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Патент USA US3073585

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Jan. 15, 1963
F. SCHULENBERG
3,073,575
AIR-COOLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Filed Sept. 5, 1957
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ÍNVENTOR
ATTORNEY
Jan. 15, 1963
F. scHuLENBERG
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AIR-COOLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Filed Sept. 5, 1957
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Jan. 15, 1963
F. SCHULENBERG
3,073,575
AIR-COOLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Filed Sept. 5, 1957
'7 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Jan. 15, 1963
F. scHULl-:NBERG
3,073,575
AIR-COOLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Filed Sept. 5, 1957
7 Sheets-Sheet 6
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Jan. 15, 1963
F. SCHULENBERG
3,073,575
AIR-COOLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Filed Sept. 5, 1957
7 Sheets-Sheet 7
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/NVEN TOR
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United States PatentOiihce
3,073,575
Patented Jan. 15, 1963
1
2
3,073,575
or its throughput capacity is reduced to a very consider
able extent.
In order to avoid the above-mentioned objections it
AIR-CGÜLED SURFACE CONDENSER
Franz Schulenberg, Bochum, Germany, assìgnor to Gea
Luftltuhler-Gesellschaft m.h.H., Bochum, Germany, a
firm
Filed Sept. 5, 1957, Ser. No. 682,238
7 Claims. (Cl. 16S-_146)
is proposed, according to lthe invention, to adapt the heat
exchanging surfaces of the condenser tubes in the rows of '
tubes arranged one behind the other in the direction of
flow and/ or the steam distribution to the rows of tubes to
the actually 4available drop in temperature between the
The present invention relates to a surface condenser
steam admission temperature, in the neighborhood of the
with a plurality of condenser elements connected in paral 10 steam distribution chamber, and the cooling air tempera
lel as regards the steam to be condensed and cooled ex
ture in such a manner that in all the rows of tubes the con
ternally by a current of air maintained in positive cir
densation is completed lat a short distance from the ends
of the tubes leading into the condensate collecting cham
culation, in which condenser each condenser element has
at least two rows of condenser tubes arranged substan
ber. This presents the advantage that subcooling of the
tially parallel to each other and one behind the other at 15 condensate is avoided and the formation of ice plugs in
a distance apart in the direction of flow of the cooling
air. The condenser tubes of each condenser element
cold weather cannot occur.
Furthermore, a far better
are at the same time connected in parallel to a .common
steam distribution chamber :and to a common condensate
utilization of the available heat-exchaning surface is ob
tained, which is advantageous not only in the case of par
ticularly low atmospheric temperatures but also in the case
collecting chamber. The vaporous medium to be con
densed, for example water vapor, is fed to the steam
rangement, while subcooled condensate enters the con
of higher atmospheric temperatures. Finally, by this ar
distribution chambers of the individual condenser ele
densate collecting chamber from the rows of tubes first
ments through at least one `connection piece of a steam dis
brushed by the cooling air current, the condensation proc
ess in the last row of tubes situated at the end of the air
tribution conduit. Two to four or even more rows of
condenser tubes are arranged one behind the other in the 25 current possibly in the neighborhood of the ends of the
ñow direction of the cooling air. The condenser tubes
tubes leading into the condensate collecting chamber will
are generally constructed as ribbed tubts and may be of
circular or elliptical cross section. The condenser tubes
are brushed on their outer si-de by a current of cooling
not have terminated completely and some steam will still
air drawn from the atmosphere and positively kept mov
manner that, while using condenser tubes of similar length,
similar passage cross section and with similar heat-ex
changing surfaces, at least the tubes in the row first
brushed by the current of cooling air 4reecive a far greater
quantity of steam, for example 1/4 to 2/3 more than the
tubes of the rows of tubes arranged behind them in the
direction in which the cooling air flows. It is, however,
particularly advantageous yfor the quantities of steam ad
ingl for example by means of propeller blowers.
In the condensers of this type hitherto known the con
denser tubes in all the rows arranged one behind the
other in the direction of ñow of the cooling air receive
the same quantities- of steam. As the tubes in the indi
vidual rows possess similar heat-exchanging surfaces, the
objection arises that, owing to the drop in temperature be
coming less from row to row in the direction of flow be
tween the temperature of the steam entering the distribu
be sucked out of these tubes by the air exhausting device.
