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Патент USA US3072037

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Jan. 8, 1963
,
H. MACKRODT
3,072,026
AUTOMATIC CONTACT PRINTERS FOR ELECTROSTATIC REPRODUCTIONS '
Filed March 13, 1959
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INVENTOR.
HELMUT MACKRODT
dim M121;
TORNEYS
3,072,026
'ice
United‘ States Patent
Patented Jan. 8, 1963
1
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slots and bends in the guide ducts permit a friction-less
travel of the paper webs.
3,072,026
AUTOMATIC CONTACT PRINTERS FOR ELECTRO
‘ ‘
Adjustable high voltage ‘charging devices are installed
in’ the supply ducts for the electrostatic photographic
paper and the print supports.‘ By changing their spacing,
STATIC REPRODUCTIONS
Helmut Mackrodt, ‘Bonn, Germany, assignor to Messrs.
F. Soennecken, Bonn, Germany a corporation of Ger
the charging process can be adapted to the particular
many
ambient conditions such as air humidity and paper quali- ‘
Filed Mar. 13, 1959, Ser. No. 799,306
Claims priority, application Germany Mar. 18, 1958
~
7 4 Claims.
ties. A trough-shaped container which is?lled with a
su?icient quality of toning agents which are known per se
(Cl. 95-—1.7)
The present invention relates to an automatic contact
10 is provided for the development or colouring of the
. charged and exposed separate sheets or paper webs. This
printer for electrostatic reproductions, in which all de
vices for loading, exposing, colouring and ?xing are com
coloured, slide with their uncoated backs along the wall
bined in one apparatus.
of the container, and are positively supplied for the neces
container is so designed that the papers which are to be
‘
With the prior known apparatuswhich operate by simi 15 sary additional working steps due to the curvature of the
lar processes, the separate working steps have generally
container Wall. Arranged in the container itself is a
to be carried out independentaly of one another and dif
bladed wheel which constantly circulates the toner and'
' ferent copying plates likeswise have to be made separately.
throws it simultaneously on to the surface of the paper
Furthermore, it is mainly only paper in roll form which
web which is to be coloured. The ?anges of therbladed _~
can be used.
wheel project beyond the external diameter of the blades
and serve simultaneously as guides for the paper sheets
In contrast to these known apparatus, the automatic
contact printer of the present invention makes it possible
or webs.
to work in a simple manner with paper in roll form
metal and connected to the terminal of a high voltage’
This bladed wheel is advantageously made of,
current source. The polarity is so chosen as to be op
and also single sheets. Furthermore, the sequence neces
sary in the process, such as loading, exposure, colouring 25 posite to that of the charging voltage, which was used
and ?xingmay be maintained or even interrupted at will .
as required,\by taking suitable measures when producing
prior to the exposure process, in order to guarantee a
better adhesionvof the powder elements to the exposed
therelectrostatic reproduction. Furthermore,‘ originals or
areas. The entire trough-shaped container can easily be
subjects printed onone or both sides or even provided
extracted from the apparatus housing in order to clean
with script and or drawings, etc., can be processed in the 30 and render possible a rapid replenishment with toner.
automatic printer of the present invention by the trans
Ribs are provided on the inside wall of this trough-shaped‘
mitted light process or by the re?ex process. This is pos
container for the toner, which container is advantageously
sible as the light-pervious printing cylinder may be
made of plastic. These ribs either extend in the direction
of or diagonally to the paper sheets ‘or webs to be de
swivelled as desired, such as through an angle of 180",
while keeping the same supply and delivery devices for
veloped and project to such a distance from the inside
both the subjects or originals to be transferred and also
wall of the container that only reduction in the friction
forthe electrostatic photographic paper. The direction of
on the large-area container wall is obtained.
