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Патент USA US3072616

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3,72,6d2
to
ite .
Patented Jan. 8, 1963
i
_
2
wherein R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl
having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, aryl and halogenated
aryl. The compositions of this invention show e?'ective'
3,072,602
TEERMQPLAS'TEQ CGMPQSITIGNS HAVING
IMPRUVED LEGHT STABELHTY
Gerald A. Clark and Qarl B. Havens, Midland, Mich, 5 resistance to the degradative effects of light even after
prolonged exposure.
assignors to The Dow Chemical Company, Midiand,
Among the speci?c compounds ‘de?ned by the forego
Mich, a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Filed duty 2, 1959, Ser. No. 824,477
12 Claims. (Cl. zen-ease)
ing formula which have light stabilizing action in thermo
plastic compositions and which are illustrative thereof
are:
This invention relates to new and improved composi 10
tions of resinous organic materials. More particularly,
l-monoacet-ate-ll-benzoyl resorcinol
1-monobenzoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol
it relates to compositions of such materials having im
1-mono(p-chlorobenzoate)~4-benzoyl resorcinol
proved stability to the degradative effects of light.
l~mono-Z-ethylhexoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Serial
No. 544,819, ?led November 3, 1955, and now aban 15
The resinous organic materials which may be stabilized
cloned.
in accordance with this invention may be selected from
Thermoplastic ‘compositions, particularly those pre
pared from haloethylene po‘iymers, have found wide ac
ceptance as useful materials for making foils, ?bers, ?la
ments and other articles.
a wide variety of such substances. Thus any such ma
terial which evidences degradation upon exposure to
ultraviolet light will be bene?ted by the use of the
For example the subject ma
terials may be selected from the synthetic resinous addi
tion polymers. Illustrative of these are the polymers and
The articles so produced are 20 stabilizers de?ned above.
inherently strong, dimensionally stable, relatively inert
to common household solvents, and are easily colored for
an attractive appearance. However, such articles are
interpolymers of vinylidene chloride, vinyl chloride,
subject to rapid and severe degradation and consequent
styrene, acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, and
discoloration due to the effects of heat and light. The 25 the alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl acrylates ‘and methacrylates.
problem becomes most serious when polymeric composi
The homopolymers of the above monomeric materials
tioris are employed as ?lamentary materials in making
and the interpolymers resulting from the polymerization
window curtains, automobile seat covers, and other arti
of two or more of the above are'well known‘ thermoplas
cles which are exposed for prolonged periods of time to
tic ‘materials which ?nd their way into diversi?ed end
direct sunlight. To overcome this disadvantage it has 30 uses for varying opportunities for light exposure. The
become most practical to incorporate certain additives
resinous condensation polymers may also be stabilized’ in
into the composition to stabilize it to the effects of heat
accordance with the invention. Representative of such
and to add other materials to the composition to stabilize
polymeric materials are the polyamides including for
it to the effects of light. Some of the prior light stabiliz
example polyhexamethylene diadipamide and other con
ing materials have suffered from the disadvantages of 35 densate of dicarboxylic acids and diamines, and the poly
bleeding out of articles made from vinyl or vinylidene
esters such as polyethylene terephthalate and similar con
halides. In addition, some of the materials are colored
densates of polycarboxylic acids and polyhydric alcohols.
so that they impart an objectionable initial color which
Also degradation due to light exposure is noted in many
prevents the production of white articles. Further, many
cellulose derivatives including typically the simple cellu
of the prior materials lose their effectiveness as light 40 lose ethers, such as methyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose;
stabilizers after exposure to sunlight for a short time.
the mixed cellulose others such as the alkyl hydroxyalkyl
Degradation and discoloration are also evidenced when
cellulose others; and the cellulose esters including cellu
other resinous materials are subjected to prolonged ex
lose acetate, cellulose butyrate and cellulose acetobutyratc.
posure to light. Thus the known addition polymerizates 45 The stabilizers also ?nd utility with those organic resinous
such as polystyrene, polyethylene and the like, the known
materials commonly referred to as thermosetting poly
condensation interpolymers such as the polyamides and
mers including ‘for example the condensates of phenol
polyesters and the known synthetic cellulose derivatives
with formaledhyde or urea and formaldehyde and like
such as the a kyl cellulose ethers and the cellulose esters
polymeric substances. Other resinous materialsv will be
each will exhibit some downgarding in physical and/or
known. Also the stabilization e?iciency of the claimed
chemical properties from such exposure.
