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Патент USA US3072572

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_ Jan. 8, 1963
3,072,562
V. O. BOWLES
METHOD OF PRODUCING GASOLINE HAVING IMPROVED
DISTRIBUTION .OF ANTI-KNOCK CAPABILITY
Filed March 20, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG.|
Blend Octane
Number
3-,
‘90.8 Octane Number
A
Reformate Tram
EQ
l80-380°E Naphtha
28
(Heavy Naph’rha)
\
.
U _|
-
C
2E
__ _
O 99.8 Octane Number
8 0 a5
Reformate from
=O _'
8
IOOZ-BBO’ENaphtha
av
U
3
.
a:
55
6 r
50
I00
I50
200
250
300
350
400 E
Mean Average Boiling Point
I
|
|
I
l
MABP= Mean Average Boiling Point
u=
2
I05
5 A
a. u:
2 E 952;
Blend Octane‘Number
“Q §:____
E d _>
0 l-
o O
8-
a
° 0?
<0.’
2!
3""
8’:
mm __ n_ u
m‘ _
_
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.C__._..__... ._. ‘2|%__--<
'm',“
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20
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40
so
so
70
so
so
I00
Volume ‘BL-90.8 Reformate from l80-380°F. Naphfha
'
l/Vl/E/VZ'OH. ’
Vernon O.Bowles
AGENT
Jan. 8, 19-63
3,072,562
V. O. BOWLES
METHOD OF PRODUCING GASOLINE HAVING IMPROVED
‘ DISTRIBUTION OF ANTI-KNOCK CAPABILITY
Filed March 20, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fl 6. 3
MABP=Meon Average Boiling Point
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e
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MABP= Mean Average Boiling Point
IIE
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Volume % 99.8 Reformute from lOO°-380°F. Nuphthu
FIG.4
IIVVENTOR.
Vernon QBowles
by
AGENT.
Jan. 8, 1963
'
v. o. BOWLES
3,072,562
METHOD OF PRODUCING GASOLINE HAVING IMPROVED
DISTRIBUTION OF ANTI-KNOCK CAPABILITY
Filed larch 20, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
FIG.6 *
80.3% Reformaie
-
99.8 Octane Number
|9.7% Heavy Straight Run Naphtha
Boiling Range l80-380°F.
TR(NOEeuIcsLmt/.abg9rnlehc)
8
q
vm
0
I00
I50
200
250
300
350
40'?
Mean Average ‘Boiling Pom?
INVENTOR.
Vernon QBowles
by wk
AGENT.
'
3,072,562
United States Patent ()?ice
Patented Jan. 8, 1963
1
Table l
3,072.562
.
METHOD OF PRODUCING GASOLINE HAVING
IMPROVED DISTRIBUTION OF ANTI-KNOCK
CAPABILITY
Vernon 0. Eowles, Katonah, N.Y., assignor to Socony
Mobil‘Oil Company, Inc., a corporation of New York
Filed Mar. 20, 1959, Ser. No. 800,715
4 Claims. (Cl. 208-93)
>
90.8 ON, reformate from
In excess 0190.8 O.N.
180°—380° naphtha
Part; of
Wtd.1
total
O.N.
reformate
The present invention relates to the problem which 10
arises when one or more cylinders of certain spark-ignited‘
internal combustion enginesknock although the octane
rating of the gasoline supplied to the engine is high enough
to provide knock-free operation.
In recent years it has been found that, although the 15
octane rating of a gasoline is high enough to provide
knock-free performance of certain spark-ignited, gasoline
,
Fraction
O.N.
Wtd.1
of total-
’
O.N.
O.N.
reformate
. 105
103. 3
10. 8
. 105
103. 3
10. 8
.110
87.3
9. 6
. 105
94. 3
9. 9
.100
79. 5
8.0
2.100 -
90.3
.105
84. 5
8. 9
. 095
101. 3
.100
. 105
70. 8 > '
84. 3
7.1
8. 9
. 075
. 480
. 105
94. 3
9. 9
2. 100
.035
.075
90. 3
101. 3
120. 0
9:0
0. 6
9. 0
1. 000
'_ ____ _ _
'
9.0
9. 6
120. 0
———~
9.0
—-.——-—
(100. 7)
48. 3
Below 908 O.N.
