactor.
As mentioned above, the parameters of the apparatus
for producing electric power through the steam cycle
(28)
based on the methods and principles described herein
must be selected in such a way that the net electric
power production is a substantial part of the electric
Finally the power required for the coil depends on the
ratio p.==R2/R1 of the outer to the inner radius of this
power produced by the turbogenerators. This can be 45 coil. Assuming a space factor of 80% for the coil the
power loss in the coil is
doneby selecting the appropriate value of the intensity
1
B 2
B0, of the applied magnetic ?eld (produced by the excita
(29)
tion of coils 23, 24) and the inner radius of the evacu
ated vessel 11 de?ning the cylindrical space 12 in order
The produced not electric power per cm. length of the
to meet the above conditions. In the following, the energy 50 reaction volume is ?nally
released by thermonuclear reactions, the energy loss in
coil 23 ‘and the power required to accelerate the electrons
will be given per cm. length of the reacting volume. The
where f is the overall thermal conversion e?Elciency of the
I
rate of reactions, R, is given, as it is known, by the
equation
('22)
55
hang???)
parameters of 'a power reactor and select the proper
dimensions of the reactor volume so that the ratio, s, of
where n1, n2 are the density of the two kinds of interact
ing nuclei.
This rate is highest when n1=n2=n/2.
Hence
(22a)
60
R=1An2(;¥)
For reactions between the same kind of ions, for example,
D-D reactions, the value of R is twice the value indicated
power plant.
From the above formula it is possible to calculate the
the total produced power (fWf) to the power required
to maintain the reacting plasma (WR+We) is
(31)
NW
WR+We>>1
Such calculations can be carried out without any dif
ficulty by those skilled in the art. Hence elaboration in
by the Equation 22a. The quantity "OTl'Z is the product 65 this subject is considered to be beyond the scope of the
of the reaction cross-section and the ion velocity aver
present ‘disclosure.
aged over the Maxwell-inn velocity distribution of the
A thermonuclear reactor based on the present invention
plasma ions. The power released per cubic cm. of the
has an inherent safety mechanism during operation in
plasma is equal to W0 where
contrast to ?ssion reactors. ‘In the present method the
(22b)
W0-R.E
70 magnetic ?eld goes through zero in the region of the
E-layer Within the plasma volume. Hence the maximum
where E is the utilize-d fraction of the energy released per
plasma pressure (120) is equal to the external magneto
reaction. From the ‘following relationships
static pressure (B02/81r), consequently, due to this fact,
there is no room for more particles in the plasma and any
__&
.(23)
n0_2eu
75 temperature increase causes a decrease of the density.
3,071,625
is 5
16
The reaction rate is proportional to a-E/u2 which reaches
is intended to claim the invention as de?ned by the ap
a maximum at a temperature of about 10-50 kv. depend
pended claims without regard to such theory. Many
ing on the type of reactions employed.
If the operating
other applications of the invention will occur to those
temperature of the plasma is above this maximum any
increase of the reaction rate which tends to raise the tem
perature results automatically in a decrease of this reac
skilled in the art.
What I claim is:
1. In a method wherein a gas is raised to a very high
tion rate. In other words the present invention inherently
possesses a “negative temperature coe?icient” in ?ssion
reactor terminology. Hence no nuclear explosion or
temperature to produce a con?ned plasma in an enclosed
evacuated volume, the steps comprising establishing in
said volume an elongated substantially axially symmetric
“runaway” thermonuclear reaction is possible under any 10 magnetic ?eld having a central region of substantially
uniform intensity and end regions of increased ?eld in
circumstance and the reactor “fails safe” with no unman
tensity, injecting and trapping electrons of relativistic
ageable power excursion.
energies therein to form a generally cylindrical layer of
Another practical application of the invention is in a
electrons rotating about the axis of said magnetic ?eld
completely different ?eld. As described hereinbefore it
is possible, by employing certain nuclear reactions which 15 thereby creating an electromagnetic plasma containment
?eld pattern, and introducing a gas into said volume to
produce charged by-products, to polarize the plasma by al
enter said ?eld pattern to be ionized and heated up to
lowing such by-products to impinge against the inner-wall
fusion reaction temperature by macroscopic and micro
of vessel 11 before these charged particles lose their
scopic electrical interactions with said relativistic electrons
energy to the plasma by Coulomb collisions. The plasma
con?guration in an end of the reactor may therefore be as
to provide a plasma con?ned in said electromagnetic ?eld
shown in FIGURE 8 with a plasma jet 59 emerging axially
from the reaction volume to be discharged from tube 13.