The invention can be applied for example in .such a
mitted to the tubes of the rows of tubes arranged one
behind the other in the direction of flow to be substan
tion chamber and that of the cooling air, the condensa
tially proportionately equal to the drop in temperature
tion in the individual rows varies very considerably.
Whereas, for example, in the first row of tubes brushed by
the cooling air the whole of the steam is already con
densed at a relatively great distance from the end of the
actually available between the steam admission tempera
ture in the neighborhood of the distribution chamber and
the mean cooling air temperature in the range of the actual
row of tubes. In order to obtain such steam distribution,
devices for throttling the steam admission can be coordi
nated to the ends of the tubes leading into the steam dis
tribution chamber. These devices may consist, for exam
tube leading into the condensate collecting chamber, in
the row of tubes last brushed by the current of cooling
air the condensation process is only terminated in the
ple, of nozzles or diaphragms fitted, if necessary exchange
neighborhood of the end of the tube leading to the con
ably ñtted, in the tube ends leading from the steam dis
densate collecting chamber. Consequently, in the rows
of tubes first brushed by the air current only a portion of 50 tribution chamber. Such throttling arrangements are not
necessary in the row 'of tubes first brushed by the cooling
the tube length is utilized for the condensation of the
air, which tubes each receive a maximum quantity of
steam, whereas in the remaining section of the length of
these tubes the condensate undergoes unnecessary under
cooling. This cooling of the condensate below the con
densation point has been found extremely disadvantageous -55
especially in the case of low atmospheric temperatures,
particularly heavy frost, because in the rows of tubes
first brushed by the cooling air the condensate is cooled
steam.
The object of the invention can also be attained in
that, when using condenser tubes of uniform passage cross
section and uniform length, which receive the same quan
tities of steam, at least the tubes of the row of tubes ñrst
brushed by the cooling air current have a heat-exchanging
surface which, in relation to the quantity of steam passed
far below freezing point so that these tubes become com
pletely choked by ice plugs. When the tubes of the row of 60 through, is considerably smaller, for example by 1A to
Va, than the tubes of the rows of tubes following there
tubes first brushed by the current of >cooling air have be
after. However, it is particularly advantageous in this
come choked by freezing up, the cooling air comes within
case for the heat-exchanging surface of the tubes in the
the range of the second row of tubes at a lower tempera
rows of tubes `arranged one 4behind the other in the di
ture, with the result that also in these tubes the boundary
rection in which the cooling air flows, to be dimensioned
between the condensation range and the undercooling 65 substantially inversely proportional to the actually avail
range is displaced towards the steam admission end owing
to the greater drop in temperature available, and ice plugs
also form there.
The same procedure repeats itself at
able drop in temperatures between the steam admission
temperature in the region of the distribution chamber and
the mean cooling air temperature in the region of the
very low atmospheric temperatures of, for example, about
actual row of tubes. To obtain a different heat-exchang
_20° C., possibly also in the next following rows of tubes 70 ing surface in the case of the tubes of the rows of tubes
so that the condenser either becomes frozen upv entirely
arranged following'each other in the direction in which the
3,073,575
the ribs in the individual rows of tubes can, when ribbed
tubes are employed, be different.
A
shape form a substantially equilateral triangle in cross
section, and on the base of this triangle propeller blowers
9 of relatively large diameter are arranged extending in
According to another feature of the invention the tubes
in the row of tubes iìrst brushed by the current of cooling
a horizontal plane. The propeller blowers 9, as can be
seen from FIG. 2, are arranged with but slight lateral
cooling air flows, the surface area and/or the spacing of
clearance under the condenser elements 7 and 7a united in
air can, when using condenser tubes of the same length
double rows and are equipped with individual drives 1i)
and with similar heat~exchanging surfaces, also have a
which can be adjusted independently of each other. ln
considerably larger passage cross section, for example
this manner the number of revolutions of the individual
larger by M1, or 2/3, than the tubes of the rows of tubes
arranged thereafter. In this case, however, it is par l0 propeller blowers 9 can be independently regulated. ln
addition the angle of incidence of the blades of the propel
ticularly advantageous for the ñow cross section of the
condenser tubes in the rows of tubes arranged one be
hind the other in the direction in which the cooling air
ñows, to be dimensioned in the same ratio to the drop in
temperature actually available between the steam admis
sion temperature in the region of the distribution chain~
ber and the mean cooling air temperature in the region of
the actual row of tubes.
