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Патент USA US3071764

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Jan. 1, 1963
3,071,754
J. A. RAJCHMAN
MAGNETIC MEMORY SYSTEMS USING TRANSFLUXORS
Filed April 2. 1957
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ATTORNEY
Jan. l, 1963
J. A. RAJCHMAN
3,071,754
MAGNETIC MEMORY sYsTEMs USING musmuxons
Filed April 2. 1957
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United States Patent Óñiiee
1
3,071,754
Patented Jan. -V1, 1963
2
information into and out of a core does not depend upon
3,071,754
electrical linkages between flux paths in separate cores.
Instead, the information is switched by a direct,'magnetic transfer of flux between different pathsof the same
core. The operation of the memory systems of the
»
MAGNETÍC MEMORY SYSTEMS USING
TRANSFLUXORS
~
_
.Ian A. Raichman, Princeton, NJ., assigner to Radio
Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware
Filed Apr. 2, 1957, Ser. No. 650,155
10 Claims. (Cl. 340-174)
invention is eiiicient and can be as fast as desired because
a substantially constant amount of ilux is changed, even
when operating signals of relatively large amplitude and
This invention relates to magnetic memory systems,
of relatively short duration are used.
and particularly to memory systems using transñuxors. 10 . In the accompanying drawings:
An article by I. A. Rajchman and A. W. Lo, entitled
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a memory system
“The Transñuxor,” and published in the March 1956 issue
according to the invention;
_
of the Proceedings of the IRE, pages 321-332, describes
FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, respectively, are each a schematic
the construction and the operation of transñuxors. A
diagram illustrating the ñux pattern in the core of FIG. l
transi‘luxor includes a core of rectangular hysteresis loop
during different portions of an operating cycle;
magnetic material having two or more apertures.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a two-dimensional
An important factor in the operation of rectangular
hysteresis loop materials in multi-coordinate selection
systems is the so~called switching time. By switching
array according to the invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of another form of
three-apertured core which provides equal length flux
time‘is meant the time required to change the material 20 paths in the core material; and
between its two remanent states, using a given value of
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagramy of a memory system
applied magnetizing force. It is found that the switch
according to the invention, using a four-apertured mag
ing time is approximately inversely proportional to the
netic core.
amplitude of the applied magnetizing force. In certain
The transfluxor core 10 of FIG. 1 is similar to the
memory systems using multi-apertured cores, the operat 25 transliuxor core shown in FIG. 17 of the aforementioned
ing speed is limited because, when relatively short-duration
article by Rajchman and Lo, and has a central aperture
selecting pulses are used, undesired iiux changes are
produced in non-selected ones of the cores.
It is among the objects of the present invention to
12, a bias aperture 14 and an output aperture 16 located
on either side of the central aperture 12. The peripheral
dimension of the central aperture 12 is made relatively
large compared to the peripheral dimensions of either
one of the bias and output apertures 14 and 16. The
three apertures of the core 10 provide a pair of bias
legs 11 and 12, of which leg 11 is the common leg, and a
provide improved magnetic memory systems which can
be operated at relatively high speeds.
Another object of the present invention is to provide
improved magnetic memory systems using transtiuxors,
which systems retain the advantages of transñuxors and
pair of output legs 13 and 14. Each of the legs 11, 12,
which can be operated at higher speeds than certain prior 35 13 and 14 are of substantially equal cross-sectional area.
systems using simple coincident-current techniques.