stabilizing agents will vary somewhat with the subject
It is accordingly an object of this invention to provide
material because of the inherent sensitivity or stability
improved compositions having increased resistance to
the degradative effects of light.
of such material per se to light exposure.
benzoyl resorcinol having the following general formula:
mers in which the vinylidene chloride is present in an
amount of {at least 50 percent of the copolymer are em-_
It may be
stated that any resinous organic material which upon
it is a particular object to provide such a composition 55 exposure to ultraviolet light shows evidence of degrada
which is based on a resinous organic material and is re
tion will be protected and bene?ted by the use of the in
sistant to ‘the e?ects of light over prolonged periods of
stant stabilizing agents. Especially advantageous results
exposure to direct sunlight.
are obtained when the haloethylene polymers such as
The above and related objects are accomplished by
the polymers of vinyl chloride, the copolymers of vinyl
means of a composition comprising an organic resinous 60 ‘chloride and vinylidene chloride and the coploymers of
material and stabilizing quantities of a monoester of 4
vinylidene chloride with other copolymerizable mono
ployed. The haloethylene polymers present an unusual
65 problem in that one degradation has started the e?iect
seems to be :autocatalytic and thus the problem of stabili-‘
zation is made more difficult.
The monoesters of this invention are easily prepared
by the controlled esteri?cation of 4-benzoyl resorcinol‘
8,072,602
3
Table I
with the appropriate acid chloride. In a typical example
of the preparation 0.5 mole of 4-benzoyl resorcinol and
Ultraviolet
0.5 mole of acetyl chloride were heated for two hours
sun hrs.
Light Stabilizer
at 75°~80° C. in 500 ml. toluene and 75 ml. pyridine.
to reach
standard
browning
The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature,
washed with water, dilute HCl and ?nally with water.
The mixture was distilled to remove the toluene and the
1. 1-mono-2-ethylhexoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol __________ -i
product recrystallized twice from alcohol. The l-mono
acetate-4-benzoyl resorcinol was in the form of pale
3. l-rnonol".enzoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol___
650
4. 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobenzophenone ____________________ __
325
625
2. l-monoacetate-ll-bcnzoylresorcinol __________ __.
750
yellow crystals melting at 93.6°-94° C. Other typical 10
From the above results it can be seen that the mono
monoesters were likewise in the form of pale yellow
esters of this invention provide considerably more re
sistance to ultraviolet light degradation as one of the
crystals and had the following identifying characteristics:
1-monobenzoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol, M.P.=90° C.;
most effective of the previously known light stabilizers.
1-mono-2~ethylhexoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol, HP. 195 "
200° C. at 0.5 mm. Hg.
15
The monoesters may be employed in amounts of from
0.1 to 10 percent by weight based on the weight of the
EXAMPLE 2
A composition was prepared by blending polyhexa
methylene diadipamide with 2 percent by weight of mono
polymer, preferably from 0.25 to 3 percent by weight.
Most polymeric compositions comprise many ingredients
such as plasticizers, ?llers, pigments, antioxidants, lubri
benzoyl resorcinol monobenzoate. One sample was left
unstabilized for comparative purposes. The samples were
molded into test specimens and subjected to 65 hours
exposure under GE. RS-l sunlamps. The color change
cants and heat stabilizers and the monoesters of this
invention may be employed in such multi~component
after exposure was noted and notched impact tests were
formulations in conjunction with such additives without
run at room temperature. The results are listed in the
any adverse effects. The necessity or desirability of such
additives will be known to the skilled formulator. Like 25 following table. In the results of impact resistance a
higher value indicates a proportionately greater resistance
wise, the monoesters of this invention may be used in
to impact.
conjunction with and supplementary to other known light
Table 11
stabilizers such as salol, tertiary-butyl salol and the like.
The stabilizers of this invention may be incorporated
Color
Impact
into the compositions by blending or mixing with the 30
resinous base by conventional milling or other mixing
Before
After ExBefore
After
means prior to fabrication of the composition. The
Expoposure
ExpoExpo
sure
sure
sure
stabilization may also be incorporated into the formula
tion by other techniques as by dissolution into a spinning
Unstahilized _____________ __ gre _____ brown____5.3
1.4
dope or the polymer, into a lacquer of the polymer, and
Stabilized ________________ __ ye1l0w__ no change.
