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Патент USA US3073678

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Jan. 15, 1963
J. ROTHENBERGER
3,073,668
METHOD oF IREAIING MATERIALS IN A WASHING MACHINE
Jan. 15, 1963
-
J. RoTHENBERGl-:R
.
3,073,658
METHOD OF TREATING MATERIALS IN A WASHING MACHINE
Filed Dec. 30, 1958
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INVENTOR.
Jan. 15, 1963
J. ROTHENBERGER
3,073,663
METHOD OF TREATING MATERIALS IN A WASHÍNG MACHINE
Filed Dec. 50. 1958
185
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INVENTOR.
ûpkaß îaß/flßiRóf/ñ
3,073,668
‘Äited
Patented Jan. 15, 1963
l
3,073,668
METHUD @il TREATlNG MATEN ^. SINA
WASHÃNG MAQHINE
Jakob Rothenberger, 49 Kronleinstrasse,
Zurich, Switzerland
Fiied Dec. 3l), 1953, Ser. No. '733,943
Claims priority, application Switzerland Eniy i3, 1955
8 Claims. (Cl. 8-1S9)
This invention relates to a washing machine and more
particularly to a Washing machine automatically operating
through a series of cycles.
The present application is a continuation-in-part of my
2.
pressure of the fresh water through pipe 10. it would
also be possible to replace this container by a volume con
trol valve designed to deliver and maintain one set rate
of water regardless of variable inlet pressure.
The discharge opening of container 9 or said volume
control valve is connected with pipe 12, forming a ñrst
inlet, which is opened and closed by an electromagneti
cally controlled valve i7. This pipe 12 opens into the
shell 13 below the axis of rotation of the drum.
A further line or pipe 21 with a valve 20‘ forming a
second inlet controlled by a further solenoid joins the
container 9 with the shell 13 for delivering a quantity of
co-pending patent application Serial No. 597,084, yfiled
liquid into the drum which is substantially smaller than
the quantity flowing through valve 17 in equal times. At
in the sud so as to reduce the dirt content faster and to
cases opened during the washing cycles by opening the
15 a vertical distance up to about 1/3 of the drum diameter
.luly l1, 1956, now abandoned.
from the bottom, a continually open overflow pipe 14
One object of this invention is to provide a Washing
with a relatively large opening is arranged, so that the
method and a washing machine requiring only a small
liquid may not increase above this level.
amount of fluid, detergent and heating energy.
This pipe 14 is designed for draining the liquid out of
It is a further object of the invention to provide for
a method of washing and a washing machine which will 20 the' machine.
A further drain pipe l5 connected to shell 13 serves
substantially shorten the duration of the washing operation.
for draining only when the washing machine is completely
A further object of the present invention is the con
emptied after operation or before the door 3 is in special
trol of the dirt and detergent concentration or content
a higher degree than the detergent content of the sud. 25 valve 23.
A lead sheet 22 forming an angle (see FIG. l) is
lt is another object of the invention to provide for
mounted above the overllow opening for leading the liquid
a reduction of the liquid volume in the sud during the
to this opening.
washing' period, to therewith reduce the energy consump
A timer or time switch 16 of conventional construction
tion during the heating period of the sud.
Still a further object of the present invention is the 30 is installedy near the top of the casing 24 which per
forms the electrical control of the machine. According
provision of a washing machine which is very simple in
to the position of the switch mechanism the impulses
design, effective and reliable in operation.
for the control of the electromagnetic valves 17 and Zi),
These and other objects of the invention will become
the motor 5 and the- electrical heating elements 18 are
better apparent from the following description, taken in
generated from this timer.
connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
_ Between the shell and the drum a thermostat or thermo
FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a washing machine
embodying one form of the invention,
FlG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line
ll~il in FIG. 1,
switch 26 is arranged to switch olf the heating elements
after a predetermined temperature of the liquid has been
prises a hollow inner cylinder or drum 2 rotating about a
ature of the suds in ° F. is entered on the respective ordi
reached.
FIG. 3 shows the liquid quantity in the shell and the
FIG. 3 is a graph schematically representing the liquid 40
drum during the wetting-, washing, rinsing- and centri
content of the shell and the drum during the washing
fuging process.
cycles,
In FIGS. 3 and 4 the time t in minutes is entered on
FlG. 4 shows a temperature diagram of the sud in the
the abscissa and the quantity of liquid in the shell and
washing machine according to the invention.