I
rotation of the entiresexposure device is automaticelly
An electrical heating means is so ?tted into the feed
adapted to the necessary working method.
ducts (for the photographic paper) and the print support
By this means, one-sided transparent originals or copies 40 that it simultaneously heats the paper sheets and webs,
are guided along on the exposure cylinder while, with a
which are now separated, to such a degree that the elec
trostatically adhering powder particles are thereby ?rmly
swivelled exposure device, the electrostatic or electro
photographicv paper travels along the said cylinder and
fused thereon so that they cannot be wiped off. Electrical
thus re?ex copies can be produced.
heating means are also installed in the supply ducts for
Long supply and discharge ducts ensure the correct 4.5 the paper sheets or webs, which means can be switched;
registry and the smooth‘passage of the separate sheets.
on if for example too high a degree of air humidity makes
By means of the blocking and de?ecting slides ?tted into
it necessary for the papers to be initially dried in other
certain of the supply and discharge ducts, it is possible for
a sheet of the electrostatic photographic paper only to be
to produce good electrostatic reproductions.
The complete automatic contact printer with its guide
statically charged without exposing. While this is being
50 ducts is assembled from components which can easily be
done the exposure means is switched oil and the exposure
removed, so that they can be very quickly cleaned and
access to the mechanical parts of the apparatus is assured
is subsequently effected outside the apparatus. In this
way a reproduction of for example one page of a' book
or. the like may be made using the statically charged
electrophotographic paper, the sheet of the electrostatic
photographic paper exposed outside the apparatus being
introduced through a second slot into the apparatus where
it is developed and ?xed.
‘
in simplest possible manner.
‘
In order to facilitate the operation and control of the
separate working steps, the complete apparatus is con-‘
structed in the form of a desk, so that all supply and
discharge slots can be easily supervised.
Arranged at the supply slots of the guide ducts are
In order to be able exactly to cover the sheets of the
signal lamps which are so connected ‘that with the differ
said photographic vpaper with the copying originals, a 60 ent working methods for re?ex and transmitted lightv
clocking means is arranged on the feed means. This
prints, the only slots used for each particular method of
blocking means is so combined with the feed rollers that
working are those indicated by illumination with the
an automatic advance of the separate sheets, which are
supplied, takes place only when a mechanical or electrical 65 ‘The invention is represented diagrammatically and in
actuation of the'feed rollers simultaneously causes the
principle in the ?guresof the accompanying drawings.
disengagement of the blocking means.
Details of the drive means for the electrical devices are
The apparatus can also be provided with a supple
omitted for clarity in the drawings.
a
mentarydevicewhich permits papersin roll form to be
, FIGURE 1 is» a longitudinal section through the vauto
used for electrostatic photographic paper and print sup 70 matic printer for using separate sheets,
'
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ports instead of single sheets. In this case de?ecting and ‘
FIGURE 2 shows a section through the ribs of the
sliding rollers which are provided at the inlet and outlet
printer of FIGURE 1,
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lamps.
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3,072,026
..
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4
3
FIGURE 3 shows the pair of feed rollers with the paper
stop when in the disengaged position,
FIGURE 4 shows the same as FIGURE 3, but in the
station photographic paper which has now been intro
duced. The support III and the paper I is brought into
close contact by a pair of rollers 39 and 40, so that the
colouring powder adhering to the said paper I is trans
ferred to the copy support III. Due to the guiding direc
‘FIGURE 5 shows the automatic printer with a means
tion into the contact rollers 39 and 40 being vertically up
for handling paper in roll form.
wards, all excess powder particles which are not electro- The automatic machine consists essentially of the hous
statically combined fall off, so that clear and satisfactory
ing 1, which is composed of a plurality of readily detach
prints are obtained without the hitherto usual beating and
able components. However these are not shown ‘as such
inorder to simplify the drawings. The electrostatic pho 10 stripping devices having to be additionally installed.
After leaving the pair of rollers 39 and 40, the two sheets
tograp'hic paper Iis inserted into the slot 2, and the
are separated from one another by the separating device
originals or subjects to be printed II are inserted into the
41 and fed out through the slots 42 and 43. Here they
slot 3. The paper and the original are both advanced
slide past a heating means 44 which supplies such a quan
until they abut against the stop 4 of the feed means, which
consists of the rollers 5 and 6. The feed means, which is 15 tity of heat that the colouring powder is ?xed by ‘fusion
onto the paper so that it cannot be wiped off. This coin
shownrin detail in FIGURES 3 and 4, consists essentially
pletes the copying process.
of the ?xedly mounted roller 5, the movable roller 6, the
In order to be able to carry out the entire working
roller support 7 and the electromagnet 8, Which holds the
engaged position,‘
a
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movable roller 6 away from the ?xed roller 5 against
the action of a helical spring‘9.