- A ñrst flux path, indicated by the dotted line 18, includes
'Still another object of the invention is to provide im
the common leg 11 and a ñrst output leg 13. A second
proved memory systems, wherein stored information of
flux path, indicated by the dotted line 20, includes the
one kind is represented by one polarity of read-out signal,
common leg 11 and the other output leg 14. By making
and stored information of another kind is represented 40 the diameter of the central aperture 12 relatively large
by the opposite-polarity read-out signal.
compared to the diameter of the output aperture 16, the
Memory systems according to the present invention
ytwo flux paths 18 and 2i) are made to have substantially
use one or more transñuxors each having at least three
equal circumferential lengths.
apertures. The aperture walls define four legs. Two 45
An inhibit winding 22 is threaded through the bias
separate flux paths of substantially equal length also are
aperture 14. Beginning at one terminal 22a, the inhibit
provided. One leg is common to both flux paths, and
winding ‘22 is brought across the top surface of the core
1l), then through the bias aperture 14, and then across
the bottom' surface of the core 10 to the other terminal
two of the other three legs are individual to a different
one of the two paths. A bias magnetizing force is applied
to maintain the common leg in an initial direction of
22b. The terminals of the -bias winding 22 are connected
magnetization. A selecting magnetizing force is applied
to an inhibit source 24.
along both linx paths Vin a direction to change the flux
in the common leg from the initial to the other direction
of magnetization. The flux change produced in the
common leg is steered to either one or both of the other
two legs of these liux paths in accordance with their
initial remanent states. The difference between the llux
changes in the two legsrepresents the information initially
stored in the transñuXor. After the selecting magnetiz
ing force is terminated, both legs are magnetized in the
same direction.
Thebias magnetizing force then changes the iiuX in
the common leg to its initial direction of magnetization.
A control magnetizing force of one polarity applied to
both legs steers the iiux change in the common leg to
, to the inhibit winding 22 in a direction of flow (conven
tional) from the terminal 22a to the other terminal 22b.
A plurality of selecting windings are threaded through
the central aperture of the core 12. In FIG. l, a pair
of selecting windings 26 and 28, for example, are
threaded through the central aperture 12 to link both
the flux pat-hs 18 and 20. Beginning at one terminal 26a,
60 a first selecting winding 26 is brought across the bottom
surface of the core 10, then through the central aperture
a ñrst of the other two legs, and a control magnetizing
force of the opposite polarity steers the flux change in
the common leg to the second of the other two legs. By
varying the amount of Control magnetizing force, the
ilux change in the common leg can be divided in desired 70
amounts between the other two legs.
`
A feature of the invention is that the switching of
The inhibit source 24 is ar
ranged to provide a D.C. (direct current) bias current
12, and then across the top surface of the core 10 to the
other terminal 2617. The second selecting winding 28
is similarly threaded through the central aperture 12 to
link »both the iiux paths 18 and 20. ’I‘he iirst and second
-selecting windings 26 and 28 are connected to first and
second selecting sources 30 and 32, respectively. It is
understood that more than two selecting windings can
be linked to the core 10. For example, in certain co
ordinate groupings of a plurality of the cores 10, three
or more selecting windings may be linked to each core
10.
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cycle. The negative control pulse 46 applies the one
A control winding 34 is coupled through both the out
put aperture 16 and the central aperture 12 of the core
10 in figure-eight fashion. Beginning at one terminal
magnetizing force to the leg 113 in a direction to reverse
the iiux in this leg from the counterclockwise to the clock
34a, the conrol winding 34 is brought across the top sur
wise sense, with reference to the central aperture 12. -
face of the core 10, then downwardly through the output
aperture 16, and across the bottom surface of the core,
The negative control pulse 46 also applies'the opposite
polarity magnetizing force to the leg 14 in a direction to
maintain the liuX in this leg in the initial, counterclock»
then upwardly through the central aperture 12, and
wise sense, with reference to the central aperture 12.