The object of the invention can also be attained by
ler blowers can be adjusted, although this is not shown
in the drawings, in order to be able in this manner to
regulate the quantity of air delivered by the individual
blowers independently of each other.
As can be seen from FIGS. 1 to 3, the condenser ele
ments 7 and 7a arranged on both sides of the connection
pieces 5 of the steam feeding system 4 and united in
double rows, are in each case arranged above a large
using a combination of two or more of the means in 20 suction chamber 11 open on all sides and which has suc-
dicated above.
Several preferred embodiments of the invention are
tion apertures 12 extending substantially over their en
tire outer sides. The propeller blowers 9 suck air from
illustrated by way of example in the accompanying draw
ings, in which:
in the sides of the suction chamber 11 and force it up
plant;
denser elements 7 and 7a arranged above the propeller
the atmosphere through the suction apertures 12 provided
FIG. l is a side elevation showing a complete condenser 25 wards in substantially vertical direction through the con
blowers 9.
Instead of the condenser elements 7 and 7a being ar~
line II--II of FIG. 1;
ranged as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, it is obvious that the
FIG. 3 is a vertical section, on a larger scale, on line
30 invention can be carried out with condenser elements ar
III-_III of FIG. 2;
ranged in some other manner. The only important fac«
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic front elevation of a condenser
tor is that the condenser must have several condenser
element;
elements which are parallel connected in as far as the
FIG. 5 is a vertical section on line V-V of FIG. 4;
steam to be condensed is concerned and which are ex
FIG. 6 shows, on a larger scale, a portion of FIG. 5
with ribbed tubes and throttle nozzles inserted therein; 35 ternally cooled by a positively circulated air current and
in which each of the condenser elements has at least two
FIG. 7 shows, on a larger scale, a portion of FIG. 5
rows of substantially parallel condenser tubes arranged
with throttle diaphragms inserted in the ribbed tubes;
one behind the other at a distance apart in the direction in
FIG. 8 shows, on a larger scale, a section of FIG. 5
which the cooling air stream is circulated, the condenser
with a false bottom plate arranged in the steam distribu
tubes of each condenser element being connected in paral
tion chamber and provided with apertures;
lel up to a common steam distribution chamber and to a
FIG. 9 shows the false bottom plate according to FIG.
common condensate collecting chamber.
8 in perspective view;
An example of a form of construction of a condenser
FIG. lO is a cross section through the upper part of a
element of this type is illustrated diagrammatically in
modified form of construction of a condenser element
FIGS. 4 and 5. «Each of the condenser elements has a
with tubes with different heat-exchanging surfaces, and
FIG. 2 is a top plan view and a horizontal section on
FIG. 1l is a cross section similar to FIG. l0 showing a
condenser element with tubes with diiîerent passage cross
sections.
relatively large number of ribbed tubes 13 of circular
cross section arranged parallel to each other at a distance
apart, which tubes, as can be seen from FIG. 5, are ar
ranged infour rows 14, 15, 16 and 17 connected up in
As shown in FIGS. l and 2 a steam discharge conduit i
from a steam turbine Z which drives, for example, an 50 series at a distance apart in the direction of the cooling air
ñow x. It is evident that two, three or more than four
electric generator 3, is connected to a symmetrically
rows of ribbed tubes arranged one behind the other in
branched steam feeding system 4. The branches of said
the direction x in which the cooling air ñows, can also be
steam feeding system 4 are of similar construction, the
used instead of the four rows of series connected ribbed
cross-sectional ñow area of the steam feed conduit 4
being reduced in stages in proportion to the quantities 'of 55 tubes 13. Moreover, it is also possible to use tubes of
elliptical or oval cross section instead of tubes with cir-
steam lcd o?l’, so that the flow speed of the steam along
the `entire length of the steam feed conduit ¿i is substan
cular cross section. In this case the tubes will be so ar
tially the same. As can be seen from FIG. 1_ the steam
ranged that their long cross-sectional axis lies in the direc
tion x in which the cooling air tlows.