The plasma jet 59 which emerges from tube 13 comprises,
pattern.
2. In a method for raising a gas to a high temperature
and producing neutrons therein in an enclosed evacuated
spatial volume, the steps comprising establishing in said
at least in part, a beam of energetic electrons. The energy
of this electron beam can be used to heat a compressed
gas in the throat of a venturi tube 60 in ramjet devices
volume an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a cen
tral portion of uniform intensity and terminally intensi
Such a
?ed magnetic ?eld regions therein, injecting energetic
venturi tube arrangement is shown in FIGURE 9 wherein
the air scoop 63 portion of the venturi tube is heated by
the electron beam to a much higher temperature than can
be achieved by any chemical fuel. Accordingly, a very
electrons tangentially into said magnetic ?eld while pro
ducing an intensity variation of said ?eld localized to the
region of injection to establish a layer of electrons ex
tending coaxially along the central portion of said mag
netic ?eld and terminating in said intensi?ed terminal
regions thereof with the electromagnetic ?eld of said layer
being super-imposed upon said magnetic ?eld to establish
an electromagnetic containment ?eld pattern therein, and
introducing gaseous light element fuel into said evacuated
volume, whereby such fuel is ionized and heated up to
high thrust is developed when the heated air is discharged
fusion reaction temperature by macroscopic and micro
employed for jet propulsion, e.g., of aircraft.
the plasma beam, containing the energetic electrons, is
guided through tube 13, nozzle 61 and injected into the
throat 62 of the venturi tube 60. Around the tube 13
and nozzle 61 focusing means are disposed to guide the
electron beam which is directed in an axial direction
through throat 62. The compressed gas entering from
scopic electrical interactions with said energetic electrons
through the diffuser cone 64 of the venturi tube 60.
Details of the operating conditions and design param 40 to form a reaction plasma disposed within said contain
ment ?eld pattern whereupon the neutron producing nu
eters of a controlled thermonuclear reactor constructed
clear reaction is initiated and proceeds with the consump
‘in accordance with the invention and exemplifying typical,
tion of said fuel.
practical applications of general principles described in
3. In a method for raising a gas to a high temperature
the foregoing are set forth in the following speci?c
and producing neutrons therein in an enclosed evacuated
example:
spatial volume, the steps comprising establishing in said
‘”
EXAMPLE
volume an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a
central portion of uniform intensity and terminally in
Parameters for a 500 Megawatt Astron Reactor
tensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions therein, injecting energetic
Reaction volume:
Diameter ______________ __ ______ __feet__.
5
Length _______________________ __do____.
E-layer radius __________________ __cm__
Plasma diameter ________________ __cm__
100
50
13.0
electrons tangentially into said magnetic ?eld while pro
ducing a local variation of the magnetic ?eld intensity in
the injection region of said ?eld to establish a layer of
energetic electrons extending coaxially along the central
portion of said magnetic ?eld and terminating in the
region of said intensi?ed terminal regions thereof with the
electromagnetic ?eld of said layer being superimposed
Plasma temperature ______________ __e.v.__ 24,000
Plasma density _______________________ __
4.1014
"External magnetic ?eld _________ __gauss__ 38,000
upon said magnetic ?eld to establish an electromagnetic
Thertnonuclear reaction plasma composition-_
Tritium ________________ “percent”
Deuterium ________________ __do____
40
60
Total thermonuclear energy per cm. length
kw__
Total fusion energy output of Astron
900
megawatts_._
Energy output utilized for steam generation
megawatts__
2000
Overall thermal efficiency _____ __percent__
33
Total electrical power output "megawatts"
665
Solenoid energizing current (assuming #:2)
megawatts-..
‘Power to electron accelerators ____ __do____
Net electrical power output ______ __do____
plasma containment ?eld pattern therein, introducing gase
ous light element fuel into said evacuated volume, whereby
60 such fuel is ionized and heated up to fusion reaction tem
perature by macroscopic and microscopic electrical inter
actions with said energetic electrons to form a reaction
2700
65
plasma disposed within said containment ?eld pattern
whereupon the neutron producing nuclear reaction is ini
tiated with the production of energetic particles and radia
tion, and utilizing the energetic products of the reaction.
4. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
ducted in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps
comprising establishing in said volume an ‘axially sym
65 70 metric magnetic ?eld having intensi?ed terminal ?eld
100
500
‘While the description of the invention has included a
theory as to ‘a nuclear fusion reaction, it is not to be under
regions; injecting and trapping energetic electrons into
said ?eld to produce a generally cylindrical E-layer of
energetic electrons rotating about the axis within said
?eld; introducting a thermonuclear fuel gas into said
.stood that the invention is limited by such theory and it
volume to be ionized and heated to fusion temperature
3,071,525
by macroscopic and microscopic interactions with said
electrons with the ions being attracted to and con?ned to
form a plasma within the electromagnetic ?eld pattern
produced by superimposition of the electromagnetic ?eld
of said electrons upon said magnetic ?eld, said ?eld pat
tern and the containment effect thereof being ampli?ed
by the ?eld produced by the Hall current caused ‘by the
plasma pressure gradient and by the electrostatic ?eld po
tential increase produced by the increased plasma tempera
ture; progressively increasing the intensity of the estab
lished magnetic ?eld while continuing injection of energetic
18
to amplify the containment effect of the electromagnetic
?eld pattern; progressively increasing the intensity of the
established magnetic ?eld while continuing injection of
energetic electrons into said ?eld and introduction of fuel
to increase the plasma density and heat the plasma to
initiate a thermonuclear reaction and attain a selected
reaction rate; maintaining said ?eld While continuing in
jection of electrons and introduction of thermonuclear
fuel to maintain the selected thermonuclear reaction rate;
electrons into said ?eld and introduction of fuel to in
crease the plasma density and heat the plasma to initiate
and utilizing the energetic products of said reaction.
7. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
ducted in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps
comprising establishing in said volume an axially sym
metric magnetic ?eld having a central portion of uniform
rate; maintaining said ?eld while continuing injection of 15 intensity and terminally intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions
therein, injecting energetic electrons tangentially into ‘said
electrons and introduction of thermonuclear fuel to main
magnetic ?eld while producing a local variation in the
tain the selected thermonuclear reaction rate; and utiliz
injection region of said ?eld to establish a layer of ener
ing the energetic products of said reaction.
'
getic electrons extending coaxially along the central por
5. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
ducted in an enclosed evacuated volume, the steps com 20 tion of said magnetic ?eld and terminating in the region
of said intensi?ed terminal regions thereof with the elec
prising producing in said volume an elongated axially
tromagnetic ?eld of said layer being superimposed upon
symmetric magnetic ?eld having a central region of uni
said magnetic ?eld to establish an electromagnetic plasma
form ?eld intensity and end regions of increased ?eld in
containment ?eld pattern therein, introducing gaseous
tensity, injecting high energy electrons tangentially into
thermonuclear fuel into said evacuated volume, whereby
said ?eld while producing a local variation in said ?eld
said fuel is ionized and heated by macroscopic and micro
to trap said electrons in said ?eld thereby providing an
scopic interactions with said energetic electrons and the
electron-layer of energetic electrons rotating therein to
thermonuclear fuel ions are con?ned within said electro
create an electromagnetic containment ?eld pattern with
magnetic ?eld pattern whereupon the thermonuclear re
the electromagnetic ?eld of the electrons of said layer
action is initiated with the production of energetic parti
being superimposed on said unidirectional and substan
cles and radiation, and impinging at least a portion of said
tially uniform magnetic ?eld to establish said electro
energetic particles and radiation upon a heat transfer sur
magnetic ?eld pattern injecting fusionable atoms into the
face of a heat exchange system to convert the kinetic
volume enclosed by said ?eld pattern, said atoms being
energy of said particles and radiation into heat, and re
ionized and the resultant plasma being heated up to a
fusion reaction temperature by macroscopic and micro 35 moving the heat produced by the reaction by means of
the heat transfer medium of said system.