90. 8
'
. 110
. 100
. 105
87. 3
I79. 5
84. 5
9. 6
8.0
8. 9
fueled, internal combustion engines, one or more of the
. 100
70. 8
7.1 ‘
cylinders thereof knock. This unexpected result is be 20
.105
84. 3
.8. 9 .
. 520 ‘
(81. 8).
lieved due to What is hereinafter designated “manifold
distillation.”
‘
'
1 Weighted octane number.
p
42. 5
_ V.
V
2 It will be observed that this fraction although_hav1ng an octane
“Manifold distillation” as used herein designates that
rating less than 00 8 has been included with the fractions havmg'octane
at least partial distillation of the gasoline in the engine
ratings in excess of 90 8. This has been done because the fraction 1n
question is a high boiling fraction and its effect Wl1l_b6 compensated by
manifold whereby a major portion of the lower boiling 25 the
other high boiling fractions having an octane rating in excess of 90.8 .
fraction of the gasoline goes to the cylinder or cylinders
furtherest from the gasoline inlet to the manifold and a
Table 11
major portion of the heaviest fraction of the gasoline
goes to the cylinder or cylinders nearest the gasoline inlet
96.2 O.N. reformate from 180°
In excess of 90.8 O.N.
380° F. naphtha
30
to the manifold.
It is manifest that, as a result of “manifold distilla
Part of
total
tion,” when the octane ratings of the various fractions
differ. those fractions the octane ratingsof which are be
low that required for knock-free operation of the engine 35
will cause those cylinders into which these fractions ?ow
to knock. This is more readily recognized by reference
to FIGURE 1.
Curve A of FIGURE 1 represents the relation of the
octane rating of fractions of a gasoline having an octane 40
..100
rating of 90.8 (Research-H9 cc. TEL/gal.) and the in
dicated mean average boiling point (M.A.B.P.). It'will
be seen, by reference to curve A, that those fractions of
the 90.8 O.N. gasoline having a M.A.B.P. between about
150° F. and about 260° F. have octane rating of the 45
1. 000
order of 70.8 to 87.3 and represent about 52 percent of
the gasoline (see FIGURE 2 and Table I). In the en
suing discussion this will be referred to as the “low octane
valley,” Where the width of the valley is the percent by
volume of the full boiling range gasoline in the valley‘ 50
Fraction
of total
>
. 090
. 095
.110
. 100
9. 27
9.10
9.25
7. 1.3
. 090
.095
.110. 100
90. 0
10.35
. 180
81.3.
.7575
,
. 100
103. 3'
10.33
120.2
21. 64
Q
9. 27
9.10
‘ 11.00
10. 33
21. 64
.
(106. 7)
.
61. 34 .
_.
‘
—--.--—~
_____ __
103.0
95. 8
100.0
103. 3
.
11.00
.18
' .
Wtd.
O.N.1
120. 2
8.13
100.0
O.N.
reformate
‘103. 0
95.8
84.0
71. 3
.115
.110
.
Wtd.
O.N.1
O.N.
reformate
.
'
‘
-
Below 90.8 O.»N
90. 20.
i
i
Y
'. 110
_
7
84. 0
9. 25
71.3
7.13
.115 _.
90.0
10.35
.100 '
81.3
. 100 V
.425 ' ‘
8.13
(82.1)
-
3-1186
1 Wtd. O.N.-Weighted octane number.
Table III 1
96.2 ON. reformate from 100°— .
V‘ In excess of 90.8 O.N.
380° F. naphtha
and the depth of the valley is the weighted octane num-,
ber of the total valley fraction. It is-to be noted that
thereis one heavier, i.e., higher boiling, fraction the oc~
tanenumber of which is slightly under 90.8 but the‘
octane number of this fraction is very near the octane
= Partot
55
number of the blend, and, not being in the valley,'con
tributes ‘little towards malperformance. This di?iculty
can partly be overcome by reforming the straight‘ run
gasoline to a higher octane level. Thus, vfor example, 60
when the straight run gasoline is reformed to 96.2 octane,
number (Research+1.9 cc. TEL/ gal.) only 42.5 percent
of the gasoline: has an octane rating below 90.8 (see FIG
URE 3 and Table II). Furthermore, when straight run
gasoline is reformed to ‘99.8 octane number’ (Re 65
search-H9 cc. TEL/gal), then only about 20 percentof
the total gasoline has an octane‘ rating below about190.8
(see FIGURE'4 and Table III).
