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Патент USA US3072096

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Jan; 8, 1963
J. R. BIRCHFIELD ET AL
3,072,086
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING CONICAL AND RELATED SHAPES
Filed April 14, 1958
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J. R. BIRCHFIELD ETAYI.
3,072,036
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING CONICAL AND RELATED SHAPES
' Filed April 14, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Jan. 8, 1963
J. R. BIRCHFIELD ‘ET AL
3,072,086
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING CONICAL AND RELATED SHAPES
'
Filed April 14, 1958
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Jan. 8, 1963
J. R. ‘BIRCHFIELD ET Al.
3,072,086
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING CONICAL AND RELATED SHAPES
Filed April 14, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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United States Patent 0 "
3,072,086
Patented Jan. 8, 1963
2
l
FIGURES 5 and 6 are sectional views of the mandrel
3,072,ti86
structure of FIGURE 4, and showing successive steps of
METHOD AND APPARATUS FQR FORMiN-‘G
(IONICAL AND RELATED SHAPES
John R. Birchtield, ‘Wiclrli?e, and Vartan A. Gulaian, East
forming the shape thereon;
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view of a modi?ed form of
mandrel drive means;
FIGURE 8 is a sectional view of another embodiment
of the invention, illustrating a mandrel and slidable car
rier arrangement by means of which a flat metal blank
(Ileveland, Ohio, assignors to Thompson Ramo Wool
dridgc, Inc., a corporation of Ohio
Filed Apr. I4, 1958, Ser. No. 723,260
8 Ciainrs. (El. 1l3--52)
may be initially formed;
The present invention relates broadly to the art of 10
FIGURES 9 and 10 are views in section of the same
structure as in FIGURE 8, and showing successive steps
in the step of FIGURE 10;
novel method and apparatus for shaping essentially ?at
FIGURE 11 is a side elevational view, partly in sec
metal surfaces into conical and related con?gurations.
tion, and showing a mandrel construction upon which the
Hollow metallic bodies of general conical con?gura
tion are employed in various applications, and a typical 15 partially formed shape from FIGURE 10 may be ?nished
in accord with the present invention; and
environment for such shapes is in rocketry as the nose
FIGURES 12 and 13 are views in section of the mandrel
section of an airborne article. The preferred practice is
arrangement of FIGURE 11, illustrating the ‘manner of
to form the conical member by shear spinning, which is
successively forming a conical shape to the ?nal con?gura
also referred to in the art by the terms of roll forming,
tion desired.
hydro-spinning, ?oturning, rotary extruding and spin
metal forming, and is more particularly concerned with a
Brie?y stated, the invention herein disclosed is practiced
by arranging a sheet metal shape having an essentially
forging.
However, present techniques of spinning by use of rotat
ing shaped mandrels have been de?cient since it has been
?at face in abutment with an axially immovable rotatable
cone-shaped forming surface, the mid-point or center of
impossible to produce a true conical article thereon. One
approach heretofore taken has been to utilize a blank pro 25 the ?at face coinciding with the central axis or generatrix
of the conical forming surface. The forming surface is
vided with a central opening, and after imparting an open
splined or otherwise secured to a rotatable shaft carrying
ended generally conical shape thereto, suitably secure a
thereon an axially movable member to which the periph
pointed tip to the shape. An alternative method often
ery of the sheet metal shape is attached. To assure
employed is to form a solid ?at blank into a frustro-conical
con?guration, remove the closed end from the shape 30 relatively free axial movement of said member, it is pre
ferred to employ a helical splined shaft or straight recir
thus formed, and thereafter attach a conical tip thereto.
culating ball splined shaft. Rotative movement of the
The de?ciencies of each of these laborious methods of
shaft causes simultaneous rotation of the sheet metal
producing a sharp~pointed conical article are immediate
shape and travel of the axially movable ‘member to form
ly apparent to those versed in the art.
It is therefore an important aim of the present inven 35 said shape to a ?nal conical con?guration having a rela
tively sharp vertex produced by the cone-shaped forming
tion to provide methods of forming conical shapes in which
the tip or vertex portion is formed integrally with the
surface. Speci?c details of the additional novel features
of the present inevntion will be particularly pointed out
as the description proceeds.
main body portion thereof.