scopic electrical interactions with the relativistic electrons
8. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
of said electron layer, said ?eld pattern and the contain
ducted
in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps
ment etfect thereof being ampli?ed by the ?eld produced
comprising establishing in said voluire an axially sym
by the Hall current caused by the plasma pressure gradi
metric magnetic ?eld having a central portion of uniform
ent and by the electrostatic ?eld potential increase pro
intensity and terminally intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions
duced by the increased plasma temperature increasing the
therein,
injecting energetic electrons tangentially into said
intensity of said magnetic ?eld to a value determined by
magnetic ?eld while producing a local variation in the in
the increasing plasma pressure and simultaneously in
jection region of said ?eld to establish a layer of ener
creasing the charge of said layer to maintain the radius
of said electron layer constant about said axis of sym 45 getic electrons extending coaxially along the central por—
tion of said ‘magnetic ?eld and terminating in the region
metry; thereafter increasing the intensity of said magnetic
a thermonuclear reaction and attain a selected reaction
?eld to a value corresponding to a plasma pressure de
terncined by the desired rate of said thermonuclear re
of said intensi?ed terminal regions thereof’ with the elec
tromagnetic ?eld of said layer being superimposed upon
said magnetic ?eld to establish an electromagnetic con
actions, and thereafter maintaining constant the intensity
tainment
?eld pattern therein, introducing gaseous ther
50
of said ?eld, replacing the electrons of the layer lost
monuclear fuel into said evacuated volume whereby
thereto through scattering processes while replacing ions
said fuel is ionized ‘and heated by macroscopic and micro
and electrons lost from the plasma by fusion and dif
scopic interactions with said energetic electrons and the
fusion.
thermonuclear fuel ions are con?ned within said electro
6. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
magnetic ?eld pattern whereupon the thermonuclear re
ducted in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps 55 action is initiated with the production of energetic parti
comprising establishing in said volume an axially sym
cles and radiation from the contained thermonuclear re
metric magnetic ?eld having intensi?ed terminal ?eld re
gions; directing a beam of energetic electrons tangential
ly into a plane in said ?eld and effecting a phased varia
tion in the intensity of the magnetic ?eld intensity in
?rst and second planar regions to each side of the electron
injection plane to trap said electrons in the region between
said planes, effecting a phased variation in the magnetic
?eld intensity in a third planar region inwardly of said
second planar region acting to transport the trapped elec 65
trons into a second region between the second and third
action plasma and diffusive loss portions of said plasma
emerge in the form of at least one beam axially outward
from the ends of said pattern, and contacting said beams
with a gas to heat said gas to a high temperature.
9. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
ducted in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps
comprising establishing in said volume an axially sym
metric magnetic ?eld having a central portion of uniform
intensity and terminally intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions
therein, injecting energetic electrons tangentially into said
regions of varied intensity and ?nally into central por
magnetic ?eld while producing a local variation in the
tions of said ?eld to produce a generally cylindrical E
injection region of said ?ield to establish a layer of
layer of energetic electrons rotating about the axis within
said ?eld; introducing a thermonuclear fuel gas into said 70 energetic electrons extending coaxially along the central
portion of said magnetic ?eld and terminating in the region
volume to be ionized by said electrons with the ions be
of said intensi?ed terminal regions thereof with the electro
ing attracted to and con?ned to form a plasma within the
magnetic ?eld of said layer being superimposed upon said
electromagnetic ?eld pattern produced by superimposition
magnetic ?eld to establish an electromagnetic contain
‘of the electromagnetic ?eld of the electrons of ‘said E
layer upon said magnetic ?eld, said plasma cooperating 75 ment ?eld pattern therein; introducing gaseous thermo
3,071,525
19
nuclear fuel into said evacuated volume, whereby said fuel
is ionized and heated by macroscopic and microscopic
interactions with said energetic electrons and the thermo
nuclear fuel ions are con?ned within said electromagnetic
?eld pattern whereupon the thermonuclear reaction is initi~
ated with the production of energetic particles and radia
tion from the contained thermonuclear reaction plasma
and diffusive loss portions of said plasma emerge in the
form of at least one beam axially outward from the ends
of said pattern, and contacting said beam with a gas in a
venturi threoat to heat said gas to a high temperature, and
ejecting the heated gas from the venturi tube to. produce
propulsive thrust.