’
'
Wtd.
total
'
reformate
j:
O.N.
O.N.l
I
.
"Fraction
of total
'
Wtd.
.
O.N.
‘O.N.!
10. 43
refer-mate.
. 100
101. s
10. 4s
. 100
101. s
.100
92. 5
9. 25
.100
. .92. 5
9. 25
. 100
77.8
7.78
. 100
92. 3
.100 a
81.5
1 8.15»
.100
9118
.100
02.3
0,23,v
.095
107.3
10.19 g
.100
.005.v
99.8
107.3.
9.98 '
7.10.73 .
.100
v.005
114.0
112.7
11.11
1071a
. .100
111. 0
11. 40
.1104
11.27"
'
..
10.97
.800
(101-1)
.095
112.7
.110.
1 109.7 .
..... --
99:21
1.000.
9. 23
‘
109.7,
,7;
'
9. 98
12, 07
'
~
‘33. 31
'
,
T
Less than 90.8 O.N.
. 100
‘
‘
‘177. s
7'. 7s
81.5
8.15
.100‘
r
.200
i (79.7)
1 Wtcl. O.N.-Weighted octane'number.
'
‘15.93’
'1
-
3,072,562
3
4
While reforming to a total octane number higher than
the required octane number reduces the volume of the
to the problem of “manifold distillation” is provided by
reforming a fraction of the whole straight run naphtha,
fraction of the total gasoline having an octane rating
preferably the fraction having an initial boiling point
lower than the require octane rating, such a method for
overcoming the problem of “manifold distillation” is
within the range of about 160° and about 220° F. and
an end boiling point within the range of about 330° and
costly and wasteful as will become evident from the fol
about 420° F. under reforming conditions of severity
lowing discussion.
such as to reduce the width of the “octane valley” to a
practical minimum. In other words, the hereinbefore
One hundred barrels of gasoline having an octane rat
de?ned fraction of a straight run naphtha is reformed
ing of 90.8 (Research-+1.9 cc. TEL/ gal.) represents
9,080 octane barrels. When the straight run gasoline is 10 under reforming conditions to produce a reforate having
reformed to 96.2 octane number (Research+l.9 cc.
an octane rating (Research-{~19 cc. TEL/gal.) greater
TEL/gaL) one hundred barrels fepl‘esents 9,620 Octane
than the required octane rating in which the width and
barrels. Similarly, when the straight run gasoline is redepth of the “octane valley” are markedly reduced when
formed to 99.8 octane number (Research-{4.9 cc. TEL/
compared to the octane valley in a reformate of required
gal.) one hundred barrels represents 9,980 octane barrels. 15 octane rating. The reformate having a markedly re
Thus, although the etfect'of “manifold distillation” tends
duced or, when economically practical, no “octane valley”
to be overcome by reforming to an octane high enough
to minimize the octane valley in the octane number, vs.
is then blended with an amount of unreformed heavy
fraction of the straight run naphtha to produce a blend
boiling point curve ‘an appreciable number of octane
having the required octane rating. (“Heavy naphtha” is
barrels are given away. The width and depth of the 20 that fraction having an initial boiling point within the
low octane number valley as well as the number of
range of about 160° to about 325° F., preferably not
octane ‘barrels given away at various octane levels is '
below 225° F. and an end boiling point within the range
manifest by inspection of Table IV. In-passing it should
of about 300° to about 425° F.) Preferably, the re
be observed that the octane valley occurs in the lower
formate is blended with a heavy naphtha fraction having
boiling fraction of the blend and results in low “front 25 a high initial boiling point, i.e., having an initial boiling
end” octane number in spite of the high octane number
point within the range of about 225° to about 275° F.
