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Патент USA US3072565

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" 4.1. BAÉTHI'ÈÍAL Il"
.NucLEAR lPima; 7
Y Filed July' 5, 19s@
¿sheets-sheet 1
Seite im@
_ors to SecieteÍGenerale de (Jonstructions Electriques &
2 Claims.
water,_forced into rotation _by the -sys‘t‘em' _of helicoidal
Filed duty 5, i966, Ser. No.f40,872
ribszllçan intermediate part 12 comprisingpar-_ts 13 vfor
» @imma prierity, application 7, 1959 i l
which receives the supporting part 6 .-and is secured to
the wa'll of chamber 1 in any desired -fashion. The fuel’
elements also’ have a, vapourisation fuel fpart 9_g with an
interior channel 10 serving for the- passage of 4the cooling _
»l\_'iet.‘axmi_qtresI (Alsthom), -llfaris, France, a _French body
supported in >known' vfashion by a perforated plate P
_Patented Jan.- §18, 1963
flasques Barth and Edouard Roche, Paris, France, as_sign-> `corporate.
,fa-ce »
>and8enveloping thefuel, The fuel elements .may be
till. 20d-493.2)
Y „the evacuation of theunvapourised water and the equali- `
., 10
sation of the vapour pressures; a 'super-heating fuel part
. 14 similar to the evaporation vfuel part, but capable Aof
being o_f smaller` diameter; and a terminal part 15 not`
' con-taining any fuel intended _to separate the c_old moder
. The present invention -relates to' internal-boiling’pu
_clear piles, and has for an object improvements therein.
ln internal-boiling nuclear piles, the liuid delivered to
the exterior thereof is generally composed of an emulsion
' ator zone from the super-heated steam zone and further
ofwater and steam.
15 comprising the suspending system for thefuel elements.
It is a more particular object of the invention to pro- ‘
The _fuel elements are described in greater detail in'FIG
vide a novel pile which, in particular, allows drying' and
super-heating of the saturated steamin the interior of
,URES 2 and 3. '
_ comprising hollow cylindrical vfuel elements whose, irl-_
ternal bore constitutes _a coolant chan-nel, thesaid ele
ments comprising a lower portion: where the boiling of
to 'isolate the super-heated steam from the moderator
The invention provides yan internal-boiling nuclear pile,
' -At its upper part, the pile carries two plates 16 serving
_being cooled.
The cooled water arrives through an inlet 17 to the
peripheral part of the'ffuelf elements of the -super-heating
zone 3. It" is heated alittle, receiving only a very small
the coolantA takes place,`l an intermediate portion where- - portion of the tlux which super-heatsthe steam, and it.
the liquid phase is separated from the vapour phase of 25 serves as themoderatorfor the super-heating part. Then
the coolant,'and an upper portion where the coolant va
pour is super-heated, a moderator located~ outside said
itleaves-through an outlet 18 to enter into lthe zone 4
through several valves or gates shown schematically at
fuel elements, _said coolant and said moderator consisting
19, assuring the maintenance of the level ‘20 in the boil
. of water, hermetic closure mea?sçin the moderator' regionl
ing zone of the pile; it is heated during its descent around
at a levellocated immediately above said intermediate 30 the fuel elements, without or with a very small produc
portion of said elements in order to define “a lower region
in-which the moderator surrounds said lower portion of
' thev fuel elements and an upper region-_in which the mod
tion of steam which would pass through the equilibrium
The water then enters yinto the channel- 10 where it is
partially vapourised, the unvapourised leaving through
erator surrounds said upper portion of the fuel elements,
means_for admitting ~cold water into said upper region, 35 the ports’13, whilst the dry steam goes on to be super
means for slightly heating said Vcold water in said upper
region, and external conduits for passing' `the slightly
heatedwater 'by gravity from said upper region into said
lower region, means for further heatingof: said water in
v"heated in the part 14 and toleave the pile at 2l.
lIt'is known that an auto-regulation of the piles can
be `obtained by a subfcooling of the feed water in the
case of an increase in the power required; in `order to
said lower region, means for admitting the thus further 40 utilise. this autoregulation in the> pile, the -feed water
can _be divided into two parts: -one part passing, as has
heated water to the bottom of the said coolant channel,
so `that said water is partially vapourisedin said lower ~ ' just been described, to the moderating zone of the super
portion of the fuel elements, _means for evacuating the
heating part 3 and maintaining a constant level (equilib
vapourised water into the said intermediatev portion and
rium of’leaks and systematic losses) in the `zone 4, and .
means causingtthe dry vapour torise into --the said upper .45 ' another partv being directed to> various parts of the mod
portion for super-heating.
` '
erator of the boiling zone 4 so that one can benefit vfrom
Good thermal contact must be -realised between the
coolant and the fuel and the latter must be thermally iso
lated as well as possible from the moderator.
its auto-regulation role.
FIGURES 2 and 3 represent, in section perpendicular
tothe vaxis of the elements, two examples of fuel ele
' The cooling channels are _steam-generators in their
lower part and steam super-heaters in their upper part.
In order that-the invention-may be morèclearly under
ments for 'nuclear piles or reactorsaccording to the in
vention. These elementsv are contained between an in
terior cover 7 and an exterior cover 8 as referred to
stood, reference> will now be made to the accompanying
above. The fuel, for example uranium oxide, is in the
drawings which .schematically show- one embodiment ' i form _of aring divided into three parts 23 with a gap 24
thereof by way of example, and in which: `
55 between each for expansion. _ The fuel is forced against
the cover 7 by bearing against the cover 8.