6.0
1.7
into other dissolved form. The greatest stabilizing
e?iciency is usually attained by the use of blending prior
EXAMPLE 3
throughout the fabricated article results. However bene
A composition was prepared by blending 1 percent of
?cial results may be realized and may be of advantage 40 monobenzoyl resorcinol monobenzoate with a glycol
when the stabilizer is incorporated by impregnation or
unsaturated polyester sold commercially as Polylite 8181
diffusion into the already prepared article. In such case
by the Reichold Chemical Company. Moldings were
the stabilizer may be uniformly distributed or alter
prepared and exposed to GE. RS-l sunlamps for 42
natively may be present in slightly greater concentration
days. The color change was noted at 7, 28 and 42 days
near the surface of the article. For example the stabi 45 and the stability rated according to an arbitrary numerical
lizers of the instant invention may be dissolved in a
scale wherein 0 equals no apparent color and 5 equals a
dye bath which is used to impregnate ?bers and ?laments.
bright yellow. The results are noted below in Table III.
to fabrication so that a uniform distribution of stabilizer
In such case the stabilizer is in an opportune location to
protect both the polymer and the dye stuff from the
effects of ultraviolet light. Other means of incorporating 50
organic additives into resinous materials will be known
and available to the skilled worker.
The compositions of this invention show superior re
sistance to degradation due to light over any previously
known compositions. This superiority will be more 55
apparent from the following illustrative examples in which
all parts are by weight.
Table III
7 days
28 days
42 days
Unstabilized __________________________ __
3. 0
4. 5
5. 5
Stabilized ____________________________ _.
1. 0
1. 5
3. 0
EXAMPLE 4
A composition was prepared by blending 0.5 percent
of monobenzoyl resorcinol monobenzoate with a mass
polymerized copolymer of 70 percent styrene and 30
EXAMPLE 1
percent
acrylonitrile. One sample was left unstabilized
A series of four samples were made consisting of 90 60 as a blank. The samples were prepared into suitable
parts of a copolymer prepared from a monomeric mixture
test specimens and exposed to direct sunlight in the State
consisting of 85 percent vinylidene chloride and 15 per
of Florida with the samples facing south at 45 °. Deter
cent vinyl chloride, 7.0 parts of pentaerythritol tetraester
mination of tensile strength, elongation and notched
of a mixture of saturated fatty acids as a plasticizer,
impact was made.
' 1.0 part of a known phosphate heat stabilizer, and 1.0 65
part of titanium dioxide. To each of three of the four ..
samples was added 1.0 part of one of the monoesters
of this invention as listed in Table I. To the fourth
was added 1 part of Z-hydroxy-S-chlorobenzophenone, a
known light stabilizer. The ‘ingredients were milled on 70
Tensile strength
(p.s.1.)
Before
After
Exposure Exposure
a two mill roll and then melt extruded as a 10 mil mono
?lament. The mono?laments were exposed to direct
sunlight in the State of Arizona until a given amount
of discoloration was attained. The results are listed in
Table I.
The results are listed in Table IV.
Table IV
75
Elong. (percent)
Before
After
Impact
Before
After
Unstabilized____
10, 100
3, 860
2. 35
0. 7
0. 5
0. 3
Stabilized .... -_
9, 490
7, 280
2. 10
1. 3
0. 48
0. 40
3,072,602
5
6
EXAMPLE 5
methyl cellulose and hydroxy ethyl cellulose. Stabiliza
Test samples were prepared from a composition con
sisting of 0.5 percent of monobenzoyl resorcinol mono
benzoate and a copolymer resulting from the mass polym
erization of about 67 percent methyl methacrylate and
tion bene?ts are realized when these monoesters are in
ing compositions.
33 percent styrene. A comparative sample was prepared
from the above copolymer with 0.5 percent of phenyl
sentially of an organic thermoplastic synthetic polymeric
corporated into any other thermoplastic ?lm or ?ber form~
We claim:
1. A light stable composition of matter consisting es
material normally subject to discoloration on exposure to
salicylate. An unstabilized sample was used for purposes
light and from 0.1 to 10 percent of the weight of said
of further comparison. Test samples were prepared and
were exposed to direct sunlight for 12 months at 45° while 10 resinous organic material of a monoester of 4-benzoyl re
sorcinol as a stabilizer having the general formula:
facing south in the State of Florida. Determinations of
tensile strength and elongation were made. The results
OH
0
are noted in Table V.
Table V
|
15
Tensile Strength
(p.s.i.)
Elongation
(percent)
wherein R is selected from the group‘ consisting of alkyl
Before
After
Before
After
20 having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, phenyl and chloro
phenyl.