Accordingly, the combined effect of ’thebias current Ib
bottom surface of the core 16 to the other terminal 34h. 10 and the negative-polarity control pulse 46 is to produceV
a flux change along the -tirst riiux path 18, including the
the terminals of the control winding 34 are connected to
across the top surface of the core 10, and then down
wardly through the output aperture 16, and'across the
legs 11 and 13. After the negative control pulse 46 is
a control source ‘36.
terminated, the flux in the outside leg 11 and the inside
The first and second selecting sources 30v and 32 are
leg 13 is oriented in the clockwise sense, with reference
preferably constant-current sources such as other mag
netic core or pentode-type amplifier circuits. The iirst 15 to the central aperture 12; and the flux in the inside leg`
12 and the outside leg 1.1 is oriented in the counterclock
and' second selecting sources 3i) and 32 may be controlled
wise sense with reference to the central aperture 12.
by any suitable means, such as a digital computer. The
FilG. 4 indicates the flux pattern in a core 10 whenV a
control source 36 may be any suitable source arranged
negative control pulse 46 is applied. Observe'that the
to supply both positive and negative-polarity control
pulses selectively to the control winding 34. The control 20 linx in the middle leg 12 is not changed during the read
or the write portions of the operating cycle of the system
source 36 may be operated by any suitable device, such
of FIG. l. The middle leg 12 serves as a dummy leg in
as the logic portion of a digital computer system.
order to maintain the algebraic sum of the fluxes, through ‘
In operation, each operating cycle is divided into a read
a plane intersecting each of the legs, equal to a Zero
portion and a Write portion. During the read portion
of the cycle, selecting pulses 40 and 42 are applied con 25 value. `
If no control pulse were applied to the control winding
currently to the first and second selecting windings 26 and
34 after termination of the selecting pulses 40 and 42,
28 by the first and second selecting sources 30 and 32,
the flux change in the common leg 11 would divide sub
respectively. Each of the selecting pulses 40, 42 is regu
stantially equally between the legs 13 and 1.1, because
lated in amplitude such that sufiicient net magnetizing
force is applied to the core 10 by the selecting pulses to 30 neither one of these legs is favored by an additional con
trol magnetizing force. Accordingly, approximately half
change thetiux in the common leg 11 and the legs 13
of the flux in the common leg 11 would be steered along
and 1.1 to the counterclockwise sense. Note that the
the first flux path 18 (FIG. 4) to‘the inside leg 13, and
selecting magnetizing forces are opposed by the bias mag
the other half of the flux change in the common leg 11
netizing force produced by the bias current Ib in the
inhibit winding 22. The iiux pattern in a core 1t), after 35 would be steered along the second iiux path 20 to the
the read portion of the operating cycle, is indicated in
FIG. 2 by arrows in each of the legs 11 through 1.1. Inl
the reset condition, the flux in each of the legs is oriented
in the one sense, for example, the counterclockwise sense
with reference to the central aperture 1'2.
- 40
After the selecting pulses 46 and 42 are terminated,
the bias current Ib flowing in the inhibit windingV 22
produces a ñux change in the common leg 11, and in one
or both of the output legs 13 and 14, from the counter
clockwise to the clockwise sense, with reference to the
outside leg 14. Accordingly, by varying the amplitude
of the control pulses applied to the control winding 34,
the iiux change in the common leg 11 may be split in
any desired portions between the two output legs `13 and
1.1. Therefore, if desired, analog-type information may
be stored in the core 10. Thus, by controlling the ampli
tude of the control pulse, applied to the control winding
34, different amounts of iiuX are set in the legs 13 and 14
corresponding to the analog information.
During the read operation, an output signal is induced
in an output winding (not shown), wound in figure-eight
fashion, around the legs 13 and 1.1. The control winding
central aperture 12. For example, referring to FîG. 3,
one binary digit, for example, a binary l digit, is written
34 also may serve as the output winding for the core 10.