FIGURE 1 shows an axial section through part of a
pile according to the invention,
The supporting of the parts 23 of uranium oxide on
the exterior cover 8 is obtained in two different ways
FIGURE 2 shows a cross-section through one form
in these two ñgures.
of 'fuelelement for use in the pile of FIGURE l, and
FIGURE 3 shows a cross-section through anotherv 60 In FIGUREZ, the calcined uranium elements »have
form of fuel element.
_ stumps 2S in _contact with-the exterior lcover 8. In
The- pile according to the invention, shown in FIGURE
FIGURE 3, the uranium oxide elements `are portions 26
1, comprises a chamber, part of which is shownl as 1,
of a cylinder and do not have any stumps, the spacing of
and carries horizontally a plate 2, -of a material which
the- fuel element from the exterior cover being ensured
does not absorb neutrons, separating the super-heating zone
by several longitudinal blades 27 integral with the cx
3 and the boiling'zone 4. This plate 2 comprises laby
rinths 5`al1owing the Apassage of the fuel elements an
constituting hermetic sealing means.
_ The fuel elementsl are shown schematically in FIGURE
terior cover 8.
»In the two cases, the spaces between theexterior cover
and the fuel element can, according to the case, be filled
with non~absorbent bodies 28, for example of magnesia,
l, and comprise a supporting part _6 serving for the pos'î
to provide thermal isolation, or they can be left- empty.
tioning of the elements, permitting the entry of the cool. 70 In- a particular case, an operating calculation with a
ing water and ensuring the union between the covers 7
fuel element of 3 mm. thickness and' an isolating zone of _
' scrapes
mm. of magnesia, -has shown that, for a heat fluir of`
for admitting the thus further heated water to-the bottom
lo@ isn/ctn.2l on the interìor'covenheld at 300? C. by the.'
of the said 'coolant channel, so thats‘aid water -is par
tiallfy vapourised in said lower portion of -the. fuel ele
production of steam with super-heating,v the extreme tem-_
peraturesof-th'e uranium oxide will be of the order of '
ments, means for evacua'tìng the vapourised water into
550° _C. and 1050“ C.,l and that the heat flux passing
'tlirouglrthe exterior 'cover~ held at> 200° C. will only be
the said intermediate portion and means causing the dry i
4 “aL/cm?.
vapour toA rise into the said upper portion for super-heat
This calculation has b_een made in `>the case " ‘
,of l'carbon dioxide gas.' With la' cartridge lfilled withl
helium, the interior equilibrium'temperatures lwill >be
" .b_er, a- plate ofv amaterial which -does not absorb neutrons
Aseparating' said 'Chamber' into up'p'er andlower regions,
sealing means in vsaid plate,'hollowcylindrical yfuel Aele
iov/ered and the vproportion of lthe heat'flux between the
interior and 4the exterior will be lowered a little.` . '
l. An internal-boiling nuclear pile comprising hollowl
`rylindrica'l fuel elements whose inter-nal bore V'constitutes
coolant `channel,"the said 'elements comprising a 'lower v
2.y Atrinternal-boiling' nuclear pile comprising a cham
a cartridge filled with a' _gas having the conductivity
ments, internal'helical ribs in said fuel _elements consti- I
' tuting„_ a ycoolant channel-,ysaid fuel elements passingl '
.through said sealing means and comprising, below said
plate, a lower portionwhere' the coolant is vapour'ised and
, an. Airltei'r-nediate"portion,h’aving'openings for A'evacuation
of Ithe liquidÍphase vof the coolant which is given a rotary
movement by said helical ribs, land to equalise _the .vapour .v
pressures', between theïinsidev andthe outside of Asaid fuel
from the vapour phase of- the coolant, _and an upper por
tion where the coolant vapour ‘is super-heated, a mod'e`r-" 20 ,elemenßl and ~above said platee an upper portion where
v portion where the boiling of'thecoolantta'ke's place-«an
intermediateportion whereathe liquid phase is Separated
ator located outside said fuel elements,i-said"cool-ant and
said moderator 'consisting of water, hermetic closure
means in the moderator region at a level located immedi
the coolant vapour is -si1per-hea`ted,«fuel-element-support
ing means;- i-n the said `lower portion of said chamber,
plates disposed’ at -the `topfof said'upper’ portion of said
chamber to insulate the latter from thegsuper-heated cool
,in'order to define a lower region in whichÍ the moderatorV 25 ant vapour coming _from'th‘e fuel elements, means for
hanging thesaid fuel elements »from’said plates, said’upper
surrounds said lower portion of the fuel elements and anl
regionl of- said- chamber having coolant entrances and
upper `'region in which the moderatorsurrounds said
ately above said intermediate portion of said elements
exits, entrance means for s‘aid coolant coming 'from the
said upper region into said lower region offsaid chamber
and whence’said coolant penetrates into said fuel elements,
.heating said Coldwater in said upper region,l and external ad said
coolant acting as a moderator in both said upper
conduits' for passing the slightly heated ,water by lgravity
and lower regions of said chamber. ~ «
'upper portion of the rfuel elements, means foradmitting
cold water into said upper region; means for Aslightly
- :from said upper region into said lower region, means for
further heating ofv said water in said lower region, means
' No references cited. I
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