Another object of the invention lies in the provision
of apparatus by means of which a metal body of gen
erally conical con?guration having an integral nose por
tion may be shaped without resort to prior art welding and
similar techniques.
Another object of this invention is to provide a sheet
metal forming method and means constructed to impart 45
Referring now to the drawings, and ?rst to FIGURES
1 to 3, there is shown a structural embodiment effective
to initially form an essentially flat metallic sheet into a gen
erally frustro-conical shape, which is subsequently proc
of a relatively simple and effective means upon which a
essed into a sharp-pointed cone con?guration employable
as produced for rocket noses, ?xtures and the like. A
lathe-type mechanism of conventional construction utilized
in the shear spinning art may provide the supporting and
motivating functions of the arrangement of FIGURES l
and 3, and as shown therein, a mandrel 20 of essentially
metal shape may be essentially simultaneously spun and
frustro-conical shape provided with a radially outwardly
a generally conical shape to a single blank essentially en
tirely by metal drawing or spinning techniques.
A further object of the invention lies in the provision
extending ?ange face 21 is secured to a face plate 22 form
ing a part of the lathe head stock portion generally
con?gurations.
designated by the numeral 23.
A further object of the present invention is to provide
The head stock portion 23 is normally constructed to
a mandrel structure of the con?guration ?nally desired
on the blank to be formed and which is axially movable 55 include a driven shaft 24 threaded at one end to receive
a collar portion 25 of the face plate 22, and upon which
while supporting the blank for rotative movement thereon.
is carried an annular spacer 26 hearing against a pulley 27
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
positioned in abutment to a ?ange port ion 28 on a rela
come more apparent during the course of the following
tively large diameter portion 29 of the head stock 23.
description. particularly when taken in connection with the
moved axially to form the same into conical and related
accompanying drawings.
60 Rotative movement for the spinning operation is imparted
to the head stock and the mandrel 20 secured thereto by
In the drawings, wherein like numerals are employed
to designate like parts throughout the same:
a belt 30 trained over the pulley 27 and connected to a
suitable power source.
The mandrel 20 presents a right frusto-conical con
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of a mandrel ar
rangement upon which a metal blank may be initially
formed;
65
?guration in the form shown; however, conical shapes of
the ogive type and others are within the contemplation of
this invention, as well as certain other geometrical forms
of FIGURE 1, and showing successive steps in the initial
requiring a relatively sharp terminex and susceptible to
forming of the conical shape thereon;
shear spinning techniques as herein disclosed. The man
FIGURE 4 is a side elevational view, partly in section,
and showing a mandrel construction upon which the par 70 drel construction may vary within the skills of those versed
in the art, and accordingly, may be essentially solid
tially formed shape from FIGURE 3 may be ?nished into
throughout, or may be provided with a conical cavity 31
a sharp-pointed conical con?guration:
'
FIGURES 2 and 3 are sectional views of the mandrel
3,072,086
4
:37
therein as appears in FIGURES 2 and 3. Further, the
composition of the mandrel may be steel, or for certain
this action is a lip or ?ange c on the frustro-conical shape‘
39 of‘FIGURE 3.
applications aluminum alloys and the like, and reinforced
plastics may be found suitable, depending upon the
The shape 39, as obtained from the last described pre
liminary forming step, is further characterized by an end
strength and gauge of the material to be formed thereon.
- In any event, however, the mandrel 20 is freely sup
ported at one end by reason of securement of its base 21
to the face plate 22. The base 21 and plate 22 are at
tached in face-to-face relation, each presenting an essen
wall or surface 0! of essentially the same thickness as the
blank material 33, and of the same generally ?at con?gura
tion as the end face 32 of the mandrel 20. Many applica~
tions require that the conical shape have a sharp-pointed
nose portion, and one prior art practice has been to re
move the end surface d by a cutting operation, and weld
tially ?at surface, and bolts or similar meanstnot shown)
may beemployed for this purpose. Opposite the base 21
or otherwise secure a separately formed nose portion to
the open-ended frustro-conical shape. This practice, as
well as the other earlier mentioned conventional approach
base to present a frusto-conical shaping surface.
of employing a blank with a central opening therein, are
Against the flat end face 32 of the mandrel is located a 15 clearly not economical from a time and material stand
point.
blank 33 to be formed, and the means to maintain said
blank in-tight abutment with said face is preferably a
Applicants have discovered that the entire body of a
pressure pad 34 or its equivalent against which an axial
sharp-pointed conical shape may be formed by extruding’
the mandrel is provided with an essentially ?at face or end
surface 32,, the plane of which is generally parallel to the
forcev is applied by a tail stock portion 35 of the lathe
or drawing techniques, and apparatus of proven effective
mechanism. The pressure pad is preferably arranged with 20 ness in ?nally shaping the article of FIGURE 3 is illus
its mid-point or center in alignment withthe radial center
trated in succeeding four views of the present drawings.