process when the papers have taken up somewhat too
much moisture, for example from the ambient air or due
to storage, heating elements 45, 46 and 47 which bring
the paper being used to the most favourable degree of dry
If now the holding
circuit is opened by means of the switch 10, the spring
9Hurges the holder 7 carrying the roller 6 downwards,
whereby the forks _11 of the holder 7 depress the stop 4
against the action of a spring 12 and the two sheets of
ness are arranged in the feed ducts 2, 3 and 36.
v
If a reproduction is to be made of the page of a book
paper I and II are driven together and fed to the feed belt 25 or of another printing subject which ‘cannot be inserted in
the machine, the slide 49 is pushed down into the posi
13 which travels around the exposure cylinder 14 by
tion shown in broken lines and the electrostatic photo»
means of the rollers 16, 17 and 18. The electrostatic pho
graphic paper I is introduced in the usual way into the
tographic paper I has meanwhile been electrostatically
slot 2, where it is statically charged in passing through
charged at the high tension stationv 19. This high tension
station consists of an adjustable and substantially
30 the high-tension station 19' in the manner previously de
U-shaped insulating component 20 slidable in th guide
ways 21 and 22‘, the current-conducting wires 23 and
also the diaphragm 24, and the grounding rail 25. De
scribed and is bent around the lower bend of the slide
49 and thus discharges out'from the slot 48. The ex
posu're can then be made outside ‘the apparatus. For
the purpose of developing such a paper, the slide v50 is
pending on the nature of the original or subject to be
printed, the print may be made as a re?ex copy by the 35 also pushed down into the position shown ‘in broken
feed means consisting of the belt 13 and the rollers 16,
lines, the now exposed paper is introduced into the slot
17 and 18 at the exposure cylinder 14. On the other
51 and conveyed by the pair of rollers 27' and 28 into
hand, the print may be made as a transmitted light copy
the colour medium container 32. At the same time, ‘the
aftervswivelling the feed means into the lower position,
print support III is introduced at the slot 36 and is also
which is indicated in broken lines in FIGURE 1 by the 40 electrostatically charged by passing through the high
rollers 16’, 17’ and 18’. The light is supplied by the
tension station 37. By making electrical contact in a
?uorescent lamp 26 which is arranged in the centre of
manner not shown, the feed, is initiated as previously de
the exposure cylinder 14 and is covered by a screen 14a.
scribed and the, stop of feed means 38 equivalent to ‘the
The complete exposure means assembly can, be rotated
stop 4 of FIGURES 3 and 4 is disengaged, so that once
about, the mean axisinto the position described above, the
again the print support III travels in synchronisrn with
belt 13 beingautomatically changed over to give the
the sheet of electrostatic paper I, which is now coloured‘.
opposite direction of travel. The exposed photographic
The transfer of the reproduction and the ?xing thereof
paper and the original II nowtravel together into the feed
takes place as previously described.
means consisting of the rollers 27 and 28 and, after
, Foryworkingrwith paper in roll form, ‘the apparatus;
leaving ‘the latter, are separated by a special separating 50 shown in FIGURE 1. is placed on a roll carrier 52 accord
device 29, whereupon the original II discharges through
the slot 30 ‘while the photographic paper is introduced
ing to FIGURE 5,} which carries the take-up reels 55 and
56 in addition to the supply roll 53 for the electrostatic:
photographic paper I and supply roll 54 for the print sup
port III. In addition, guide rollers 57 to 65 are arranged
through the wall 31 into the trough-shaped developing
tank 32 and slides along the wall thereof on the ribs
33, shown ‘in FIGURE 2. The ?anges 34 of the bladed
wheel 35 take over the lateral guiding action at this
point. The bladed wheel 35‘ circulates the toner (not
55 on walls or frames which are not shown and which are:
shown) and throws it against the electrostatically charged
sponding to the previously described working operation.
and exposed surface of the photographic paper, the pow
not connected to the roll carrier 52, these rollers 57 to’
65 guiding the ‘paper webs and conveying them corre
The originals or subjects to be printed are supplied at the:
dei- of the oner remains adhering to the paper due to the 60 slot 3 and discharge at the slot 30. The paper webs for
electrostatic charging. This effect is further strengthened
the print support III are introduced into the apparatus.
by} the bladed wheel 35 advantageously being made of
metal and being connected to a voltage source having a
polarity opposite to that of the high-tension station 19'.