into the core 1t) by applying a positive control pulse 44
ln such case, the control source 36 also receives output
to the control winding 34. After the selecting pulses 4t)
and 42 are terminated, the positive control pulse 44 pro 50 signals corresponding to the stored information. For ex
ample, when the iiux in the leg 1.1 is initially oriented in
duces a current flow (conventional) in the control wind
the clockwise sense, the selecting pulses 40 and 42 pro
ing from the terminal 34a to the terminal 3411. The con
duce a flux change along the path 20, including the legs
trol pulse 44 applies one polarity magnetizing force to
11 and 1.1, from the clockwise to the counterclockwise
the output leg 13 in a direction to maintain the leg 13
in its initial, counterclockwise sense. The control pulse 55 sense, with reference to the central aperture 12. Substan
tially no flux change is produced in the leg 13, during
44 applies an opposite-polarity magnetizing force to the
the read operation, because this leg already is saturated
leg 14 in a direction to reverse the «linx in the leg 1.1 from
with flux in the counterclockwise sense, with reference
the counterclockwise to the clockwise sense, with refer
to the aperture 12. Accordingly, the flux change in the
ence to the central aperture 12. Accordingly, the corn
bined action of the bias current lb ñowing in the bias 60 leg 14 induces a voltage of one polarity in the control
winding 22, and the positive control pulse 44, is to pro
duce a -fluX change along the second liux path 20, includ
ing the common leg 11 and the output leg 1.1. Substan
tially no flux change is produced in the other output leg
113 because the control pulse 44 holds the leg 13 in its
initial reset direction.
Accordingly, after the control
' pulse 44 is terminated, the outside legs r11 and 1.1 are
saturated with iiux in the clockwise sense, with reference
to the central aperture 12; and the inside legs 12 and 13
are saturated with iiux in the counterclockwise sense,
with reference to the central aperture 12.
The complement of the one binary digit, for example,
the binary 0 digit, can be written into the core 1t) by
applying a negative polarity control‘pulse 46 to the con
trol winding 34 during the write portion of the operating 75
(now output) winding 34. However, when the leg 13 is
saturated with flux in the clockwise sense, with reference
to the central aperture 12, the selecting pulses 40 and 42
produce a flux change along the path 18, including the ‘
common leg 11 and the leg 13. Substantially no flux
change is produced in the leg 114 because this leg already
`
is saturated with iiux in the counterclockwise sense, with
reference to the central aperture 12. Accordingly, an>
output voltage of the opposite polarity is inducedV in the
control (now output) winding 34. Similarly, when vary
ing amounts of tiuX are stored in the two legs 13 and
1.1, varying amounts of output Signal of either ’oneror
the other polarity are induced in the control (no-w out- ,
put) winding 34.
rThe output signal induced in the winding 34 -`can be `
3,071,754
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varied between a maximum negative value, in incremental
steps, to a maximum positive value by decreasing the
rite powder, using a die shaped in the form of a core
amplitudes of the control signals 44 and 46 in incremental
of selecting windings 20 and 28, are linked to Áboth theV
flux paths 88 and 90,»as described for the core 10 of
FIG. 1. Similarly, an inhibit winding 22 isthreaded
through the bias aperture 84 to link both the paths 88
and 90. The control winding 34 is wound in figure-eight
fashion through the control aperture 86 and the central
steps towards a zero value.
The response curve of the
net output signal induced in the control (now output)
winding 34, as a function of control signals previously
applied .to the control Winding 34, is similar to the curve
shown in FIG. 15 of an article by Ian A. Rajchman, en
titled “Ferrite Apertured Plate for Random Access Mem
ory,” and published in the March 1957 Proceedings of
80. A plurality of selecting windings, for example, a pair
aperture 82.
'
_
Another core geometry for obtaining substantially equal
the IRE, pages S25-334. For substantially equal length
length iiux paths is one similar to the core 10 of FIG.
flux paths 18 and 20 (FIG. l), the response curve passes
l, but having the axis of the control aperture 16 there
through the origin of the graph, as does the curve of FIG.
of located orthogonally in the core material. That is,
l5 of the aforesaid article. Similarly, for flux paths 18
the axis of the orthogonal aperture is perpendicular to
and 20 of unequal, circumferential lengths, the curve is 15 the axis of the core 10. A core having such an orthogonal
displaced in an upward or a downward direction, as ïn~
aperture is shown in FIG. 3 of a copending application
dicated ‘by the dotted curves of the article by Rajchman.
tiled February 29, 1956, by Hewitt D. Crane, entitled
Substantially equal liux paths 18v and 20 also can be ob
“Magnetic Systems,” and bearing Serial No. 568,497 now
tained ‘by varying the geometry of the core 10, as de
U.S. Patent 2,810,901. The control aperture of the pres
scribed hereinafter.