Turningnow particularly to FIGURE 4, there is again
of the blank 33, or stated otherwise, all portions of the
assembly shown in FIGURE 1 are axially arranged upon
employed a conventional lathe mechanism having a head'
stock assembly 23 as described in connection with FIG
a common horizontal center line to assureproduction of
a shape conforming to the exact contours of the man
URE l, and like numerals designate this portion appear
ing in FIGURE 4. There is provided in this embodiment
of the invention a helically threaded shaft 4%} supported byv
drel 20.
To provide aright frusto-conical shape, for which the
mandrel of FIGURE 1 was particularlyv designed, the
blank 33 is essentially circular. However, variations from
av straight or right conical con?guration will, of course,
an integral collar 41 upon the shaft 24 of the head stock
portion 23 and rotatable therewith. Formed at the oppo
30 site end of the helical shaft 40 is an axially immovable
normally demand a blank of other than a round circum
ference. The material of, the blank or workpiece will vary
the shaft 40 is a mandrel 4-3 of generally frustro-conical'
conical shaping surface, 42, and axially‘ movable upon
con?guration.
depending upon the end application, and in addition to
sheet materials of aluminum, steeland the like, it is pos—
s'ible to shape partially cured thermosetting resins into
It is of importance that discontinuities be prevented in
the shape of the ?nal article produced by practice of the
steps illustrated in FIGURES 4, 5 ‘and 6, and it has been
found in this connection that relatively free axial move
sharp-pointed cones utilizing the principles of this inven
tion. Further, a fully cured resin, such as phenol formal
dehyde, may be shaped to conform to the contours of
ment of the sliding mandrel 43 is required. Astraight‘
the’mandrels herein disclosed by applying heat to said
splined shaft is characterized by heavy bearing forces on
mandrels and by use of post-forming techniques known 40 the driving contact faces ofthis type shaft, with the resultv
to the art. The most important present application of this,
that relatively heavy friction resists axial movement of
the mandrel. It is for this reason that a helical splined
invention, however, lies in the spinning of sheet metal
parts.
shaft as shown in the drawings is preferred, although as
Rotation of the shaft 24 causes similar movement of the
will be noted when reference is madeto FIGURE 7, a
mandrel‘ 20 and blank 33 positioned‘ thereagainst, and
straight recirculating ball spline also, provides an effective
to conform said blank in an extruding manner to the con
solution in accomplishing free axial movement. The angle
tours of the mandrel, a pressure surface 36 is applied
thereto as appears in FIGURES 2 and 3. This surface
may, be in the form of a free rotating wheel carried upon‘
a shaft 37 supported at its opposite end upon the lathe’
mechanism for circumferential travel about the mandrel.
20. The path of travel of the pressure wheel 36 is pref
erably begun ata point on the blank 33 between the outer
diameters of. the mandrel ?at‘ face 32 and pressure pad
of the helical spline or continuous buttressthread 44 on
the shaft 40 is designed to give a controlled and uniform
axial force to the mandrel 43 by contactrwith a continuous
mating groove 45 out along the inner diameter of said
mandrel. The angle and ?nish of the spline 44 substan
tially eliminate the heavy resistant friction between the
groove 45 and the spline 44 to allow the mandrel 43 to
rotate slower than the shaft 40 and move axially thereof.