of the lightest (C5) fraction. It is also worthy of menor higher and an end boiling point within the range of
tion that TEL (tetraethyl lead) distillation tends to
about 330° to about 420° F. For example, to make
starve the front end fraction of TEL accentuating the
gasoline having an octane rating of 90.2 (Research+l.9
octane rating de?ciency of the front end and inefficiently 30 cc. TEL/ gal.) the reformate from a straight run naphtha
provides an excessive amount of TEL to the “tail-end”
from which a part of the heavy naphtha has been re
fractions.
moved and having a boiling range of 100° to 380° F. is
Table IV
,
mixed with a separated fraction of straight run naphtha
[Required O_N_ (Research+1_9 w TELIgaLFQM]
Resegarch
Tat/2:1.
Iiiigiiiiég
boiling in the range of 180° to 380° F., i.e., heavy naph
35 tha, in the proportion set forth in Table V.
%§IZGSSO%CIIE%II1B,
Table V
?dtat" tater:
diam:
(depth)
[Bagel/“enemas:gangsta:Bharsher:attests.
rLLn), B.R 1s0°-3s0° F. equals 19.7 percent]
40
54g
99.8
.20
79.7
50% (vol.) lightest boiling fraction 50% (vol.) heaviest boiling fraction
900
Fraction Frac- O.N. oi Wtd. Fraction Frac- O.N. of W td.
No.
tion of traction O.N.. of
0
tion of traction O.N._ of
Thus, while “manifold distillation” can be overcome by 45
reforming to a higher octane number it is inei?cient be-
blend
nacho“
blend
cause
octane some
ratingofofthewhich
cylinders
is in are
considerable
supplied with
excessfuel
of the
;3;
.03
133;‘;
91.5
it;
2.75
:8?
.025
octane rating which these cylinders can advantageously
:28
35:8
$138
18;?)
use and excess octane barrels essentially are given away.
-04_
79-5
3.18
-055
Thus, ‘it is manifest that an ei?cient method of compen-
188°
Q8
?g
18%;’;
sating or overcoming the'e?ects of “manifold distilla-
-025
90-0
2-25
-055
tion” is necessary if valuable octane barrels are not to be
_500 ______ __
given away.
One typical conventional method of processing in
volves the blending of normal 0.; hydrocarbons, light
“mm
a
43434
33:8
97.5
7-31
3Z3
87-0
4-80
3;
36-8
_500 ______ __
018
45,77
NOTE.——Calculatcd octane of light 50%=87.9. Calculated octane of
heavy 50%=9l.5.
straight run gasoline, a reformate having an octane num—
It will be observed that there are no excess octane barrels
ber (Research-{4.9 cc. TEL/gal.) of 94.1, and a second
reformate having an octane number (Research+1.9 cc.
in the blend as prepared in the manner described. Con
sideration of the curve of FIGURE 5 will also make it
TEL/ gal.) of 96.2 in the following proportions to pro 60 evident that even when “manifold distillation” occurs
there will be a more uniform distribution of the high, i.e.,
vide a blend having an octane rating of 90.5 (Re
above 90.2, and the low, i.e., below 90.2, fractions of the
search-{4.9 oc. TEL/gal).
blend to all of the cylinders of the engine. This is be
Percent
Normal C4
_
___
4
Light straight run naphtha (78.7 O.N.) __________ __ 30
94.1 O.N. reformate
Y
40
cause the octane number of the lower boiling ?fty percent
of the blend is more nearly equal to the octane rating of
the higher ?fty percent fraction. It will be observed
that the width of the octane valley has been reduced to
96.2 O.N. reformate
26
about 25 volume percent of the blend composed, as shown
However, as inspection of FIGURE 5 will make evident,
in FIGURE 6, of the fractions having a M.A.B.P. (mean
the blend has an octane valley between 20.5 percent and 70 average boiling point) of about 130° to about 210° F.