The washing machine according to FIGS. l and 2 com 45 the drum in U.S. gals., respectively, whereas the temper
nates.
shaft 1, into which the laundry or textile fabrics to be
The process for cleaning the textile fabrics or the laun
washed are placed. A stationary exterior cylinder or
dry according to this invention is subdivided into 4
shell 13 is surrounding the drum 2 and is coaxially ar
f
ranged with respect to this drum. Upon a base 25 is sup 50 cycles:
Minutes
ported a box-like casing 24, which encloses the mecha
nism. The laundry is inserted into the drum 2 through
Wetting (A) ______________________ __ About 3.
a frontal access opening after opening thel door 3. The
drum 2 is perforated in a uniform manner so that the
Washing (B) ______________________ __ About30-40.
Rinsing (C) ______________________ __ About 15.
Centrifuging (D) __________________ __ About 3.
liquid ñows through the perforations of the inner drum 55
when it is admitted to the outer shell. The hollow par
During the wetting cycle A, cylinder and drum are
tially open tumbling ribs or tins 4 extend from end to end
ñlled with fresh cold water by opening the valve 17 to
of the drum 2 and cause the laundry to be moved along
the overflow level so that the loose dirt is removed by
with the rotation of the cylinder. Thel drum 2 is driven
the liquid flowing over the overflow. The duration or”
by a reversible electric motor 5 arranged in the base 2S 60 this wetting cycle is determined mainly by the degree of
of the washing machine. The drive is transmitted via
soiling of the goods to be washed.
V-type belts 6 to a driving pulley 7 which is rigidly
In the subsequent washing cycle B, the valve 17 is
connected with shaft 1.
closed and the valve 20 is opened, so that only a sub
In the casing 24 an opening 3 is provided for the addi
stantially reduced quantity of water is supplied to the
tion of detergents, soap and like material between the 65 cylinder 13 during a period longer than half the washing
shell and the drum. Cold water may be supplied to a
period B, preferably during the entire length of the wash
hopper or container 9 through a pipe 10. Arranged in
ing period. At the beginning of the cycles A or B, the
this container 9 is a ñoat 11 which is mounted upon a
driving
motor 5 is started. As a result of the rotation
lever for controlling the opening of the admission valve
19 to admit water to the interior of the container 9` when 70 of the drum 2, in direction of arrow E in FIG. 2, the
liquid is pushed against the overflow opening, so that
-a certain minimal level is reached in this container.
the
liquid level is gradually decreasing during the wash
This arrangement is designed to eliminate variable inlet
3,073,668
speed of the laundry container is increased and the rins
ing water in said container is automatically drained.
ing period B. The drained liquid quantity is therefore
greater than the supplied water quantity during the wash
ing period B.
At the end of the washing period the liquid volume in
The inlet and overflow could also be so arranged on
the outer cylinder that the working liquid is passed
axially through the drum.
the shell and the drum is only 1/2-2/3 of the liquid vol
ume at the beginning of the washing period (see FIG. 3).
At the beginning of the rinsing cycle C, the valve 29
is closed and valve 17 is again opened, so that the level
@wing to the level of the liquid being kept low as a
result of the overflow, La greater height of fall and a more
thorough rinsing of the laundry is achieved while con
tinually supplying washing liquid. ln further operation
is increasing rapidly until the overflow opening is reached
to float the remainder of the washing detergents through 10 soiled washing and rinsing water is constantly replaced.
All additives, chemicals, etc. required for the washing
the overflow opening.
or rinsing process are added by hand or automatically
At the end of the rinsing cycle, the valve 17 is closed
and during the following spinning or centrifuging cycle D
by the automatic switching mechanism, 0-10 min. after
beginning of the washing period B.
all of the liquid will be thrown out of the cylinder 13,
The laundry is centrifuged simply by switching oiî the
the drum 2 and the laundry therein by centrifugal force 15
rinsing Water supply and by increasing the rotational
rotating direction of drum=E. The timer 16 controls
speed of the drum whereby the rinsing Water is drained
therefore a second higher speed of the motor 5.
through the perforations in the inner drum and to the
This first and second valve 17 and 2t) may of course
outer shell from -there through the overflow opening 14.