The mandrel 43 is preferably of a solid and durable
metallic construction, and one of the hardened, steels is
suitable for the present purposes‘. The shape of the man
34,- and designated generally by the legend a. The travel
of the wheel or surface conforms to the contour of the
mandrel 20 and proceeds. both circumferentially there
about in pressing contact with the blank and longitudinally
thereacross to extrude the original metal thickness by
kneading operation whereby said metal is spread along
the mandrel contours and the thickness thereof reduced
progressively during the steps of FIGURES l, 2 and 3;
To assure optimum results, the pressure surface 36 longi
tudinally traverses the blank along a plurality of overlap
ping paths extending circumferentially around the man
drel 2t}. 7
Viewing again FIGURE 2, it may be seen that during"
rotative movement of the mandrel 20 and the blank 33
securedthereto, the pressure wheel 36 by its circumferen
tial and longitudinal travel rolls rearwardly and extrudes
a- portion b of generally the original thickness of said blank‘
until substantially the entire contour of the mandrel has
drel is frustro-conicahas shown, and includes a generally
?at end surface 46 disposed in“ parallel relation to a radi
60
ally outwardly extending base flange 47 formed integral
with the opposite end of the mandrel. In its extreme or
starting position upon the splined shaft 40, the mandrel
43 abuts against the cone-shaped forming portion 42 of
the said shaft by contact between the end, surface 46 of
the mandrel and a ledge 48 on the cone-shaped portion 42.
The partially, formed shape 39 from the step of FIG
URE 3 is mounted upon the axially stationary mandrel
or cone-shaped surface 42 and axially movable mandrel
43 in the manner shown in FIGURE4. The center or
mid-point of‘ the end surface or relatively flat face d of the
shape 39 bears against the vertex 49 of the cone-shaped
forming portion 42, and the ?ange c of the said shape 39
abuts against a ledge or stepped portion 50 provided at
been traversed and metal contact made with a ledge or
the junction of the main body portion of the mandrel
forwardv surface 38 of the mandrel base 21. Formed by 75 43 and the ?ange 47_ thereof. Clamp means 51 are pro?
3,072,086
6
vided to secure the frustro-conical shape 39 to the mandrel
43. The clamp means may be of the ring-type, or may
to the structural arrangements of FIGURES l to 7, that
be in the form of individual clamping members spaced
circumferentially around the mandrel ?ange 47.
a relatively ?at blank into a frustro-conical shape and
thereafter by ?ow extrusion or shear spinning shaping the
frustro-conical article into the shape of the nature of a.
right circular cone. While this process and apparatus
Power from a suitable source transmitted through the
belt 30 to the pulley 27 of the head stock 23 causes ro
the shaping process is performed by ?rst shear spinning
have substantial advantages over the prior art, applicants
tation of the helical splined shaft 46 and cone-shaped
have also discovered that a conical shape having a rela
mandrel portion 42 integral therewith. By reason of the
tively sharp nose portion may be formed continuously
helical spline con?guration of the shaft 40, the mandrel
from a ?at sheet metal blank. An illustrative embodi
43 moves freely axially thereupon. Since the frusto
ment of this form of the present invention is illustrated
conical shape 39 is ?rmly attached to the mandrel 43,
in FIGURES 8, 9 and 10, and speci?c reference is now
rotative force applied to the splined shaft 40 causes
made thereto.
rotation of the shape 39 and mandrel 43, although at a
Essentially, in this form of the invention there is pro
substantially lesser speed than the shaft 40. This arises
by provision of the helical spline, and due to its rela 15 vided an internally splined tubular mandrel member 57
axially and rotatively movable upon a helically splined
tively lesser rotative speed, the mandrel 43 moves axially
shaft 58 supported upon a head stock portion 23 of es
along the shaft 40 in the manner of FIGURES 5 and 6
sentially the same construction shown in FIGURES 1
to spin and extrude the blunt nose portion or ?at end
and 4. At its opposite end the shaft 58 :is formed with
surface d to the thinness desired, and assure conformance
of the ?at end surface to the contours of the rotating cone 20 a cone-shaped mandrel portion 59 of essentially the same
con?guration shown in FIGURE 4. The tubular carshaped forming surface or mandrel 42, the pressure sur
rier. 57 is provided at one end with a radially outward
face 36 is provided. During this forming operation,
ly extending flange portion 60 and against said portion
the metal of the end surface d radially'outwardly of
a sheet metal blank 61 is secured along its periphery by
its center is de?ected or drawn to a relatively lesser
thickness, as appears in FIGURE 6, and as the mandrel 25 clamp means 62.
43 approaches the end of its axial travel, the entire body
or shape 39 is extruded or drawn to a uniform wall thick
ness, as appears in FIGURE 6.