73.5 percent which will manifest itself in poor engine per
while a balancing fraction of about 10 volume percent
formance as the result of “manifold distillation.” That
having a M.A.B.P. of about 310° to about 350° F., and
also having an octane number less than that of the blend
is, the width of the octane valley is about 53 percent of
(90.2) has resulted from introducing the unreformed
It has been found that a simple, economical solution 75 heavy naphtha into the blend. Those skilled in the art
the total gasoline blend. '
5
.
will also observe that the octane rating of the lighter ?fty
percent fraction of the blend is 87.9 which is only 3.6
octane numbers lower than the octane rating (91.5) of the
heavier, ?fty percent fraction of the blend. The differ
tion of a straight run naphtha to the extinction or minimiz
ing of the “octane” valley in the curve representing the re
lation between octane rating and mean average boiling
point of various fractions of the reformed gasoline and
blending with the reformate-so obtained, the unreformed
ence between the actual octane number of the blend
(90.2) and the calculated value (89.7) is the effect of
remainder of the 280° to 380° F. fraction of straight run
naphtha to produce a blend having the required octane
This blending appreciation’ appears to apply equally to
rating and an improved distribution of the octane rating
the light and to the heavy ?fty percent fractions of the
over the distribution range of the blend.
blend. Although all of the fuel passing through the l0
Stated in another way the present invention-provides for
engine manifold does not distill (a portion ?ows to the
reforming substantially all of the C5 to 280° P. fraction
cylinders as a mist or fog) it is to be noted that any tetra
of‘a straight run naphtha and a portion of the 280° to 380°
ethyl lead( which is relatively high boiling) in the blend
P. fraction of a straight run naphtha to an octane rating
will tend to remain with the higher boiling ?fty percent
higher than the required octane rating of a gasoline to
‘fraction and appreciate the octane value of this fraction 15 eliminate or minimize the portion of the C5 to 280° F. hav
while concurrently depreciating the octane value of the
ing an octane rating substantially less, i.e., more than two
lighter (manifold distilled) ?fty percent fraction. The
octane units less, than the required octane rating of a gas
combination of tetraethyl lead distillation and fuel mist
oline and blending with the reformate so produced aportion
tends to be compensating. Thus, the comparison of the
of the 280° to 380° F. boiling range fraction of a straight
octane number of the lighter ?fty percent fraction and 20 run naphtha to produce a gasoline blend having the re
the octane number of the heavier ?fty percent fraction is
quiredoctane rating, the aforesaid blend having not more
a useful indication of the engine performance to be ex
than about 30 volume percent of the total blend boiling in
pected and achieved. Alternately, a satisfactory blend of
the range C5 to 280° F., having an octane rating substan
characteristics similar to that of the aforedescribed blend
tially less than the required octane rating of the blend, the
can be made by fractionating a straight run naphtha to 25 aforesaid blend having not more than about 20 percent of
obtain a C5—,280° F. cut and a 280° to 380° P. fraction.
the total blend boiling in the range 280° F. to the end
All of the C5—280° F. cut and about 62.5 percent of the
boiling'poi‘nt of the blend having an octane rating sub
280°-380° F. fraction is reformed to provide a reformate
stantially less than the required octane rating of the
having an octane rating (Research-[4.9 cc. TEL/gal.) of
blend. The’ amount of the 280°~380° F. fraction of the
blending appreciation in the light of present knowledge.
about 99.8.
This reformate is then blended with the un
30 straight run naphtha which can be blended with the re
reformed remainder of the 280°-380° F. fraction. Thus,
for example, the straight run naphtha can be fractionated
to give the following cuts in the ratio indicated.
Fraction
C5—280°F _______________________________ _.
280°-{380°FQ. ____________________________ __
Percent
volume
61. 3
38. 7
0.N. (R.+
1.9 cc.)
formate from the reforming of the C5 to 280° F. and a
portion of the 280 °-3 80° F. fraction of straight run
naphtha is readily determined from the equation
35
Immaterial
51
Since the octane rating of the straight run 280°~380° F.
N :octane rating of 280° to 380° F. fraction of straight
fraction is known and the octane rating of the reformate
run naphtha
from the C5-28O" F. and the reformed portion of the
R=octane rating of reformate from C5 to 380° F. frac
280°-380° F. fraction has been agreed upon, the amount
tion of straight run naphtha
of unreformed 280°-380° F. fraction ‘which can be
K=,octane rating of blend
blended is determined from the equation (assume octane 45 X =percent of 280° to 380° P. fraction in blend
rating (R+l.9 cc. TEL) of unreformed 280°-380° F.