be replaced by a single two-stage valve having openings
Various changes and modifications may be made with
20
of different size for different fiow volume.
out departing from the spirit and scope of the present
FIG. 4 shows the temperature diagram of the suds in
invention 'and it is intended that such obvious changes
a washing machine according to the present invention,
and modifications be embraced by the annexed claims.
for washing cotton textiles. The cycles A-D are the
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed
same as in FIG. 3. During the wetting cycle A no heat
ing is effected which is started at the beginning of the 25 as new and desired -to he secured by Letters Patent is:
l. In a method of treating materials and the like in
washing cycle B. Heating is effected by electric power
an automatic washing machine, including the steps of
but may be replaced also by steam, gas or other source
placing materials to be washed into said washing ma
of heat. Some minutes before the washing period is end
chine, supplying a first volume of liquid per unit time to
ing, the max. temperature reaches 160° F.-2l0° F. and
in the following rinsing and spinning period the tempera 30 said washing machine to imbue said materials to define a
material wetting step, continuing the supply of said first
ture will continuously drop.
volume of liquid per unit ltime until at least a portion
of said first liquid overflows externally of said washing
machine to carry therewith any undesirable loose dirt
As a variation, at least one further centrifugal period
of about 1/z-l minute could be applied during the rinsing 35 and foreign particles to be removed from said materials,
the point of overflow of said ñrst liquid defining a maxi
period, whereby the fresh water flow is preferably not
rnurn quantity of first liquid retainable in said Washing
interrupted.
Between the reverse of the rotating direction of the
drum a short motionless period is provided.
machine, subjecting said materials to a washing action by
The duration of the washing period B depends mainly
agitation thereof while exposed to a sud bath and while
from the heating capacity of the heaters 18 and further
from the soiling degree of the laundry and may be longer 40 supplying a second volume of liquid per unit time to said
materials while permitting overñow of a portion of said
than 30 minutes.
combined first and second liquids at a rate such that the
Example of a Machine
quantity of total liquid appearing in said washing ma
Diameter of the drum ___
_ 21% inches (550 mm).
chine during said washing action is decreasing below the
l2 inches (300 mm.).
value of «the maximum quantity of first liquid appearing
181/2 U.S. gals. (70 lt.).
24 inches (610 mm).
in said ywashing machine during said wetting step.
‘Length _________________ __I rs1/r inches (330 mnt).
2. In a method of treating materials and the like in an
Load of dry laundry ______ __ A13 lhs. (6 kg).
Electric heating __________ __ 7 . 5
Motor
___________________ __
ra.
3000 rpm. and 1.2 va. during
centrifuging s t e p; 5 0 0
r.p.m. and 0.4» va. during .
washing step.
Cilàcumfercntial
speed of the
rum _________________
__
3.8 ft./sec. during washing;
_23 ft./sec. during centrifug
ing.
Quantity and time of water
sun
_vr
Wetting (A) _________ __ About 31/3 U.S. gals, (12 1.)/
min.during 3 min.
Washing (B) ________ .__ At least 1A U.S. gal. (0.3 I.)/
min. during 30 min.
Rinsing (C) _________ __ About 3% U.SA gals. (12 l.)/
_
'
Spinning (D) ________ __
Maximal temperature preset by
mln, during 15 mln.
3min.
thermostat _____________ __ ‘85«100° C.:185° F.-210° F.
The washing method is therefore carried out by open
ing the first water valve controlling a first inlet. The
outer drum is filled to V'the level of the overfiow with
water by suitable operation or setting of the‘automatic
switching mechanism, whereupon the driving motor is
started and the second inlet valve is opening to add
washing liquid to the water and a heater switched on,
automatic washing machine having a rotatable drum, in
cluding the steps of placing materials to be washed into
said rotatable drum, supplying a first volume of liquid
per unit time to said washing machine to imbue said ma
terials -to define a material wetting step, continuing the
supply of said first volume of liquid per unit time until
`at least a portion of said first liquid overñows externally
of said washing machine to carry therewith any undesira
ble loose dirt and foreign particles to be removed from
said materials, the point of overflow of said first liquid
defining a maximum quantity of first liquid retainable in
said washing machine, subjecting said materials to a
60 washing action by agitation thereof while exposed to a
sud both and while supplying a second volume of liquid
per unit time to said materials which is less than said
first volume of liquid per unit time while permitting over
iiow of a portion of said combined first and second liquids
at a rate such that the quantity of total liquid appearing
in said washing machine during said washing action is de
creasing below the Value of `the maximum quantity of
first liquid appearing in said washing machine during said
and after the washing temperature is reached, during
wetting step.