The blank 61 is of essentially circular con?guration,
and is secured to the tubular member 57 with its radial
center bearing against the vertex 63 of the conical shap
ing surface 59, and accordingly, the horizontal axis of
As will be appreciated, the contours and lengths of
the axially stationary mandrel 42 and axially movable 30 the conical mandrel portion 5h, will be found to pass
through the center of said blank.
mandrel 43 may be altered to provide a shape different
The tubular member 57 is provided along its inner
from that shown in the drawings, and the length of the
diameter with a continuous helically-shaped groove 64
helical splined shaft 40 modi?ed to similarly effect de
receiving during travel of said member a similarly shaped
sired changes in the con?guration of the ultimate article
continuous thread 65 formed on the outer diameter of
produced. Further, it may be found desirable upon
the shaft 58. The tubular member or carrier 57 and
occasion to apply a live center cone to the sharp point
or vertex 4? of the forming surface 42 during the course
shaft 58 are accordingly of the same spline, and the heli
of performance of the steps illustrated in FIGURES 5
and 6 to prevent deflection of the mandrel and resist the
load applied by the shear spinning tool.
cal arrangement shown has been found in actual practice
Free axial movement of the mandrel 43 upon the
splined shaft 40 has been found to prevent discontinuities
in the shape of the ?nished piece as formed by the ?nal
shaping step of FIGURE 6. While successful results
have been obtained in practice with the structural em
bodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG
URES 4, 5 and 6, particularly conditions may indicate
the desirability of also applying a tensile force to the
frustro-conical shape 39 during the forming operation as
a further assurance that a smooth contour will be
achieved in the ?nal article. Further, as a substitute for
a helical splined shaft there may be employed a straight
to assure free axial movement of the tubular carrier on
the shaft.
It is to be anticipatedthat a straight spline
would be disadvantageous in this application because of
the heavy bearing forces on the driving contact faces,
and the heavy friction which would result to resist axial
movement of the slidable tubular member 57. As in the
earlier described embodiment of the invention, a straight
recirculating ball spline could be employed as a substi
tute for the helical spline of FIGURES 8, 9 and 10. In
addition, should particular conditions require that addi
tional axial force be applied to conform the blank 61 to
the precise contours of the cone-shaped forming surface
59, spring means or hydraulic cylinders or other equiva
lent arrangements may be employed.
As noted, the shaft 58 is supported at one end by the
recirculating ball spline, and a construction of this
head stock portion 23 of a lathe mechanism, and rotative
character is shown in FIGURE 7. In this embodiment
of the invention, a mandrel 56 moves axially in rolling 55 force is applied thereto by belt means 30 connected to
a suitable power source. Rotation of the helical spline
contact with a plurality of round elements or ball 53
shaft 58 causes a reduced speed rotation of the tubular
traveling in continuous grooves 54 formed in a shaft
member 57 and sheet metal blank 61 attached thereto,
55. The spline of FIGURE 7 is relatively straight, and
and an axial movement of said tubular member or carrier
in the event that slight axial resistance to movement is
rearwardly
along the splined shaft 58 to shear spin the
encountered under certain conditions, spring means or
blank 61 upon the sharp-pointed axially immovable man
hydraulic force may be used to maintain the desired
drel 59. To extrude the sheet metal of the blank to the
tension on the shape or workpiece 39. Rotation of the
thinness desired, and assure conformance of all portions
shaft 55 causes relatively slower rotative movement of
of the blank to the mandrel contours, a pressure surface
the mandrel 56 upon the revolving and circumferentially
66 of the same character shown in FIGURES 2 and 3
traveling ball elements 53, and due to its relatively lesser
speed of rotation, the mandrel 56 moves axially upon the
shaft 55 to shear spin the shape 39 onto the conical
is preferably employed. This may again comprise a
wheel mounted upon a shaft 67 and associated with the
lathe mechanism for free rotation axially and circum
ferentially upon the blank being formed to the contour
?guration shown in FIGURE 6. Recirculating ball con 70 of the mandrel 5%. Travel of the pressure surface or
structions are known to the art, and a plurality of ball
wheel 66 is initiated radially outwardly of the blank mid
elements 53 are arranged in the grooves 54 spaced cir~
point and generally at the location identi?ed by the
legend e in FIGURE 8.
cumferentially around the shaft 55 in accordance with
As the mandrel 59 is spun rotatively and the pressure
customary practice.