100~X=percent of reformate from C5 to 380° F. fraction
fraction is 51):
The C5—380° F. fraction to be reformed consists of all of
the C5 to 280° F. fraction and the balance of the 280° to
50 380° P. not used in the blend as unreformed, straight run
Since the yield when reforming the C5—380° P. fraction is
known, it can readily be calculated how much of the
55
naphtha. In other Words, the volume and'the severity of
reforming conditions is dependent upon the required oc
tane rating of the blend and the octane rating of the 280°
to 380° F. fraction of the unreformed, straight run naph
tha.
.
i
A modi?cation of the foregoing comprises fractionating
280°-380° F. fraction is to be reformed with the C5 to
280° F. to 99.8 ON. (R+1.9 cc.).
the straight run naphtha into a C5 to 160° F. fraction
(A); a 160° to 320° F. fraction (B); and a 320—380° F.
Reformate required @ 99.8 ON (R+1.9 cc.) to make
fraction (C).
100 bbls. of 90.2 ON. (R+1.9 cc.) when blended with 60
All of the 160° to 320° F. fraction (B) plus a portion
19.7 bbls. of 280°—380° F. fraction having O.N.
ofthe 320° to 380° F. fraction (C) is reformed. to an
(R+1.9 cc.) of 5l—_80.3 bbls.
octane rating greater than the required octane rating of
Yield of 99.8 ON. reformate from C5~280° F. enriched
C5—380° F. straight run naphtha fraction—-69.4% vol.
the ?nished gasoline dependent upon the octane ratings
of fractions A and C. “
65
?=1151 bbls. of 05-3800 F./100 bbls. of 99.8,0.N.
0-694
reformate
Accordingly, the present invention provides for (l)
fractionating a straight run gasoline into at least two
fractions the ?rst fraction having an end boiling point
of about 280° F. and the second fraction having an end
naphtha=6l.3
boiling point of not more than about 380° F.; (2) re
70 forming all of the said ?rst fraction and a portion of
Bbls. of C5—380° F./ 100 bbls. C5-380° F. straight run
the second fraction to obtain a reformate having an octane
naphtha to be processed=24.2
rating (Research-{~19 cc. TEL) higher than the required
Accordingly, the present invention provides for reforming
octane of the ?nished gasoline; (3) mixing said reformate
substantially all of the C5 to 280° F. fraction of a straight
and the balance of said second fraction to provide a blend
run naphtha and a portion of the 280° to 380° F. frac 75 having substantially the required octane rating, the bal
Bbls. of C5—280° F./ 100 bbls. C5-380° F. straight run
3,072,562.
8
ance of said second fraction to be admixed with the re
formate being determined by the equation
100(R—K)
X=
.
N-R
where,
ume boiling in the range C5 to 280° F., and said not more
than 30 percent having a rating more than three octane
units below the required octane rating of said gasoline
blend.
3. A method of producing blended gasoline comprising
catalytic reformate and straight run gasoline and having
a required octane rating which comprises fractionating
straight run gasoline to obtain a heavy fraction having
N=octane rating of the 280° to 380° P. fraction of the
a boiling range of about 280° F. to about 380° F., and
straight run naphtha
Rzoctane rating of the reformate obtained from the ?rst 10 a light fraction having an end boiling point of about 280°
F., catalytically reforming substantially all of the hydro
and a portion of the second fraction
.carbons of said light fraction boiling in the range of C5
K =the required octane rating of the blend, and
X=the percent of unreformed second fraction in the - to 280° F. and only a portion of the aforesaid heavy
fraction under reforming conditions of temperature and
blend
liquid hourly space velocity to minimize the “octane
15
Accordingly, the present invention provides a method
valley” in the curve representing the relation between
for producing motor gasoline not more than about 30
octane rating and means average boiling point of the
percent of which has an octane rating more than 3 units
fractions of said reformed‘C5 to 280° F. hydrocarbons
below the octane rating of the whole gasoline which com
to obtain a C5+ reformate having a minimized “octane
prises fractionating a straight run gasoline into at least a
valley,” blending said reformed hydrocarbons with the
light naphtha and a heavy naphtha having an initial boil 20 balance of the unreforrned heavy fraction of the afore
ing point in the range of the 160° to 325° F. and prefer
said straight run gasoline and obtaining a gasoline blend
ably not lower than 225° F., reforming at least a portion
of which gasoline blend not more than about thirty per
of the light naphtha together with a portion of the high
cent thereof boiling in the boiling range of the lightest
boiling fraction top roduce a reformate having an octane
?fty percent has an octane rating‘5 to 25 octane rating
rating higher than the required octane rating (R+1.9 cc. 25 units below the aforesaid required octane rating.