All the ribbed tubes 13 of each condenser element are
laid under the ñoor and has four connection pieces 5 ar 60
connected at their upper end to a common steam distribu~
ranged at uniform distances apart and extending perpen
tion chamber 18 and at their lower end to a common con~
dicularly to the floor. Two diverging, similarly con
densate collecting chamber 19. The steam distribution
structed and coaxially arranged steam distribution con
chambers 1S of the condenser elements are connected to
duits 6 and 6a are connected to each of the end connecting
pieces 5 of the steam feed conduits 4. A double row of 65 the steam distribution conduits 6 and 6a by connection
feeding system 4 connected to the discharge conduit 1 is
condenser elements 7 and 7a is connected to each of the
steam distribution conduits 6 and 6a.
pieces 20 of large cross section extending substantially
over the entire length of the steam distribution chambers
1S. The steam distribution conduits 6 and 6a have, as
can be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2, a cross-sectional shape
from FIG. 3, arranged at an incline to each other in roof
shape and connected at their ends close to each other to the 70 tapering conically in the direction of ñow y of the steam,
the cross-sectional reduction being in proportion to the
steam distribution conduits 6 and 6a extending in the
amount of steam led off to the condenser elements ar~
longitudinal direction of the double rows. and at their
ranged side by side in the longitudinal direction of the
ends away from each other to condenser collecting con
distribution conduits 6 and 6a. The steam to be con~
duits ‘ä and Sa extending parallel thereto. The condenser
densedis fed via the connection pieces 20 in the direction
elements 7 and 7a inclined towards each other .in roof
The condenser elements 7 and 7a are, as can be seen
3,073,575
6.
a at a temperature of about 40’ C. into the steam dis
tribution chambers 18.
for example _20° C. and below, ice plugs are formed in
the subcooled zones and choke these tubes so that ñnally
elements are connected to the condensate collecting con
only the last row of tubes 17 in the direction of the cool
ing air current is available for the condensation of the
duits 8 and 8a by connection pieces 21. These connection
steam.
The condensate collecting chambers 19 of the condenser
pieces 2.1, contrary to those of the example illustrated in
In order to overcome these objections, throttle arrange
ments can be detachably ñtted in the ends of the tubes
of the second, third and fourth rows of tubes 15, 16, 17
in the direction x in which the cooling air `flows, which
also connected by connection pieces 22 arranged laterally
of the collecting chambers 19, to an air exhaust conduit 23 10 ends lead `from the steam distribution chamber 18, as
illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. In the form of construction
which leads to an air exhausting device 23a as can be seen
illustrated in FIG. 6 the throttle arrangements consist of
from FIGS. l and 2. This air exhausting device 2351,*
FIGS. 4 and 5, can have a considerably larger passage
cross section. The condensate collecting chambers 19 are
constructed in known manner, produces the vacuum nec
essary for the condensation of the steam. In this arrange
ment a common air exhauster can be provided for all con
nozzles 24, 25, 26 which have a different passage cross
section in the individual rows of tubes. The passage cross
section of the condenser tubes 13 of the row or” tubes 14
tirst -brushed by the cooling air current and also of the
nozzles 24, v25, 26 of the rows of tubes 15, 16, 17 is
gauged in the same ratio to the drop in temperature be
tween the steam temperature in the region of the steam.
also possible to utilize the condensate collecting conduits
8 and 8u at the same time as suction lines and Ito connect 20 distribution chamber 18 and the mean cooling air tern
perature in the region of the actual row of tubes 14, 15,
the air exhausting device or devices directly to the con
16, 17. Thus the condenser tubes in the rows of tubes
densate collecting conduits S and 8a. With the aid of
14, 15, 16, 17 are supplied with `dilferent quantities of
the air exhausting devices coordinated to the condenser,
steam proportional to the drop in temperature between
an absolute pressure of for example 0.05 atm. is pro
25 the steam admission temperature and the mean cooling
duced in the condenser elements.