10. In a controlled thermonuclear reaction method con
ducted in an enclosed evacuated spatial volume, the steps
comprising establishing in said volume an axially syrn~
metric magnetic ?eld having a central portion of uniform
intensity and terminally intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions
therein, injecting energetic electrons tangentially into said
20
pattern is created therein, and means for introducing
nuclear reactable gaseous fuels into said ?eld pattern
wherein the fuel atoms are ionized, heated and con?ned
to produce a high temperature plasma wherein said radia
tion producing reactions occur.
14. A reactor as de?ned in claim 13 wherein said vessel
is provided with heat transfer means including a heat
transfer surface serving as the interior surface of said
vessel upon which energetic radiation may impinge and a
heat transfer loop in which a heat transfer agent transfers
heat from said surface to an external point for use.
15. A reactor for raising a gas to a high temperature
and inducing energetic radiation producing reactions there
in, comprising means including an elongated cylindrical
vessel for producing an evacuated space, solenoid means
disposed to provide an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld
having a central region of uniform intensity and end
regions of increased intensity within said space, ?rst,
second and third solenoidal coils arranged coaxially paral
magnetic ?ield while producing a local variation in the in 20 lel in peripheral regions of said vessel and de?ning ?rst
jection region of said ?eld to establish a layer of energetic
and second injection zones between the respective pairs
electrons extending coaxailly along the central portion of
of solenoids, electron accelerator means arranged to direct
said magnetic ?eld and terminating in the region of said
an energetic beam of electrons tangentially into said ?rst
intensi?ed terminal regions thereof with the electro
injection zone, means for supplying modulated direct cur
magnetic ?eld of said layer being superimposed upon said
rent to said ?rst, second and third coils said current being
magnetic ?eld to establish an electromagnetic contain
phased to trap said electrons in the ?rst injection zone and
ment ?eld pattern therein, introducing gaseous thermo
transport the trapped electrons sequentially into said
nuclear fuel capable of producing energetic charged
second injection zone and ?nally into said central magnetic
particle products and in modulated volumes into said
?eld region to produce a rotating cylindrical E-layer of
evacuated volume, whereby said fuel is ionized and heated
energetic electrons therein, whereby an electromagnetic
by macroscopic and microscopic interactions with said
containment ?eld pattern is created therein, and means
energetic electrons and the thermonuclear fuel ions are
for introducing nuclear reactable gaseous fuels into said
con?ned within said electromagnetic ?eld pattern where
?eld pattern to be ionized, heated and con?ned to pro
upon the thermonuclear reaction is initiated with the
duce a high temperature plasma wherein said radiation
production of energetic particles which escape from the
producing reactions occur.
'
?eld pattern and cause the plasma to assume a negative
16. A controlled thermonuclear realctor comprising
charge thereby causing plasma diffusively lost as a beam
means including an elongated cylindrical vessel for pro
axially outward from the system to‘ include a modulated
ducing an evacuated space, solenoidal means disposed to
beam of energetic electrons, and inductively coupling said 40 provide an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a
modulated energetic beam of electrons with an electrical
central region of uniform intensity and end regions of
load circuit to produce an alterntaing current therein.
increased intensity within said space, ?rst, second and third
11. In apparatus for producing a con?ned high tempera
solenoidal coils arranged coaxially parallel in peripheral
ture plasma, in combination solenoidal coil means for
regions of said vessel and de?ning ?rst and second injec- ,
producing an elongated linear axially symmetric magnetic
tion zones between the responsive pairs of solenoids, elec
?eld, electron source means disposed to inject a beam of
tron accelerator means arranged to direct an energetic
energetic electrons tangentially into said magnetic ?eld,
beam of electrons tangentially into said ?rst injection
means including solenoidal coils disposed coaxially to said
region, means for supplying modulated direct current to
solenoidal coil means for producing a local variation in
said ?rst, second and third coils said current being phased
the axially symmetric magnetic ?eld in the region of in
to trap said electrons in the ?rst injection zone and trans
jection of said electron beam for trapping the injected
port the trapped electrons sequentially into said second
ions, and means for introducing gaseous atoms into the
injection zone and ?nally into said central magnetic ?eld
volume enclosed by said solenoidal coil means.