Í
ent invention corresponds to the orthogonal aperture 46
y A plurality of the systems of FIG. l can be arranged
of the core of the aforesaid Crane patent. The other
in a random access memory array for selectively Iwriting
outer aperture 46 .of the Crane patent is used as a bias
and reading information into desired cores of the array
aperture in systems according to the present invention.
at relatively high speeds. For example, a 2 x 2 array of
Another embodiment of the present invention, using
the cores 10 is shown schematically in FIG. 5. The 25 four separate apertures in the core of rectangular hystere
cores 10 are arranged in an array 50" having two rows
sis loop material, is shown in FIG. 7. The outside apei
52 and 454 and two columns 56 and 58 of the cores 10.
tures 102 and 104 of the core 100 are used for both con
A iirst row coil 60‘ is formed by connecting the first se
trol and selection purposes during the read and Vwrite
lecting windings 26 of the ñrst row of cores 10 in series
portio-ns of an operating cycle. The inside pair of aper
with each other. The terminal Z'öb of one first selecting 30 tures 106 and 108 are used as bias apertures. The aper
winding is connected to the terminal 26a of a succeeding
ture walls define five separate legs 15, 16, l17, 18 and 19
tirst selecting winding. A second row coil 62 is formed
in the core. The middle leg 17 is used as a common
by connecting the first selecting windings 264 of the sec
leg. Two separate flux paths are provided. One llux
path, indicated by the dotted line 110, includes the com
fashion. A first column coil 64 is formed by connecting 35 mon leg 17 and the outside leg 15; and 4the other flux
the second selecting windings 28 of the first column of
path, indicated by the dotted line 112, includes the com
coresy 10 in series with each other. The terminal 28a
mon leg 1f, and the other outside leg 1g. The middle aper
ond row of cores 10 in series with each other in similar
of one second selecting winding 28b is connected to the
tures 106 and 107 are located in the material such that
terminal 28a of the succeeding second selecting winding
the lcross-sectional area of the leg 17 is at least equal to
28. vA second column coil 66 is formed in similar fashion 40 twice the cross-sectional area of each of the equal legs
by‘ïconnecting the second selecting windings 28 of the
16 and 18. The cross-sectional areas of the outside legs
other column of cores 10 in series with each other. A
common D.C. bias coil 70 is linked to all the cores 10
` 15 and 19 are made at least equal to the‘cross-sectional
area of the middle leg 17. The radial dimensions of the
apertures 102 and 104 are made substantially larger than
10 in series with each other. A common control coil 12 45 the radial dimensions of either of the middle apertures
is formed -by connecting the individual control windings
106 and 108, for reasons described more fully herein
34 of the cores 10» in series with each other.
after.
YIn operation, a desired core 10‘, for example, the core
A cont-rol winding 114 is linked to both ñux paths
10’ at the intersection of the second row and first column,
110 and 112 by being threaded through both outside
is selected during a read portion of the memory cycle by 50 apertures 102 and 104. Beginning at one »terminal 114a,
concurrently applying positive selecting pulses 74 and 76
the control winding 114 is brought across the top sur
to the iirst- column coil 64 and the second row coil 62,
face of the core 100, then through the outside aperture
respectively. The information stored in the selected core
102, then along the bottom surface of the core 100 and
by connecting the separate bias windings 22 of the cores
10’ produces a voltage .across the control coil 72, as a
around the edge of the core, then across the top surface
result of the voltage induced in the control Íwinding 34 55 of the core 100, then through the other outside aperture
of the selected core 10’. After the information is read
104, and finally across the bottom surface of the core
out of the selected core 10', information may be written
100 to the other terminal 114b. A pair of selecting
into the same core 10’ by applying either a positive con
-windings 116 and 118 also are threaded through both
trol pulse 78 or a negative control pulse S0 to the control
outside apertures to link both ñux paths 110 and 112.