`
air temperature actually available in the region of the
In the form of construction illustrated in FIGS. 4 and
denser elements of the condenser, but likewise a separate
air exhauster may be provided for example for each of
the steam distribution conduits 6 and 6a. Moreover, it is
5, the condenser tubes 13 of all rows of tubes 14, 15, 16,
actual row of tubes, so that in all the rows of tubes the
17 Vare all of the same length and have similar heat-ex
changing surfaces and passage cross sections. The rows
condensate enters the condensate collecting chamber 19
at approximately the same temperature. At the samey
of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 are arranged parallel to each other 30 time the strength of the cooling air current is adapted,
and at the same distance apart. Each row of tubes 14,
15, 16, 17 consists of a relatively large number of likewise
parallel condenser tubes 13 arranged at the same distance
apart in lateral direction.
by regulating the blowers 9 according to the actual atmos
pheric temperature, to the total quantity of steam to be
condensed in a condenser element so that the condensa
tion terminates inall the rows of tubes.14, 15, 16, 17 at
In the case where the condenser tubes 13 of all the 35 a short distance from the ends of the tubes leading into
the condensate collecting chamber 19, with -the result
rows of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 receive the same quantity
that no appreciable subcooling of the condensate takes
of steam, diñîerent condensation conditions exist in the
place.
individual rows of tubes owing to the different drop in
Instead of the nozzles 24, 25, 26 used in FIG. 6, the
temperature between the steam temperature in the region
of the distribution chambers 18 and the cooling air tem 40 steam distribution to the condenser tubes 13 of the indi
vidual rows of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 arranged one behind
perature in the region of each individual row of tubes
the other in the direction of ñow x of the cooling air, can
14, 15,16, 17. As the `drop in temperature between the
be regulated by diaphragrns 27, 28, 29 (FIG. 7) or by
steam and the air is relatively greatest in the tubes of the
other devices narrowing the cross-sectional passage area
row of tubes 14 ñrst brushed by the cooling air, the con
densation process in the tubes 13 of this row of tubes 14 45 of the tubes. The diaphragms 27, 2S, 29 are~ also de
tachably fitted in the ends of the tubes. In the case ot'
already finishes at a relatively great distance from the
elliptical ribbed tubes with end sections of circular cross
ends of the tubes leading into the condensate collecting
cham-ber 19. When all the rows of tubes are uniformly
section, the diaphragms 27, 2S, 29 can also be loosely
fed with steam, only the upper portion of the length of
inserted in the ends of the tubes. The passage cross
the condenser tubes 13 of the row `of tubes 1d, which is 50 section of the condenser tubes 13 of the first row' 'of
shown without cross-hatching in FiG. 5, is fully utilized
for the condensation of the steam, whereas in the lower
cross-hatched portion of the length of the condenser tubes
of the row 14, the condensate is subjected to unnecessary
tubes 1a, as well as the diaphragrns 2.7, 2S, 29 of the
rows of tubes 15, 116, 17 is graded proportionately equal
to the actually available »dropI in temperature between the
steam temperature in the region of the steam distribution
undercooling. Owing to the fact that the drop in tem~ 55 chamber 18 and the mean cooling air temperature in the
region of the actual row of tubes 14, 1:7, 16, 17. At the
pcrature between the steam temperature in the region
same time the strength of the cooling air current is also
of the distribution chamber 18 and the cooling air tem
regulated, depending upon the actual atmospheric tem
perature in the region of the individual rows of tubes 15,
perature, according to the total quantity of steam to be
16, 17 becomes less from row to row of the tubes, the
boundary between the condensation region which is not 60 condensed in the condenser element so that the condensa
tion terminates in all rows of tubes at a short distance
cross-hatched and the subcooling region which is cross
from the ends of the tubes leading into the condensate
hatched is displaced more and more towards the ends of
collecting chamber 19. The condenser tubes 13 of ali
the tubes leading into the condensate collecting cham
ber 19.