A uniform and economic consumption of the powder is
obtained by vthis circulation of the toner. Meanwhile, the
print support III or the transfer paper has been introduced
into the slot 36 and electrostatically charged at a second
high-tensionstation 37. However, this second high-ten
sion station ‘37 may be omitted without appreciably im 70
pairing the method of operation.
Due to the feed device 38, which can be switched on
and which is constructed similarly to that shown in FIG
through the slot 36. The working procedure is the same
as previously described. Here also, re?ex or transmitted
light copies can be prepared, according to the nature of
the originals or subjects to be printed. It is only the ex
posure cylinder ‘which has to be turned to the'required‘
position.
By providing feed devices known per se, fully automatic
operation can be achieved.
.
Electric signal lamps (not shown) indicate inall cases
the feed slots to be used, so that the incorrect operation
is substantially avoided.
,
Since the subject of the invention has bnly been dealt
'URES 3 and 4, the sheet of the print support III is fed
by electric control and synchronously with the electro 75 with diagrammatically ‘and as regards principles, it is of.
5
8,072,026
6
course obvious that variations in construction of the de
tails are possible, and thes also come within the scope
of the claims.
What I claim is:
a housing, photographic exposure structure within the
housing, duct means extending from the external surface
of the housing to a feed zone adjacent the exposure struc
ture, the exposure structure having a light-pervious cylin
der mounted for rotation around its cylindrical axis and
1. An electrophotographic copying apparatus including
a housing, photographic exposure structure within the
housing, a ?rst duct extending from a wall of the housing
having a lighted interior for photographically exposing
sheets that are fed through the duct means and moved
to a feed zone adjacent the exposure structure, electro
along its periphery, said structure also including holding
static charging elements within said duct, a second duct
elements connected for mounting adjacent one circum~
extending from a wall of the housing to a location ad 10 ferential portion of the cylinder rotation to hold a pair
jacent the feed zone, feed mechanism in the feed zone
of superimposed sheets together and move them from the
connected to receive sheets from both ducts and pass
feed zone around the cylinder in one rotary direction so
them together along an exposure path where they co
that the lower sheet is against the cylinder and is ex
operate with the exposure structure to cause an image
posed in a re?ex manner in accordance with an original
on one sheet to be photographically exposed on the other 15 on the upper sheet, the holding elements being swiveled
sheet, adjustable diversion structure movably positioned
with respect to the cylinder rotation for shifting to an op
adjacent the feed zone so that it can be inserted in and
posed portion of the rotation path for holding and mov
withdrawn from zone, and a passageway from the feed
ing a pair of superimposed sheets ?rom the feed zone
zone to the exterior of the housing, said passageway co
around the cylinder in the opposite rotary direction so
operating with the diversion structure to cause a sheet 20 that the upper sheet is against the cylinder and the lower
moving through the ?rst duct to be de?ected through said
sheet is exposed in a non-re?ex manner in accordance
passageway and out of the housing without being photo
with an original on the upper sheet.
graphically exposed, when the diversion structure is in
4. The combination of claim 3 in which the holding ele
ments include a belt that is pressed against the cylinder,
2. The ‘combination of claim 1 in which the housing 25 driving means actuates the belt for rotation with the
also includes developing mechanism, an additional pas
cylinder, and a receiving passageway opening adjacent the
sageway connects the developing mechanism with the ex
cylinder receives the exposed sheets regardless of which
posure structure for guiding photographically exposed
way they are moved around the cylinder.
sheets through a developing operation, and a third pas
sageway connects the additional passageway to the ex 30
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
terior of the housing for receiving a sheet that is photo
serted in the feed zone.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
graphically exposed outside the housing and leading such
externally exposed sheet to the developing mechanism.
8. An electrophotographic copying apparatus including
35
2,551,582
2,624,652
Carlson ______________ .._ May 8, 1951
Carlson ______________ __ Jan. 6, 1953
2,826,168
Grant _,___,__,__l___,_____, Mar. 11, 1958
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