coil 72. Any other desired one of the cores 10 can be 60 Beginning at one terminal 116e, thev iirst selecting wind
selected in similar fashion -by applying concurrently se
ing 116 is brought across the top surface of the core 100,
lecting pulses to the row and the column coils linked
then through the outside aperture 104, then along the
thereto.
~
FIG. 6 is a schematic'diagram of a core 80 having a _
>central aperture 82, a bias aperture 84, a control aper
ture 86, and providing substantially equal length flux
bottom surface of the core 100, and then through the '
other outside aperture 102 to the other terminal 116b.
The second selecting winding 118 is similarly threaded
through both the outside apertures 102 and 104. An in-v
paths 88 and 90 in the core 80. The aperture walls de
hibit winding 120 is wound on the common leg 1», to
bias the common leg 17 of both the tlux paths 110 and
equal cross-sectional area. The central aperture 82 is
112. Beginning at one terminal 120:1, the inhibit Wind
elongated along a line perpendicular to a center-line of the 70 ing 120 is brought across the top surface of the core,
iine four legs 11, 12, 13 and 14, each of'substantially
core S0 which includes the bias and the control apertures _
then through the right-central aperture 108, then across
84 and 86. The central aperture 82 also is elongated
at its upper and lower extremities towards the control
aperture 86. The core 80 may be formed, for example,
the bottom surface of the core 100, then through the
left-central aperture- 106, and then across the top sur
face of the core to the other terminal 120‘b. j
by molding substantially rectangular hysteresis loop fer 75
In operation, the legs 16 and 18 remain saturated with
3,071,754 i
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flux in one sense, for example, the counterclockwise sense,
with lreference to the outside aperture 104. Positive se
memory systems for obtaining relatively high-speed opera
lecting pulses 122 and 124, applied concurrently to the
changed during any portion of the operating cycle is con
tion, using multi-apertured cores.
The amount of flux
stant. The ñux transfer between the various magnetic
ñrst and second selecting windings 116 and 113, orient
the liux in the outside leg 19 and in the middle leg 17 Ul circuits does not depend upon voltages induced in the
various windings linked between‘the various flux paths.
in the counterclockwise sense and the flux in the other
outside leg 15 in the clockwise sense, with reference to
Accordingly, in systems according vto invention, rela
the outside aperture 104. Note that an amount of 'llux
tively efficient operation is achieved. Various modifica
change, equal to that produced in the 'middle leg 17, is
produced during the selecting operation. That is, the
total linx change in both the outside legs 15 and 19 is
tions of the cores used in the systems of the invention
changes in the outside legs 15 and 19. Thus, a maximum
voltage of one polarity is induced in the control winding
114 when the selecting pulse produces a flux change
along only the first path 110; and a maximum volt-age of
square, or hexagonal arrays.
have been described. For example, three-'apertured cores
with the axes of the respective apertures parallel to each
other, or with the axis of one of the apertures orthogonal
limited to the amount of ñux change that can be pro
to the axes of others of the apertures may be used. Also,
duced in the middle leg 17. The total flux change is lim
a core having four separate apertures may be used in the
ited 4because each of the other legs 19 and 19 are al
ready saturated with flux in the counterclockwise sense, 15 systems of the invention.
A plurality of individual memory systems of the inven
with reference to the outside aperture 104. The tlux
tion may be arrayed in any desired groupings for coin~
change in the core 100, during the selection operation,
cident-current selection of a desired core. For example,
induces a voltage of either one or the other polarity in
the cores may be arranged in multi-cordinate arrays such
the control winding 114.
The amplitude of the voltage induced in the control 20 as, for example, two-dimensional arrays having rows and
columns. The arrays, for example, may be rectangular,
Winding is proportional to the diiîerence between the tlux
the opposite polarity is induced in the control winding
114 when the selecting pulse produces a ñux change only
-along the second linx path 112. After the selecting pulses
What is claimed is:
.
l. A magnetic system comprising a core of substantially
rectangular hysteresis loop material having a plurality of
apertures and having a pair of substantially equal length`
ñux paths in said material, the walls of said apertures de
fining four different legs, a ñrst of said tiux paths includ
ing a íirst and a second of said legs, and the second of`
122 and 124 are terminated, the bias current Ib applied
to the inhibit winding 120 changes the iiux in the middle 30 said flux paths including said tirst and a third of said legs, '
an inhibit winding coupled to said first leg to link both
leg 1f, from the counterclockwise to the clockwise sense,
said paths, a selecting winding linking both said paths, `
with reference to the outside aperture 104. The flux
and a control windingcoupled to said second leg in one l
change in the middle leg 1», is steered to one or the other
sense and coupled to said third leg in the sense opposite
of the outside legs 15 and 19 in accordance with the polar
ity of a control signal applied to the control winding 35 said one sense, means including said inhibit Winding for
114. For example, 'a positive control pulse 126, applied
producing a linx change in said first leg, and means in- „
cluding said control Winding for controlling the division of
tothe control Winding 114, holds the flux in the outside
said flux change in said first leg between said second and .
leg 15 in the initial, clockwise sense, with reference to the
said third legs.
outside aperture 10‘4. Therefore, the flux in the outside
2. A magnetic system as recited in claim l, said corey
leg 19 is changed from the initial, counterclockwise to 40
having three apertures including a relatively central aper
the clockwise sense, with reference to the outside aperture
104. Consequently, substantially all the flux change in
the middle leg 17 is steered to the outside leg 19 by the
positive control pulse 126.
ture and two relatively outer apertures, said first leg in- "
cluding the material between the wall of one of said outer i
apertures and the periphery of said core, said second leg'` l
The pair of dotted arrows in the middle leg 17 and the 45 including the material between the walls of said central f
and the other of said outer apertures, and said third-,leg »,
pair of dotted arrows in the outside leg 15 represent the
including the material between the wall of said other
flux change produced when a negative control pulse 128
outer aperture and the periphery of said core.
'
is applied to the control winding 114. The latter flux
3. A magnetic system as recited in claim l, the axes of
change may correspond, for example, to the writing of a
binary “0” digit in the core 100. Application of a nega 50 said apertures being substantially parallel to each other. ì '
4. A magnetic system as recited in claim l, said aper
tive control pulse 128 to the control winding 114 steers
tures including a relativelytcentral and two relatively
the tiux change in the middle leg 17 along the first linx
outer apertures, said central aperture being elongated
path 110 to the other outside leg 15. The negative con
trol pulse 128 is in a direction to maintain the flux in the
along one of its dimensions.
5. A magnetic system as recited in claim 1, said core
outside leg 19 in its initial, counterclockwise sense with 55
having four apertures including a pair of relatively inner
reference to the outside aperture 104. Accordingly, the
apertures and a pair of relatively outer apertures, said kiirst
other binary digit may be represented by steering the iiux
change in the middle leg 17 to the outside leg 19. Vary
leg including the material between the walls of said inner .
apertures, said second leg including the material between
ing amounts of flux change in the leg 17 may be divided
between the two outside legs 15 and 19 by varying the am- 6 the wall of one of said outer apertures and the periphery
of said core, and said third leg including the material
plitudes of the control signals 126 and 12S. The outside
between the wall of the other of said outer apertures and ‘
apertures are made of relatively larger dimensions to pre
the periphery of said core.
vent undesired ñux changes in the legs 19 and 19 as a re
6. A magnetic system comprising a core of substan
sult of applying control pulses to the control Winding 114.
tially rectangular hysteresis loop material, said core hav- .