the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 are, in the form of con
In the case of the condensers hitherto generally 4used 65 struction illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, all of the same
length, have similar heat-exchanging surfaces and, apart
the strength of the cooling air current in relation to the
actual atmospheric temperature is generally so chosen
from the throttle devices 24 to 29 in their upper end,
the same passage cross section. The radial ribs provided
on the outer side of the condenser tubes 13 are designated
near the lower end of the condenser tubes. Consequently, 70 by 30 and are all of the same surface area and distributed
at uniform distances apart over the entire length of the
of the whole of the heat-exchanging surface of the con
that the condensation process in the row of tubes 17
located at the end of the cooling air current, terminates
denser tubes 13 of the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 only the
-section located above the cross-hatched subcooled region
is utilized for the condensation of the steam in the known
condensers. In the case of low atmospheric temperatures,
condenser tubes 13.
In the form of construction illustrated in FIGS. 8 and
9, the condenser element also has four rows of condenser
tubes 13 arranged one behind the other in the direction
3,078,575
7
8,
cooling air temperature inthe region of the actual row
of tubes 14, 15, 16. In the event of the available drop
in temperature in the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 being 40°,
30° and 23° C., respectively, the heat-exchange surfaces
x in which the cooling air flows, which condenser tubes
are ‘all of the same length, have similar heat-exchanging
surfaces and the same passage cross section. As can be
seen from FIG. 8, a false bottom plate 31 extending sub
stantially parallel to the plane of the tube mouths is ar
of the condenser tubes 1,3 -in the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16
should be as l/40z1/3021/23.
ranged in the distribution chamber 18 and provided
In the example illustrated in FIG. 11, the condenser
tubes 13 in ther ows of tubes 14, 15, 16 arranged one bc
with apertures 32, 33, 34, 35 opposite the mouths of
the tubes. The passage cross section of these apertures
32, 33, 34, 35 is progressively smaller from row to row
of tubes in the direction x in which cooling air tiows,
hind the other in _the direction of flow of the cooling air
x, are of the same length and have the same heat-exchang
ing surface area but have passage cross sections of difier
ent sizes. The passage cross section of the condenser
proportionately to the actually available drop in tem
perature between the steam admission temperature in
tubes in the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 is proportionately
the region of the steam distribution chamber 18 and the
equal in each actual row of tubes to the drop in tempera
mean cooling air temperature in the region of the ac
ture between the steam admission temperature in the
tual row of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17. By this arrangement
region of the steam distribution chamber and the mean
it is also possible for the condenser tubes in the rows of
cooling air temperature in the region of said actual row
tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 to be supplied with different quan
of tubes, so that a steam distribution proportional to the
tities of steam which are proportional to the actually
actually available drop in temperature is set for the con
available drop in temperature between the steam admis
sion temperature vand the mean coe-ling air temperature in 20 denser tubes 13 of the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16. ln the
event of the drop in temperature between the cooling air
the region of the actual row of tubes. The condenser
and the steam in the steam distribution chamber being
tubes 13 are, in the example illustrated in FIG. 8, pro
40° C. in the region of the row of tubes 14, 30° C. in the
vided along their entire length with radial tubes 30‘ on
region of the row of tubes 15 and 23° C. in the region
their outer side.
of the row of tubes 16, the passage cross sections of the
ÁIn the case of the atmospheric temperature being for
condenser tubes in the rows of tubes 14, 15, I6 should
example _20° C. and the steam temperature for example
be in a ratio of 40:30:23. The size of the surface area
+40° C. in the region of the steam distribution chamber
and the spacing of the ribs 30 of the condenser tubes 13
1S, susbtantially the following conditions can be assumed
is so chosen in the individual rows of tubes 14, 15, 16
in the case of the forms of construction illustrated in
30 that the heat-exchanging surfaces of all the condenser
FIGS. 6 to 9:
tubes are of the same size.
The mean cooling air temperature in the region of the
From the above detailed description of the invention,
individual rows of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17 arranged one
it is believed that the construction will at once be ap
behind the other in the direction of ñow x should, under
parent, land while there are herein shown and describe/.l
‘the given conditions, be _15° C. for the row of tubes 14,
several` preferred embodiments of the invention, it is
nevertheless to be understood that minor changes may
be made therein Without departing from the spirit and
~_6.5" C. for the row of tubes 15, --0.5° C. for the row
of tubes 16 and +35" C. for the row of tubes 17. In
the rows of tubes the following mean drop in tempera
ture is available for the condensation of the steam:
scope of the invention as claimed.