Unstabilized _______________ _-
Phenyl salicylate_
Monobenzoylresor n01
on
obenzoate ________________ __
9, 820
4, 290
3. 4
0. 9
10, 160
3, 600
3. 9
0. 7
10,160
5,700
4.0
1.2
The above results indicate the superiority of the stabi
lizers of this invention to protect resinous materials over
a traditional light absorbing agent.
EXAMPLE 6
A composition was prepared by blending 1 percent of
a monobenzoyl resorcinol monobenzoate with an organo
soluble ethyl celulose. One sample was left unstabilized
as a blank.
_
2. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein the
monoester is 1-monoacetate-4-benzoyl resorcinol.
3. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein the
25 monoester is l-mono-(2-ethylhexoate)-4-benzoyl resor
Films of 0.025 inch in thickness were cast
cinol.
4. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein the
monoester is l-monobenzoate-4-benzoyl resorcinol.
5. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein said
organic thermoplastic synthetic polymeric material is an
addition polymer.
6. The composition claimed in claim 5, wherein said
addition polymer is a monoethylene copolymer consisting
of at least 50 percent by weight of vinylidene chloride
from organic solution. The ?lms were exposed for 2 35 with any remainder of a monoethylenic'ally unsaturated
hours under a GE. AH—6 Mercury lamp. The ?lms were
comonomer.
analyzed by infrared technique for rate of carbonyl de
7. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein said
velopment. The results are listed in Table VI wherein a
organic thermoplastic synthetic polymeric material is a
lower value indicates less photo degradation.
Table VI
Unstabilized ______________________________ __ 0.075
condensation polymer.
8. The composition claimed in claim 7, wherein said
condensation polymer is ‘a polyamide.
9. The composition claimed in claim 7, wherein said
Stabilized ________________________________ __ 0.025
condensation polymer is a polyester.
10. The composition claimed in claim 1, wherein said
The monoesters of this invention are light stabilizers
for all resinous organic materials which are normally sub 45 organic thermoplastic synthetic polymeric material is a
synthetic cellulose derivative.
ject to discoloration from exposure to ultraviolet light.
11. The composition claimed in claim 10, wherein said
In addition to the materials listed in the examples these
synthetic cellulose derivative is an alkyl cellulose ether.
monoesters exhibit a similar effect when incorporated
12. The composition claimed in claim 10, wherein said
into compositions based upon the polyole?nes including 50
synthetic cellulose derivative is a cellulose ester.
polyethylene, polypropylene and copolymers of ethylene
and propylene; polyvinyl chloride and copolymers of vinyl
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
chloride with vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, vinylidene chlo
ride and other monoethylenically unsaturated comono
mers; the polymers and copolymers of styrene and vinyl 55
toluene with other comonomers including butadiene, oz—
methyl styrene and alkyl acrylates; the polymers and in
terpolymers of vinylidene chloride with comonomers in
cluding vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, acrylonitrile, alkyl
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,445,739‘
2,568,894
2,686,812
2,735,783
2,898,323
Rowland et al. ________ __ July 20,
Mackey ____________ __ Sept. 25,
Wynn et a1 ___________ __ Aug. 17,
Tamblyn et al _________ __ Feb. 21,
1948
1951
1954
1956
Clark ________________ __ Aug. 4, 1959
acrylates and alkyl methacrylates; and the synthetic cellu_ 60
OTHER REFERENCES
lose derivatives, including the cellulose esters and spe
ci?cally cellulose acetate, cellulose butyrate and cellu
Berry et al.: “Modern Plastics,” vol. 25, page 154, Oc
lose acetobutyrate, and the cellulose ethers including
tober 1947.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3,072,602
I
January 8' 1963
Gerald A‘, Clark et a1.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 1, lines 63 to 69, the formula should appear as
shown below instead of as in the patent:
Signed and sealed this 6th day of August 1963°
(SEAL)
Attest:
ERNEST W. SWIDER
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
_
_
Commissioner of Patents
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF 1 CORRECTION
Patent No.‘ 3,072,602
January 8, 1963
Gerald A. ‘Clark et a1.
It is hereby certified that error apbears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring corr action and that the said Letters Patent should read as
i corrected below.
1'
Column 1, lines 63v to 69-, the formula should appear as
;shown below instead of as in the patent:
H
Signed and sealed this 6th day of August 1963.
( S EAL)
Attest:
ERNEST W. SWIDER
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
Commissioner of Patents
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