continuous flow of washing liquid from the second inlet, 70 3. In a method of treating materials and the like in an
the heater is switched off by a contact thermostat and,
automatic washing machine having an inner rotatable
after the preset washing times has elapsed, the second
drum rotating about a horizontal axis, including thc steps
inlet valve is closed and the first inlet >or rinsing valve is
of placing materials to be washed into said inner ro
opened to introduce rinsing water.
tatable drum, supplying a first volume of liquid per unit
Then the rinsing water valve is closed, the rotational 75 time to said Washing machine to imbue said materials to
¿5,073,668
undesirable loose dirt and foreign particles to be removed .
define a material wetting step, continuing the supply of
from said materials, the point of overflow of said first
said first volumey of liquid per unit time until at least a
and second liquids defining a maximum quantity of com
portion of said first liquid overfiows externally of said
bined first and second liquids retainable in said washing
washing machine to carry therewith any undesirable loose
machine, subjecting said materials to a washing action by
dirt and foreign particles to be removed from said mate
agitation thereof while exposed to a sud bath and While
rials, the point of overflow of said first liquid defining a
further supplying said second volume of liquid per unit
maximum quantity of first liquid retainable in said wash
time to said materials at a rate which is less than said
ing machine, subjecting said materials to a washing ac
first volume of liquid per unit time while permitting over
tion by agitation thereof while exposed to a sud bath and
while supplying a second volume of liquid per unit time 10 flow of a portion of said first and second liquid volumes
at a rate such that the quantity of total liquid appearing
to. said materials which is less than said first volume of
in said washing machine during said washing step is de
liquid ,per unit time while permitting overfiowof a por
creasing below the maximum quantity of the combined
tion of :said first and second liquids at a rate such that the
first `and second liquids appearing in said washing ma
quantity of total liquid appearing in said washing ma
chine during said washing action is decreasing below the 15 chine, thereafter supplying a third volume of liquid per
unit time until the total Volume of first, second and third
value of the maximum quantity of first liquid appearing
liquids disposed in said washingv machine at least ap
in said washing machine during said wetting step, there
after supplying a third volume of liquid per unit time
until the total volume of combined first, second and third
proaches the value of said maximum quantity of corn
bined first and second liquids retainable in said washing
liquids disposed in said washing machine at least ap 20 machine and overflow of at least a portion of said corn
bined first, second and third liquids from said washing ma
proaches the value of said maximum quantity of ñrst
chine subjects said materials to a rinsing step, and then
liquid retainable in said washing machine and overflow of
at least a portion of said combined first, second and third
liquids from said washing machine subjects said materials
subjecting said materials to a centrifuging step to sub
stantially remove all of said first, second and third liquids
to a rinsing step, and then subjecting said materials to a 25 therefrom by overflow thereof externally of said washing
machine.
centrifuging step to substantially remove said first, sec
6. In a method of treating materials and the like in an
ond and third liquids therefrom.