region to produce a rotating cylindrical E~layer of ener
12. In apparatus for producing a con?ned high tem
getic electrons therein, whereby an electromagnetic con
perature plasma, in combination solenoidal coil means for
tainment ?eld pattern is created therein, means for intro
producing an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a
ducing thermonuclear fuels into said ?eld pattern to be
central portion of uniform intensity and termial regions of
ionized, heated and con?ned to produce a controlled
increased intensity, electron source means disposed to in
' thermonuclear reaction plasma, and utilization means ar
ject a beam of energetic electrons tangentially into said
ranged to utilize the energetic particle and radiation energy
magnetic ?eld, means including solenoidal coils disposed 60 emergent from the reaction.
coaxially to said solenoidal coil means for producing a
17. The reactor as de?ned in claim 16 wherein said
local variation in the axially symmetric magnetic ?eld in
utilization means comprises a circuit inductively coupled
the region of injection of said electron beam to trap said
to the axial diffusive exit beam of the reactor to produce
electrons, and means for introducing gaseous atoms into
electrical current in an exterior circuit.
the volume enclosed by said solenoidal coil means.
18. The reactor as de?ned in claim 16 wherein said util
13. A reactor for raising a gas to a high temperature
ization means comprises a ramjet propulsion venturi ar
and inducing energetic radiation producing reactions
ranged so that the axial diffusive exit beam from said
therein, comprising means including an elongated generally
reactor is directed through the throat thereof.
cylindrical vessel for producing an evacuated space, solen
19. A controlled thermonuclear reactor comprising
oid means disposed to provide an essentially exially sym
means including an elongated cylindrical vessel for pro
metric magnetic ?eld having a central region of uniform
ducing an evacuated space, said vessel being constructed
intensity and end regions of increased intensity within
with a plurality of longitudinal channeled sections of
said space, means for injecting high energy electrons into
which the inner faces thereof constitute the inner pe
said magnetic ?eld to produce a layer of energetic elec
ripheral surface of said vessel, manifold means communi
trons rotating therein, whereby an electromagnetic ?eld
cating with the channels of said sections for introducing
ae'rgese
21
and discharging a heat transfer agent as part of a heat
transfer loop, solenoid means disposed to provide an
axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a central region
of uniform intensity and end regions of increased in
tensity within sad space, ?rst, second and third solenoidal
coils arranged coaxially parallel in peripheral regions of
said vessel and de?ning ?rst and second injection zones
between the respective pairs of solenoids, electron ac
celerator means arranged to direct an energetic beam of
electrons tangentially into said ?rst injection region, means
for supplying modulated direct current to said ?rst, sec
ond and third coils said current being phased to trap said
electrons in the ?rst injection zone and transport the
22
and producing neutrons therein comprising establishing
an elongated axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a
linear central portion of uniform intensity and terminally
intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions in an evacuated spatial
volume, injecting energetic electrons at a slight angle to
a plane normal to said ?eld and varying the intensity of
the ?eld in the region of injection to produce a layer of
electrons rotating about the axis of said ?eld the elec
tromagnetic ?eld of said layer together with said axially
symmetric ?eld providing an electromagnetic contain
ment ?eld pattern in said volume, and introducing low
atomic weight atoms into said volume to be ionized and
heated by interaction with the energetic electrons of said
layer with the heated ions being constrained within said
trapped electrons sequentially into said second injection
zone and ?nally into said central magnetic ?eld region 15 containment ?eld pattern and prevented from colliding
with the boundaries of said volume to induce neutron
to produce a rotating cylindrical E-layer of energetic elec
producing
reactions between said ions.
trons therein, whereby an electromagnetic containiment
?eld pattern is created therein, and means for introducing
thermonuclear fuels into said ?eld pattern to be ionized,
heated and con?ned to produce a controlled thermo
nuclear reaction plasma.
23. The method as de?ned in claim 22 wherein said
low atomic weight atoms are selected from the isotopes
of hydrogen.