-- .Itmay be seen from the foregoing description, directed 75 surface 66 caused to travel thereabout, axial movement
forming surface 56a and into essentially the same con
3,072,086.
8
7
of the tubular carrier 57 with the blank 61 attached
thereto spins or draws the blank into exact conformance
with the contours of the mandrel 59, as shown in FIG
circular surface to the ‘mandrel ?ange with. the radial
URE 9, and the progressive spinning operation continues
for simultaneously rotating the shaft and moving the
until the carrier reaches the end of its path of axial travel.
The portion or periphery of the blank 61 clamped to
the collar or ?ange 60 of the carrier 57 remains attached
mandrel therealong to rotate the surface and axially ex
trude the same into conformance with the contours of the
thereto, and there is formed at the base of the shape 68
a radially extending ?ange f, as shown in FIGURE 10.
center of said surface abutting the vertex of the conical
shaping member, and means mounted on the apparatus»
conical shaping member.
2. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
comprising a splined shaft supported at one end and pro
The ?ange f may be reduced in diameter or entirely 10 vided at its opposite end with a conical shaping member,
a substantialiy frustro-conical shaped mandrel member
trimmed from the shape 68, and said shape utilized as
threadably mounted upon the shaft for axial travel there
a rocket nose or the like. The article produced by prac
along and having a base ?ange, means for clamping the
tice of the invention shown in FIGURES 8, 9 and 10
is essentially a right circular cone, and it will be ap
base of a preformed frustro-conical metal shape to the
base of the mandrel member, and means rotating the
preciated that by changes in the shape of the mandrel 59,
other types of conical shapes may be produced. How
shaft and essentially simultaneously moving the mandrel
ever, it is to be noted that there is now provided a
continuous shaping operation whereby the ?nal article
member and shape attached thereto axially away from
the conical shaping member to spin the shape into contact
desired is obtained without resort to independent form
therewith.
ing operations and welding steps, as has characterized ~
the prior art approaches.
In certain cases it may be found that the base diameter
of the shape 68 is greater than desired, and to reduce
this diameter said shape may be transferred to a mandrel
construction of the character shown in FIGURES 11,
12 and 13. As appears therein, the shape 68 may be
held against the vertex of a conically-shaped mandrel
69 by means of a formed pressure pad 70. The mandrel
3. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
comprising a splined shaft supported at one end and pro
vided at its opposite end with a conical shaping member,
a tubular mandrel member threadably carried by the shaft
for free axial movement therealong, means attaching
the periphery of a disk blank to one end of the tubular
member with its radial center abutting the vertex of the
conical shaping member, and means rotating the shaft,
conical member and blank and essentially simultaneously
axially moving the mandrel member to extrude the disk
69 is provided with a radially extending base ?ange 71,
and is carried at one end by the head stock portion 23 30 blank against the conical member.
of a conventional lathe mechanism in the same manner
as earlier described. A free rotating pressure surface '72
carried upon a shaft 73 associated with the lathe mecha
nism is provided for axial and circumferential travel
4. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
comprising a substantially straight splined shaft and a
plurality of recirculating ball elements movable there
along, a mandrel member threadably mounted upon the
about the shape 68 to shear spin the ?ange 1‘ into contact
shaft in contact with the ball elements and axially mov
with the contours of the mandrel 69 in essentially the
manner shown in FIGURES 12 and 13. During this
cal shaping surface integral with one end of the shaft, a
particular shear spinning operation, the ?ange 1‘ is ex
truded by the kneading action of the pressure surface
72 continuously rearwardly along the mandrel 69 until
contact is made with the base flange 71 of said mandrel
69,. During this secondary shaping operation, the base
diameter of the shape 68 is reduced and the body of said
shape substantially elongated to provide the ?nal shape
74 of FIGURE 13.
It may be seen from the foregoing that applicants
have provided mandrel arrangements and shaping
methods. which entirely avoid each and every noted dis
advantage of the prior art procedures. Each mandrel
disclosed is of relatively simple construction, and the .
results obtainedv therefrom are of predictable and ex
tremely close accuracy. By simultaneously applying ro
tative and axial movement to the relatively flat blank,
all portions are evenly and continuously extruded into
close ?tting contact with the cone-shaped mandrel por
tion of the splined shaft. The apparatus disclosed is
capable of various modi?cations, as by use of a straight
recirculating ball spline, and for particular applications,
able along the path of travel of the ball elements, a coni
generally circular blank positioned in contact with the
conical shaping surface, means clamping the blank to
the mandrel member, and means rotating the shaft and
essentially simultaneously moving the mandrel member
along the path of travel of the ball elements to spin the
blank into conformance with the contours of the conical
shaping surface.
5. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
comprising a substantially straight splined shaft and a
plurality of recirculating ball elements movable there
along, a generally frustro-conical mandrel member thread
ably mounted upon the shaft in contact with the ball
elements and axially movable along the path of travel
of said elements, a conical shaping surface integral with
one end of the shaft, a substantially frusto-conical me
tallic shape supported upon the mandrel member with its
end wall in contact with the conical shaping surface, and
means rotating the shaft and essentially simultaneously
moving the mandrel member along the path of travel of
the ball elements to spin the end wall of the shape into
conformance with the contours of the conical shaping
surface.
the addition of means to exert a more positive axial force
6. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
upon the blank to be formed. A wide variety of shapes 60
comprising a threaded shaft supported at one end and
may be produced, and materials of different compositions
provided at its opposite end with a conical shaping mem
and thicknesses may be readily formed thereon.
ber, a mandrel member threadably carried by the shaft
It is to be understood that the forms of the invention
for free axial movement therealong, means for securing
herein shown and described are to be taken as preferred
a workpiece with a generally ?at circular surface to the
embodiments of the same, and that various changes and
mandrel member with its radial center in contact with
modi?cations may be effected in the size, shape and ar
the vertex of the shaping member, and means mounted on
rangement of parts without departing from the spirit
the apparatus for rotating the shaft and circular surface
of the invention or the scope of the subjoined claims.
and means for pressing the ?at surface against the conical
We claim as our invention:
shaping member whereby said mandrel member will move
1. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
axially away from the conical shaping member and pull
comprising a splined shaft supported at one end and pro
said workpiece to accommodate conforming of said sur
vided at its opposite end with a conical shaping member,
face to the shape of said member.
a mandrel member having a ?ange at one end and thread
7. The method of making cone shapes from workpieces
ably mounted‘ upon the shaft for circumferential and axial
having non-conical surfaces which comprises, threading
travel- therealong, means for clamping a generally ?at
a comically nosed shaft through an axially shiftable man
3,072,086
10
during the rotation of said shaft whereby the mandrel
will move axially away from the conical shaping member
and pull the workpiece to conform to the shape of the
conical shaping member.
drel, securing the periphery of a workpiece to said axially
shiftable mandrel with the shaft nose bottomed on the
central portion of said surface of said workpiece, driving
the shaft to rotate the mandrel and workpiece, pressing
a pressure surface against said rotating workpiece surface
for spinning the surface toward the nose, simultaneously
rotating the threaded mandrel relative to the shaft for
moving the mandrel axially away from the nose, and pull
ing the periphery of the workpiece with the axially shift
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing mandrel for drawing the workpiece into conformity 10
with the nose.
8. Apparatus for forming essentially conical shapes,
comprising a threaded shaft supported at one end and
provided at its opposite end with a conical shaping mem
150,796
1,968,296
2,069,356
2,624,303
2,882,851
2,921,549
Seymour _____________ __ May 12,
Hiester ______________ __ July 31,
Cooperstein __________ __ Feb. 2,
Ghormley ____________ __ Ian. 6,
Graves ______________ __ Apr. 21,
Schwenk _____________ __ Jan. 19,
1874
1934
1937
1953
1959
1960
her, a tubular mandrel threadably carried by the shaft for 15
OTHER REFERENCES
free axial movement therealong, means for securing a
Knight’s
American
Mechanical Dictionary, vol. III,
workpiece with a generally flat circular surface to the
page 2280, published by Houghton, Mi?lin, and Co., The
mandrel member with its radial center in contact with the
Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, published
vertex of the shaping member, means to rotate the shaft,
a pressure wheel mounted to press the ?at surface against
the conical shaping member, and said pressure wheel caus
ing relative rotation between said mandrel and said shaft
0 1884.
Metals Handbook, 1948 edition, page 6, The American
Society for Metals.
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