I claim:
Row 14=55° C.
Row 15=46.5° C.
Row 16=40.5° C.
Row 17=36.5° C.
40
1. In a surface condenser for condensing steam by a
stream of cooling air, in combination, a plurality of con
duit means connected in parallel, each conduit means in
cluding a row of conduits for conducting the steam trans
verse to the direction of the stream of air, said rows of
The passage cross section of the nozzles 24 (FIG. 6)
or of the diaphragms 27 to 29 (-FIG. 7) or of the aper
32 to 35 in the false bottom 31 (FIGS. 8 and 9) are so
stepped down that the quantities of steam distributed to
the condenser tubes of the rows of tubes 14, 15, 16, 17
are as 55:46.5:40.5:36.5.
The form of construction of a condenser element '
illustrated in FIGS. l0 and l1, is provided with three
rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 arranged one behind the other
in the direction of flow of the cooling air x. In the ex
conduits being located in planes extending transverse to
said direction and distributed along the length of the
stream of air so that the stream of cooling air successively
passes over the outer surface of each of said conduit means
whereby the temperature of the air is increased, said con
duits of each row of conduits being substantially identical,
and having substantially the same heat-exchanging sur
face, and the conduits of all said rows of conduits being
diiferently shaped and arranged in such a manner that
the amounts of steam passing through each conduit sepa
ample illustrated in FIG. 10 the ribbed tubes 13 in the
rately, and through all conduits of each row across con
rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 are all of the same length
and have the same passage cross section. Furthermore,
the ribbed tubes 13 in all the rows of tubes are supplied
with the same quantity of steam. The heat-exchanging
surfaces of the ribbed tubes are, however, of ditîerent
'secutive equal portions of said stream of air decrease in
said direction of the stream of air corresponding to the
decreasing cooling capacity of the stream of air so that
the condensate formed in each of said conduit means of
the steam entering all said conduit means at the same tem
`dimensions in the individual rows of tubes 14, 15, 16.
perature has substantially the same desired temperature.
In the row of tubes 14 tirst brushed by the current of
2. In a vsurface condenser for condensing steam by a
cooling air, the condenser tubes 13 have a heat-exchang
stream of cooling air, in combination, a plurality of con
ing surface which is considerably smaller than that of
duit means connected in parallel, each conduit means in»
the tubes of the row 15, the heat-exchanging surface of
cluding a row of substantially identical conduits for con
65
which is in turn considerably smaller than that of the row
ducting the steam, `said rows of conduits being located in
of tubes 16. Furthermore, the spacing of the ribs 30
planes extending transverse to the direction of the stream
in the individual rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 differs in the
of air and being distributed along the length of the stream
form of construction illustrated in FIG. 10. It is how
of air so that the stream of cooling air 'successively passes
ever also possible, while retaining equal spacing in the in
dividual rows, to make the ribs of different sizes. The 70 over the outer surface of each of said conduit means
whereby the temperature of the air is increased; and throt
heat exchanging surface of the condenser tubes 13 in the
tling oriñce means arranged in said conduits for throttling
rows of tubes 14, 15, 16 is inversely proportional to the
the flow of steam through said conduit means, the throt
available drop in temperature between the steam ad
tling orifice means in the conduits of each row being sub
mission temperature in the region of the steam distri
stantially identical, and the throttling orifice means of all
-bution chamber 18„ not shown iin FIG. l0, and the mean
3,073,575
said rows lbeing differently shaped in such a manner that
different amounts of steam flow through each of said con
duit means and that the total amounts of steam passing
through said conduit means across consecutive equal por
tions of said stream of air decrease in said direction of
the stream of air corresponding to the decreasing cooling
capacity of the stream of air so that the condensate formed
in each of said conduit means of the steam entering all
said conduit means at the same temperature has substan
10
pacity of the stream of air so that the condensate formed
in each of said conduit means has substantially the same
desired temperature.