24. A method for raising a gas to high temperatures
and producing neutrons therein comprising establishing
an elongated axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having
and producing neutrons therein comprising solenoidal coil
linear central portion of uniform intensity and terminally
means enclosing an evacuable volume and for producing
therein an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a linear 25 intensi?ed magnetic ?eld regions in an evacuated spatial
volume, injecting energetic electrons at'a slight angle to
central region and terminally disposed regions of increased
a plane normal to said ?eld and varying the intensity of
20. Apparatus for raising a gas to a high temperature
intensity, electron source means including magnetically
shielded guide tubes disposed to inject beams of ener
getic electrons at a slight angle to a plane of reference
the ?eld in the region of injection in a ?rst zone de?ned
between adjacent solenoidal segments disposed coaxially
normal to said ?eld within said volume, means including 30 to said axially symmetric ?eld with a second zone disposed
between one of said segments and a third solenoidal seg
solenoidal coils disposed coaxially to said solenoidal coil,
ment and modulating energizing current to said solenoidal
means adjacent said guide tubes for producing a local vari
segments so as to locally vary the axially symmetric ?eld
ation in the axially symmetric magnetic ?eld in the re
to trap said electrons in said ?rst zone and progressively
gion of injection of said electron beams for trapping said
electrons to form a cylindrical electron layer rotating in 35 eject same into said second zone and ?nally into the
linear portion of said magnetic ?eld to produce a layer of
said ?eld, and means for introducing low atomic number
electrons rotating about the axis of said ?eld with the
atoms into said evacuated volume wherein said atoms
electromagnetic ?eld of said layer together with said axial
interact with said electron layer and are ionized and
ly symmetric ?eld providing an electromagnetic contain
heated so that the heated ions are trapped and con?ned
within the electromagnetic ?eld pattern produced by said 40 ment ?eld pattern in said volume, and introducing low
electron layer rotating within said magnetic ?eld thereby
being prevented from colliding with the boundaries of
atomic weight atoms into said volume to be ionized and
means enclosing an evacuable volume and for producing
25. The method as de?ned in claim 24 wherein said
low atomic weight atoms are selected from the isotopes
heated by interaction with the energetic electrons of
said layer with the heated ions being constrained Within
said volume and to produce neutrons by nuclear reac
said containment ?eld pattern and prevented from col
tions.
liding
with the boundaries of said volume to induce neu
45
21. Apparatus for raising a gas to a high temperature
tron producing reactions between said ions.
.
and producing neutrons therein comprising solenoidal coil
therein an axially symmetric magnetic ?eld having a
linear central region and terminally disposed regions of
increased intensity, electron source means including at 50
least one magnetically shielded guide tube disposed to in
ject beams of energetic electrons at a slight angle to
a plane of reference normal to said ?eld within said
volume, means for trapping electrons including ?rst and
second solenoidal segments disposed to each side of said 55
guide tube coaxially to said axially symmetric ?eld de
?ning a ?rst zone into which said electrons are ?rst in
jected and a third solenoidal segment disposed outwardly
from one of the aforesaid segments and de?ning there
with a second zone and means for energizing said sole 60
noidal segments with a modulated current whereby elec
trons injected into said ?rst zone are trapped and are
of hydrogen.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,948,384
2,193,602
2,246,121
2,507,653
Lawrence ____________ __ Feb. 20,
Penney _____________ __ Mar. 12,
Blewett ______________ __ June 17,
Smith ________________ __ May 16,
1934
1940
1941
1950
2,910,414
Spitzer ______________ __ Oct. 27, 1959
656,398
Great Britain _________ __ Aug. 22, 1951
FOREIGN Pl TENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
progressively ejected into said second zone and ?nally
Reviews
of
Modern
Physics, vol. 28, N0. 3, July 1956,
into said axially symmetric magnetic ?eld to form a cylin
R.
F.
Post,
pp.
338,
339, 359, 360, 362.
65
drical electron layer rotating therein, and means for in
Atomic Industry Reporter, News and Analysis. O?icial
troducing hydrogen isotope atoms into said evacuated
text, section 1958, Libary No. TK 9001 A7, issue of Jan.
volume wherein said atoms interact with said electron
29, 1958, pp. 54:5-54z11.
layer and are ionized and heated so that the heated ions
Proceeds of the Second United Nations International
are trapped and con?ned within the electromagnetic ?eld
pattern produced by said electron layer rotating within 70 Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol.
32, United Nations, Geneva, 1958.
said magnetic ?eld thereby being prevented from collid
vFebruary 1958, Nucleonics, pp. 90-93, 151-155.
ing with the boundaries of said volume and to produce
Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol. 4 (1959), No.
neutrons by nuclear reactions.
5, pp. 341-345 (by Linhart and Schoch).
22. A method for raising a gas to high temperatures
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
2 199 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа