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Патент USA US3071925

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Jan. 8, 1963
A., w. HARDY
3,071,915
FILTER
Filed Sept. 26, 1960
mo
f
ALLEN
INVENTOR.
w. HARDY
3/2"?“
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0
2
1
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of the air ‘?lter-car
3,071,915
_
3,071,915
Patented Jan. 8, 1963
tridge of the present invention.
FILTER
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary vertical section illustrat
‘Allen W. Hardy, Ogden, Utah, assignor to Farr Company,
El Segundo, Cali?, a corporation of California
.Filed Sept. 26, 1960, Ser. No. 58,347
5 Claims. (Cl. 55-324)
ing the method by which the plastic end ?ange of the
This application relates to ?ltering apparatus and has
particular reference to a multiple tube paper ?lter adapted
to separate ?ne microscopic particles of either solids or 10
liquids from a ?owing stream of ‘air or other gas.
Throughout the following description, the term “air”
is used to refer to the gas which is to be ?ltered and the
cartridge is molded onto the tubular ?lter elements.
Referring now to the drawings, the air ?lter assembly
10 is shown attached to, and in communication with the
carburetor 11 of an internal combustion engine 12 .hav
ing an exhaust pipe 14 and an exhaust aspirator 13.
‘The ?rst stage of the ?lter assembly 10 is preferably
a cyclonic ?lter of the type disclosed in said copending
Farr et al. application, and comprising a plurality of ?l
ter units 15 mounted in and extending between the front
wall 16 and rear wall 17 of a chamber 18. The inlet ends
It is un 15 of the ?lter units are each mounted within an inlet open
ing 119 in front wall 16 and the rear or discharge ends
derstood that the term “air” is employed for convenience
of the ?lter units are each received in an outlet opening
and that the ?lter of the present invention will operate
term “particle” is employed to refer to the impurities
which are separated or ?ltered from the gas.
equally well upon other gaseous ?uids. The term “par
ticle".is to be understood as including'both solid particles
and liquid droplets.
20 in rear wall 17', each opening 20 being in axial align
ment with the respective opening 19. The actual num
20 ber of ?lter units is determined by the rate at which ?l
tered air is required in the particular application, nine
units being shown in the drawings only for convenience.
With the exception of inlet openings 19 and outlet open
lugs 20, chamber 18 is closed, except for a bleed-oilc
‘ .A primary object of the present invention is to provide
a novel and highly efficient form of air ?lter of the pleated
paper, tubular type.
A further object of the present invention is to provide
a novel air ?lter cartridge comprising a plurality of tubu
lar paper ?lter elements arranged in parallel, the cartridge
being capable of use alone as an air ?lter, but being
particularly adapted to be utilized in combination with
‘an air ?lter of the cyclonic type.
connection 22 which is operably connected to the exhaust
aspirator 13 for continuously withdrawing the separated
particles from the ?lter units and a controlled amount of
Cyclonic type air ?lters are becoming increasingly -
more popular in applications for internal combustion and
diesel engines. However, any cyclone type device used
to separate particulate matter from the carrying airstream
air from the interior of the chamber 18.
The second stage of the ?lter assembly 10‘ comprises
the ?lter cartridge 30 mounted in the chamber 31, the
front wall of which is formed by the rear wall 17 of the
chamber ‘18. The two stages are secured together by
means of suitable releasable clamp elements 29. The
operates at something less than 100% ef?ciency, and,
chamber 31 is completely closed, having walls'including
depending upon the ‘diameter and height of the cyclone,
the size of the particles removed will vary considerably.
The copending application of Farr et al., Serial No.
‘587,325, ?led May 25, 1956, now Patent 3,030,755
granted April 24, 1962 discloses a highly effective cy
clonic air ?lter which, because of its small cyclone diam
35 top wall 32, side walls 33 and rear wall 34, except for
the outlet openings .20 (which form inlet openings to the
chamber 31) and except for the outlet connection 35
leading from the bottom of the chamber 31 to the air
40
‘intake of the carburetor 11.
The ?lter cartridge 36 is made up of a plurality of
pleated paper ?lter elements 40 in tubular form, the inside
diameter of each element being substantially equal to
that of the openings 2%. Each of the ?lter elements is
particles in the range of 5 microns and above under nor
reinforced by a string 41 wrapped around the cylindrical
mal conditions. However, many applications require
that the equipment operate in environments containing 45 con?guration formed by the outer folds 42 of ‘the indi
vidual pleats. The individual ?lter elements are con
‘excessively high concentrations of extremely small dust
nected together in the desired spaced'con?guration at the
‘and other particles so ‘that even at high e?iciencies, the
forward or upstream ends by'means of a sealing ?ange 44
amount of foreign particulate matter entering the engine
of a relatively soft, ?exible plastic or rubber-like mate
is injurious to the life of the engine. Efforts have .here
‘tofore been made to solve this problem, as by combining 50 rial, the ?ange having inlet openings 45 axially aligned
eter and reverse flow characteristic, attains the high air
stream velocities necessary for e?icient separation of ?ne
‘two or more cyclonic or other type air ?lters in series,
or by various combinations of di?erent types of ?lters.
‘Possibly the best approach heretofore suggested was the
with the interior of each of the ?lter elements. The rear
ends of the ?lter elements are closed and connected to
gether by means of an-end wall 47 of the same plastic
material.
use of a ‘cyclone separator as a ?rst stage and a paper
Means are provided for removably securing the car
'or cloth ?lter as the second stage. ‘However, such pro 55
tridge in the chamber 31 and, as shown, these means may
include a plurality ‘of angle members 50 welded vto the
inside of the chamber walls. The ?ange 44 is ‘provided
with a peripheral bead 51 which is clamped between the
A further object of the present invention is, therefore, 60 ‘angle members and the rear face of the wall 17. For
most installations, this is sufficient to maintain the car
‘to ‘provide an air ?lter which overcomes the above and
posals have not been entirely successful, due in part at
“least, to the loss of pressure energy by turbulence and
resistance to air flow in the transition from the ?rst stage
into the second stage, and in the second stage itself.
tridge in place, but vif desired for protection against ac
cidental rearward displacement of the cartridge a channel
Other objects and advantages of this invention it is
‘member, indicated by the phantom lines of FIGURE 2,
‘believed will be readily ‘apparent from the following de
"tailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof 65 may be secured to the rear wall 34 in position to contact
the rear face of the end wall 47. When in the assembled
when ‘read in connection with the accompanying draw
‘other disadvantages of those heretofore proposed.
position shown'in FIGURE 2 it will‘be seen that the ?lter
fings.
'In thedrawings:
'
FIGURE 1 is a side view of an engine incorporating
element40 is axially aligned with a corresponding ?lter
unit 15.
The method of production of the'cartridge is shown in‘
70
the’. air ?lter of the present invention.
FIGURE 4. Thus, the ?lter elements ‘40 are molded'into
FIGURE 2 ‘is an enlarged sectional view taken sub
the sealing ?ange 2‘t4 utilizing a mold 60 comprising a rec
»stantially on the line 2-—2 of FIGURE 1.
3,071,915
3
tangular vessel 61 having a bottom 62 shaped to con
form to the shape of the end face of the ?ange. A plu
rality of raised cylindrical portions 64 are formed in the
bottom 62, one for each ?lter element and spaced apart
on centers corresponding to the desired spacing of the
?lter elements in the completed cartridge. The diameter
of the cylindrical portions 64 is slightly less than the
inner diameter of the ?lter elements. The mold con?gura
tion is completed by annular beads 65 formed in the
bottom, one surrounding and coaxial with each of the
portions 64, the diameter of each bead being approxi
mately three-quarters of the outside diameter of the
?lter elements.
In use of the mold, the required number of ?lter ele
4
a ?lter, if not carefully removed, will dump some of its
dirt into the clean air side of the induction system, which
is obviously an undesirable feature. Even though the
paper element be built so that one end is permanently
and effectively closed, if it has the air?ow from the
outside in, this same criticism can be levelled at it.
A
large diameter ?lter having the air?ow from the inside
out presents a greater opportunity for dirt to be dumped
out of the inside because of the large opening in the end.
The relatively small diameter tubes of this invention make
it much easier to retain the collected dirt until the car
tridge is removed from the vicinity of the air induction
system.
Having fully described my invention, it is to be under
ments are positioned in the mold 60 over the cylindrical 15 stood that I do not wish to be limited to the details set
portions 64 and immersed in a solution or dispersion of
forth, but my invention is of the full scope of the ap
pended claims.
the plastic material, such as an organisol or plastisol,
which forms the ?ange 44. It will be seen from an inspec
I claim:
tion of FIGURE 4 that the beads 65 function to main
1. A ?lter assembly comprising the combination of:
tain the ?lter elements out of contact with the ?at surface
a ?rst stage ?lter comprising a plurality of cyclone ?lter
of the bottom 62 so that a relatively thick area of the
units; a second stage ?lter comprising a plurality of tubu
?ange material is provided at the annular ends of the
lar pleated ?lter elements, a sealing ?ange connecting said
?lter elements. It will also be understood that the an
elements together at one end, said ?ange being formed
nular grooves 70 in the ?ange are formed by the beads 65.
of a rubber-like material and having a plurality of open
The mold for the production of the end wall 47 is the
ings therein aligned with the interior of said tubular ele
same as that described above, except that the cylindrical
ments, and an end wall connecting said elements together
portions similar to the portions 64 are utilized to form
at the other end, said end wall closing the ends of said
openings 80 in the end wall, and the overall dimensions
elements; and each of said cyclone ?lter units being axially
of such mold are less than the mold 64). The openings 80
aligned with one of said openings and associated tubular
permit air to ?ow through the end wall 47 after the air 30 element with the discharge of each unit connected to the
aligned opening.
has been discharged from the ?lter elements 40, as will
be described more fully below.
2. The assembly of claim 1 including a housing and
In operation of the ?lter assembly, the negative pressure
wherein the sealing ?ange is connected to said housing in
in the carburetor intake causes outside air to be drawn
sealing relationship therewith.
through the ?lter units 15 wherein the air is ?ltered as is
3. A ?lter assembly comprising the combination of: a
fully described in said Farr et a1. copending application.
?rst stage ?lter comprising a plurality of cyclone ?lter
The ?ltered air discharges from the units 15 into the re
units; a second stage ?lter comprising a plurality of tubu
spective ?lter elements '40 and passes radially outwardly
lar pleated ?lter elements, a sealing ?ange connecting said
therethrough into the chamber 31, ?ltering out any re
elements together at one end, said ?ange being formed of
sidual particles not removed in the ?rst stage. The ?l
a rubber-like material and having a plurality of openings
tered air then passes into the carburetor through the con
therein aligned with the interior of said tubular elements,
nection 35.
said one end of said elements being embedded in said
The assembly thus described operates with a high de
?ange, and an end wall connecting said elements together
gree of e?iciency in heavily dust-laden air and is thus
at the other end, said end wall closing the ends of said
particularly effective for use in mining and earth moving
elements, said wall being of the same material as said
equipment. The provision of a plurality of paper ?lter
?ange and said other end of said elements being embedded
elements rather than a single, large diameter second stage
in said end wall; and each of said cyclone ?lter units being
paper air cleaner, and the discharging of the air from the
axially aligned with one of said openings and associated
?rst stage ?lter units directly into the ?lter tube elements,
tubular element with the discharge of each unit connected
to the aligned opening.
minimizes energy losses due to turbulence, the energy
of the velocity of the ?owing air being converted into
4. A ?lter assembly comprising the combination of: a
su?lcient pressure energy to maintain the air?ow through
housing having a partition wall dividing the housing into
the clean paper elements without any pressure drop addi
?rst and second chambers, a plurality of inlet apertures in
tional to that occurring in the ?rst stage. The plurality
said housing communicating with said ?rst chamber, a like
of small paper ?lter elements is also advantageous over 55 plurality of openings in said partition wall, each of said
the use of a single paper ?lter in the utilization of greater
openings being axially aligned with one of said inlet aper
overall ?lter area and the elimination of energy losses
tures, a like plurality of cyclone ?lter units positioned in
caused by the usual reinforcing means such as perforated
said ?rst chamber, each cyclone ?lter unit extending from
sheet metal, wire screens and the like. The plastic ?ange
one of said inlet apertures to the said aligned opening,
and end wall structure provides an economical means 60 each cyclone ?lter unit having the inlet associated with
for assembly of the ?lter elements with su?‘icient strength
said inlet aperture and the discharge associated with said
to eliminate the necessity for such reinforcement and pro~
opening, a like plurality of tubular pleated ?lter elements
vides a sealing medium at the tube ends resistant to vi
positioned in said second chamber, a sealing ?ange con
bration and other mechanical stresses.
necting said elements together at one end, said ?ange
The particular structure of the cartridge 30 has an 65 having a plurality of openings therein aligned with the in
other advantage in that the dirt removed from the air
terior of said tubular elements, said ?ange openings
stream is retained within the individual ?lter elements.
aligned with said partition wall openings in sealing rela
Placing the sealing ‘?ange on the upstream face of the
tionship, and an end wall connecting said elements at the
cartridge allows its removal from the container complete
other end and closing the ends of said elements; and each
with its dirt inside and so prevents the dumping of ac 70 of said tubular elements being in axial alignment with
cumulated dirt into some passage or housing from which
one of said cyclone ?lter units, one of said inlet apertures,
it could easily get into the engine it is supposed to pro
and one of said partition wall openings for minimizing the
tect. Some paper ?lter elements are made open at both
loss of air pressure from said inlet apertures through said
ends and catch the diret on the outside, the seal being
cyclone unit and ?lter element to said second chamber.
effected by means of a gasket and thumb screws. Such 75
5. A ?lter assembly comprising the combination of: a
3,071,915
5
6
housing having a partition wall dividing the housing into
tubular elements being axially aligned with one of said
?rst and second chambers, a plurality of inlet apertures in
said housing communicating with said ?rst chamber, a like
cyclone ?lter units, one of said inlet apertures, and one
plurality of openings in said partition wall, each of said
openings being axially aligned with one of inlet apertures,
air pressure from said inlet apertures to the said outlet
from said second chamber.
a like plurality of cyclone ?lter units positioned in said
?rst chamber, each cyclone ?lter unit extending from one
of said inlet apertures to the said aligned opening, each
cyclone ?lter unit having the inlet associated with said
inlet aperture and the discharge associated with said open 10
ing, a bleed-oft‘ opening to said ?rst chamber for main
taining a reduced pressure in the ?rst chamber and re
moving dust particles separated by said cyclone ?lter units,
a like plurality of tubular pleated ?lter elements posi
tioned in said second chamber, a sealing ?ange connecting 15
said elements together at one end, said ?ange having a
plurality of openings therein aligned with the interior of
said tubular elements, said ?ange openings aligned with
said partition Wall opening in sealing relationship, an end
wall connecting said elements at the other end and closing 20
the ends of said elements, and an outlet from said second
Ghamber for withdrawing the ?ltered air; and each of said
of said partition wall openings for minimizing the loss of
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,714,854
Dollinger ____________ __ May 28, 1929
2,122,111
2,732,031
2,745,513
P-oelman et a1 _________ __ June 28, 1938
Rabbitt et al ___________ __ Jan. 24, 1956
Massey ______________ __ May 15, 1956
2,836,256
2,941,620
Caskey ______________ __ May 27, 1958
Thornburgh __________ __ June 21, 1960
326,047
683,132
Great Britain __________ __ Mar. 6, 1930
Germany _____________ __ Oct. 31, 1939
874,986
France ________________ __ June 1, 1942
700,297
761,710
Great Britain _________ __ Nov. 25, 1953
Great Britain ____ _____ _,__.. Nov. 21, 1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
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