Note that Vthe application of only a single selection pulse to
ing a plurality of apertures including a relatively central
the core 100, in the system of FIG. 7, does not produce
aperture and iirst and second outer apertures 4and having
any flux change in the core 100. Likewise, in combina
a pair of substantially equal length flux paths in said ma
torial arrangements of an array of cores 100, a plurality
terial, the walls of said apertures defining four dilîerent
of separate selecting coils can be linked to the array cores
in such a manner that a desired array core is selected only
legs, a ñrst of said ilux paths including a iirst and a sec-. '
when a given number of selecting coils are activated.
The bias current Ib prevents linx changes in the array
cores when less than the given number of selecting coils
ond of said legs, and the second of said flux paths includ
ing said first and a third of said legs, a selecting winding
threading said central aperture and linking both said
are activated. l
paths for producing a tiux change in said core from an
There have been described herein improved magnetic 75 initial to theother direction of magnetization, an inhibitv`
`
‘3,071,754
10
winding threading said first outer aperture and coupled to
said first leg to link both said flux paths, means including
said inhibit winding for producing a ñux change in said
first leg from said other to said initial direction of said
magnetization, and a control winding linking said central
aperture and said second outer aperture, said control
one sense and coupled to said third leg of the same one
core in the sense opposite said one sense, means includ
ing said inhibit coil and a pair of one first plurality and
one second plurality selecting coils for producing a flux
change in said first leg of a selected one of said cores, and
means including said control coil for controlling the divi
winding coupled to said second leg in one sense and cou
sion of said flux change in said first leg of said selected
pled to said third leg in the sense opposite the one sense,
one core between said second and said third legs of said
and means for selectively applying to said control Wind
selected core.
ing a control signal of either one or the other polarity for 10
9. A Amagnetic system as recited in claim 8, said cores
controlling' the division of said flux change in said first
leg between said second and third legs.
7. A magnetic system as recited in claimV 6, wherein
said central aperture is elongated along one of its dimen
sions.
8. A magnetic system comprising a plurality of cores
being arranged in rows and columns, said first plurality
of selecting coils each linking a different row of said
cores, and said second plurality of selecting coils each
linking a different column of said cores.
15
10. A magnetic system as recited in claim 8, including
means for writing information into a desired one 0f said
of substantially rectangular hysteresis loop material, each
cores comprising means for applying a selecting signal to
of said cores having a first, a second and -a third aperture
that one of said first plurality of selecting coils linking
and a pair of substantially equal length flux paths in said
said desired core, means for applying another selecting
material, the walls of said apertures defining four difter 20 signal to that one of said second plurality of selecting
ent legs, a ñrst of said flux paths including a first and a
coils linking said desired core, and means for applying
second of said legs, and the second of said flux paths inselectively to said common control coil a control pulse of
cluding said first and a third of said legs, a first plurality
either the one or the other polarity, said control pulse
of selecting coils each threading said first apertures of a
being applied after the termination of said selecting
different group of said cores to link both said flux paths 25
of each threaded core, a second plurality of selecting coils
each threading said ñrst apertures of another and difter
ent group of said cores, each combination of a different
and another different group of said cores having certain
cores Vin common and other cores not in common, a com
mon inhibit winding threading said second apertures of
all said cores and coupled to said first legs thereof to link
30
both said flux paths in each core, a common control coil
threading both said first and third apertures of all said
cores and coupled to the second leg of any one core in 35
signals.
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,734,184
2,736,880
2,802,953
2,810,901
Rajchman ____________ __ Feb. 7,
Forrester ____________ .__ Feb. 28,
Arsenault ____________ __ Aug. 13,
Crane _______________ .__ Oct. 22,
1956
1956
1957
1957
2,842,755
2,869,112
Lamy ________________ __ July 8, 1958
Hunter _____________ __ Jan. 13, 1959
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