TEL) of the blend and mixing the unreformed straight
4. A method of producing blended gasoline comprising
run gasoline with the aforesaid reformate to provide a
catalytic reformate and straight run gasoline and having a
blend having the required octane rating.
I claim:
required octane rating which comprises fractionating
30 straight run gasoline to obtain a light fraction compris
1. A method of producing blended gasoline compris
ing C5 and heavier hydrocarbons and having an end
ing catalytic reformate, straight run gasoline, and tetra
boiling point in the range of 225° to about 325° F. and
ethyl lead and having a required octane rating which
a heavy fraction having an initial boiling point about the
comprises fractionating straight run naphtha to obtain
same as the end boiling point of the contemporaneously
fraction A comprising C5 and heavier hydrocarbons hav
fractionated light fraction and an end boiling point in
ing an end boiling point of about 160° F., fraction B 35 the range of about 300° to about 420° F., catalytically
comprising hydrocarbons boiling in the range of about
reforming substantially all of said light fraction and a
160° to about 320° F., and fraction C comprising hydro
minor portion of said heavy fraction, obtaining a re
carbons boiling in the range of about 320° to about 380°
formate comprising C5 and heavier hydrocarbons having
F., reforming all fraction B and a portion of fraction C,
a minor portion thereof more than two octane units less
separating a reformate comprising C5 and heavier hydro 40 than the required octane rating of a blend of C5 and
carbons having an octane rating higher than said required
heavier reformate and the major portion of said heavy
octane rating of the aforesaid blended gasoline, mixing
fraction, mixing said reformate and the major portion of
said reformate, fraction A, and the unreformed portion
said heavy fraction, and obtaining a gasoline blend com
of fraction C, and obtaining blended gasoline having the 45 prising C5 and heavier hydrocarbons having not more than
aforesaid required octane rating of which blended gaso
30 percent by volume of the hydrocarbons boiling in the
line not more than 30 percent by volume has an octane
rating more than three octane rating units below the
range of C5 to 280° F. having an octane rating substan
tially less than the octane rating of said gasoline blend
octane rating of the blended gasoline.
and having not more than about 20 percent by volume
2. A method of producing blended gasoline comprising 50 of said gasoline blend boiling in the range 280° F. to the
catalytic reformate and straight run gasoline and having
end boiling point of the blend having an octane rating
a required octane rating which comprises fractionating a
substantially less than the required octane rating of the
straight run gasoline to obtain a light fraction compris
blend.
'
ing C5 and heavier hydrocarbons having an end boiling
point of about 280° F., and a heavy fraction having a 55.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
boiling range of about 280° to about 380° F., catalyti
UNITED STATES PATENTS
cally reforming substantially all of said light fraction and
a minor portion of said heavy fraction to obtain C5 to
2,249,461
Diwoky ______________ __ July 15, 1941
280° F. reformate having a minimum portion thereof
2,304,187
Marschner ___________ __ Dec. 8, 1942
‘more than two octane units less than the required octane 60
rating of a blend of C5 and heavier reformate and the
major portion of said heavy fraction, blending said re
formate and the major portion of said heavy fraction, and
obtaining a gasoline blend having the aforesaid required
octane rating, having not more than 30 percent by vol
2,324,165
Layng et al. __________ __ July 13, 1943
2,434,634
Bates ________________ __ Jan. 20, 1948
2,651,597
2,891,902
2,844,959
Corner et al ____________ __ Sept. 8, 1953
Hess et al. ___________ __ June 23, 1959
Kline et al ____________ __ July 12, 1960
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