automatic washing machine, including the steps of plac
4. A method of treating materials and the like in an
ing materials to be washed into said washing machine,
automatic washing machine having an inner rotatable
drum, including the steps of placing materials to be 30 supplying a first volume of liquid per unit time to said
washing machine to imbue said materials to define a ma
washed into said inner rotatable drum, supplying a first
terial wetting step, continuing the supply of said first vol
volume of liquid per unit time to said washing machine
ume of liquid per unit time until at least a portion of
to imbue said materials to define a material wetting step,
said first liquid overfiows externally of said washing ma
continuing the supply of said first volume of liquid per
chine to carry therewith any undesirable loose dirt and
unit time until at least a portion of said first liquid over
foreign particles to be removed from said materials, the
fiows externally of said washing machine to carry there
point of overflow of said first liquid defining a maximum
with any undesirable loose dirt and foreign particles to be
quantity of first liquid retainable in said washing machine,
removed from said materials, the point of overflow of
subjecting said materials to a washing action by agitation
said first liquid defining a maximum quantity of first
liquid retainable in said washing machine, adding deter 40 thereof while exposed to a sud bath and while continu
ously feeding during a period at least greater than half
gents to said first liquid, subjecting said materials to a
the duration of said washing action a second volume of
washing action during rotation of said inner drum while
exposed to a detergent bath and while supplying a second
volume of liquid per unit time -to said materials which is
less than said first volume of liquid per unit time while
permitting overfiow of a portion of said first and second
liquids at a rate such that the quantity of total liquid ap*
liquid per unit time to said materials which is less than
said first volume of liquid per unit time while permitting
overflow of a porton of said first and second liquids at a
rate such that the quantity of total liquid appearing in
said washing machine during said washing action is de
creasing below the value of the maximum quantity of
pearing in said washing machine during said washing ac
tion is decreasing below the maximum quantty of first 50 first liquid appearing in said washing machine during said
wetting step, simultaneously heating said first and second
liquid appearing in said washing machine during said wet«
liquids appearing in said washing machine at least dur
ting step, heating said quantity of total liquid appearing
ing the period of continuous feed of said second Volume
in said washing machine at least during said washing step
of liquid, thereafter supplying a third volume of liquid per
and at least during such time that said total liquid is at
a minimum quantity value, thereafter supplying a third 55 unit time until the total volume of combined first, second
and third liquids disposed in said washing machine at
volume of liquid per unit time until the total volume of
least approaches the value of said maximum quantity of
combined first, second and third liquids disposed in said
first liquid retainable in said washing machine and over~
washing machine at least approaches the Value of said
fiow of at least a portion of said combined first, second
maximum quantity of first liquid retainable in said wash
ing machine and overflow of at least a portion of said 60 and third liquids from said washing machine subjects said
materials to a rinsing step, and then subjecting said mate
combined first, second and third liquids from said wash
rials to a centrifuging step to substantially remove said
ing machine subjects said materials to a rinsing step, and
first, second and third liquids therefrom.
then subjecting said materials to a centrifuging step to
7. In a method of treating materials and the like in an
substantially remove all of said first, second and third
liquids therefrom by overflow thereof externally of said
washing machine.
automatic washing machine, including the steps of plac
65 ing materials to be washed into said washing machine,
supplying a first volume of liquid per unit time to said
5. ln a method of treating materials and the like in an
washing machine’to imbue said materials to define a maautomatic washing machine having an inner rotatable
terial wetting step, continuing the supply of said first vol
drum, including the -steps of placing materials to be
washed into said inner rotatable drum, supplying a first 70 ume of liquid per unit time until at least a portion of
said first liquid overflows externally of said washing ma
volume of liquid per unit time to said washing machine
to imbue said materials to define a material wetting step,
adding a second volume of liquid per unit time until at
chine to carry therewith any undesirable loose dirt and
foreign particles to be removed from said materials, the
point of overfiow of said first liquid defining a maximum
least a portion of said first and second liquids overfiow
externally of said washing machine to carry therewith any 75 quantity of first liquid retainable in said washing machine,
3,073,668
7
8
subjecting said materials to a Washing action by agitation
References Cited in the ñ1e of this patent
thereof while exposed to a sud bath and while supplying
a second Volume of liquid per unit time to said materials
and during overflow of a portion of said combined first
and second liquids at a rate such that the quantity of total
UNITED STATES PATENTS
liquid appearing in said washing machine during said
Washing action decreases to a desired value which is below
the value of the maximum quantity of ñrst liquid appear
ing in said washing machine during said wetting step.
8. In a method of treating materials aud the like in an 10
automatic washing machine according to claim 7; Wherein said desired value is between approximately one~half to
two-thirds the volume of liquid in said Washing machine
at the beginning of the Washing action.
1,961,606
2,023,013
2,168,068
2,637,186
2,660,870
2,676,088
Ells __________________ __ June 5, 1934
Faber et al. ___________ __ Dec. 3, 1935
Loweke ______________ __ Aug. 1, 1939
Douglas ______ __- ______ __ May 5, 1953
Kennedy ______________ __ Dec. l, 1953
Bilde ________________ __ Apr. 20, 1954
2,677,950
2,700,287
Douglas _____________ __ May 11, 1954
2,706,899
2,757,065
Meyer ______ ___ _____ __ Apr. 26, 1955
Sulzmann ____________ __ Jan. 25, 1955
Castner _____________ __ July 31, 1956
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