5. In a surface condenser for condensing steam, in com~
bination, blower means for producing a stream of air ñow
ing in a selected direction; a plurality of conduit means
spaced different distances from said blower means, each
conduit means including the same number of tubes ar
ranged in la row for conducting the steam transverse to
tially the same desired temperature.
10 the direction of the stream of air, said rows of tubes being
3. In a surface condenser for condensing steam by a
located in planes extending transverse to said ydirection
stream of cooling air, in combination, a plurality of con
and distributed along the length of the stream of air so
duit means, each conduit means including the same num
that the stream of cooling air successively passes over the
ber of tubes arranged in a row for conducting the steam
outer surface of each of said conduit means whereby the
transverse to the direction of the stream of air, said rows 15 temperature of the air is increased, said tubes being sub
of tubes being located in planes extending transverse to
said direction and distributed along the length of the
stream of air so that the 'stream of cooling air successively
stantially identical; and detachably mounted throttling ori
ñce means for said tubes, the throttling orifice means for
the tubes of each conduit means being identical, and the
passes over the outer surface of each of said conduit means
throttling orifice means for the tubes of different conduit
whereby the temperature of the air is increased, said tubes 20 means being differently shaped in such .a manner that dif
being substantially identical; and throttling oriiice means
ferent amounts of steam flow through each row of tubes
for said tubes, the throttling oriñce means for the tubes
and that the total amounts of steam passing through said
of each conduit means being identical, and -the throttling
conduit means across consecutive equal portions of said
orifice means for the tubes of diñïerent conduit means
stream of air decrease in said direction of the stream of air
being diñerently shaped in such a manner that different
corresponding to the decreasing cooling capacity of the
amounts of steam flow through each row of tubes and that
stream of air so that the condensate formed in each of
the total amounts of steam passing through said conduit
said conduit means has substantially the same desired tem
perature.
means acro'ss consecutive equal portions of said stream
of air decrease in said direction of the stream of air cor
6. A surface condenser as set forth in claim 1 wherein
responding to the decreasing cooling capacity of the stream 30 said conduit means have different cross sectional areas de
of -air so that the condensate formed in each of said con
creasing in said direction of the lstream of air.
duit means has substantially the same desired tempera
7. A surface condenser as set forth in claim 1 wherein
said conduits of the first row of conduits in the direction of
ture.
4. In a surface condenser for condensing steam by »a
said stream of air over which the air passes first have
stream of cooling air, in combination, a plurality of con 35 cross 'sections one quarter to two thirds greater than the
duit means, each conduit means including the same num
cross sections of the row of conduits next following in said
ber of tubes arranged in a row for conducting the steam
direction of the stream of air.
transverse to the direction of the stream of air, said rows
of tubes being located in planes extending transverse to
References Cited in the file of this patent
said direction and distributed along the length of the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
stream of air so that the stream of cooling air successively
passes over the outer surface of each of said conduit means
1,597,720
Carrier ______________ __ Aug. 31, 1926
whereby the temperature of the air is increased, said tubes
1,627,265
1,760,505
1,915,805
Bancel ________________ __ May 3, 1927
Lea _________________ __ May 27, 1930
Sutcliiîe _____________ __ June 27, 1933
being substantially identical; and detachably mounted
ythrottling orifice means for said tubes, the throttling ori 45
ñce means for the tubes of each conduit means being iden
tical, `and the throttling orifice means for the tubes of dif
ferent conduit means being diíferently shaped in such a
manner that different amounts of steam flow lthrough each
row of tubes and that the total amounts of steam passing 50
through said conduit means across consecutive equal por
tions of said stream of air decrease in said direction of the
stream of air corresponding to the decreasing cooling ca
2,006,649
Modine __ ____________ __ July 2, 1935
2,107,478
2,263,397
2,587,720
2,613,065
Happel ______________ __ Feb. 8,
Rathbun _____________ __ Nov. 18,
Fritzberg _____________ __ Mar. 4,
Didier _______________ __ Oct. 7,
1938
1941
1952
1952
FOREIGN PATENTS
732,492
Great Britain _______ ____ Iune 22, 1955
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