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Патент USA US3073862

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United States Patent O?iice
1
2
3,073,852
BIS
carbon content of the preferred fuel may be as much as
SULFIDE
Peter Ballinger,(TRIMETHYLLEAD)
San Rafael, Calif, assignor to California
80 percent by volume. For best over-all engine per
formance, fuels containing in the range of 20 to 60 per
Research Corporation, San Francisco, Calif, a corpo:
ration of Delaware
~
3,973,852
Patented Jan. 15, 1963
cent by volume of para?inic and naphthenic hydrocar
bons are preferred for volatility and other desirable gaso
line characteristics. The more preferred hydrocarbon
No Drawing. Filed Sept. 30, 1960, Ser. No. 59,518
1 Claim. (Cl. 260-437)
base fuels are also those which contain from 20 to 60
percent by volume aromatic hydrocarbons and from 0
knock compound. More particularly, the invention is 10 ‘to 30 percent by volume of ole?nic hydrocarbons. Most
preferably, a gasoline having all-around desirable char
concerned, with a superior new lead sul?de antiknock
This invention relates to a novel organo-metal anti
compound for hydrocarbon fuels of the gasoline boiling
acteristics has a clear octane number of at least 95 and
range-
percent by volume of para?in
and naphthene hydrocarbons, about 30 to 40 percent
aromatic hydrocarbons and about 5 to 15 percent ole?nic
'
Gasoline compositions of high octane number are
commonly vrequired for modern spark ignition internal
combustion automobile and'aircraft engines. Engines
15
hydrocarbons.
The bis(trimethyllead) sul?de is illustrated by the gen
of these types in general use today are designed with high
eral formula
compression ratios for more e?‘icient operation. Since
the present trend is toward engines of still higher com
pression ratios for lncreased power and improved per 20
formance, there is a constant demand for gasoline com~
positions of even higher octane number.
Improved methods of re?ning and blending gasoline
For practical purposes, not more than about 4 milli
liters of lead compounds per gallon is ordinarily used in
base stocks, and additives such as lead tetraethyl, have
been employed to meet the demands for higher octane 25 the compositions. If desired, other octane-improving
number gasoline compositions. However, it has been
additives may be employed in addition to bis(trimethyl
generally realized that there is at present a limit to the
lead) sul?de. These include other lead compounds such
improvement in octane number that can be obtained by
as lead tetraethyl, carbonyl derivatives of iron and cyclo
such conventional methods and additives. New gasoline
pentadienyl derivatives of metals such as manganese or
base stocks with the combination of di?ferent additives 30 '
Other gasoline additives, such as scavengers like
are greatly needed, therefore, to avoid present limitations
ethylene chloride or bromide, oxidation inhibitors, cor
and provide gasoline compositions of high octane num
rosion inhibitors, surface ignition suppressants like phos
phorus compounds, detergents, and the like may be
ber for future use in automobile and aircraft engines.
present.
It has now been found that a superior new gasoline
composition of high octane number is provided by a hy 35
drocarbon base fuel boiling in the gasoline boiling range,
containing bis(trimethyllead) sul?de, a novel lead com
tion. Unless otherwise speci?ed the proportions are on
a weight basis.
pound, in amounts su?icient to improve the octane num
ber, preferably, at least 0.5 milliliter per gallon of base
fuel.
The following examples illustrate the composition of
bis(trimethyllead) sul?de in accordance with this inven~
EXAMPLE I
This example shows the
‘
The improved gasoline compositions containing the
lead) sul?de.
new antiknock compound of the invention show unex
pectedly high octane numbers. Hydrocarbon base fuels,
together with bis(trimethyllead) sul?de and mixtures
50
more, it has been ‘widely recognized that sulfur is ordi
narily antagonistic to lead
The hydrocarbon base fuel of the composition, accord
ing to the invention is prepared by conventional re?ning
and blending processes. It normally contains straight
tions and tests thereon are given in the following eX
‘
These tests show the improved effect of the
combination of particular hydrocarbon base fuels with
55
bis(trimethyllead) sul?de.
The following table is a summary of the pertinent
chain para?ins, branched-chain para?ins, ole?ns, aro
data of the examples. The hydrocarbon base fuel con
matics and naphthenes. Since straight~chain para?ins
have a tendency to adversely alfect octane
terms 51 percent by volume of the para?ins and naph
60
thenes, 25 percent ole?ns,
This fuel has a
weight.
Generally de
with lead tetraethyl.
an ASTM (D~86) distillation
parison are based on
with an initial boiling point of about 100° F. and a ?nal
boiling point of about 425° F. Preferably, the unleaded 65 the _Motor Method D~357
base fuel has a research octane number of at least 85 as
determined by the accepted CFR engine
70
and lead tetraethyl is based on gasoline compositions ,
containing an equal lead concentration. For the purpose
3,073,852
a
of practical comparison this is 3.17 grams of lead per
gallon.
Such amounts are equivalent to the 3 cc. of
tetraethyl lead per gallon employed in many gasolines.
The gasolines containing the trimethyl lead methyl sul?de
have approximately 0.01 percent of lead-bound sulfur in
Such ?ne metal dispersions of lead are useful as cata
lysts for certain reactions. The ?ne lead particles may
be converted to lead oxides which are useful as lubricat
addition to the sulfur already present.
ing agents. The lead compound of the invention may
Table
Example N0.
Lead Compound
4
useful wherever oil-soluble lead compounds are desired.
For example, ?ne particle dispersions of lead may be
obtained by thermal decomposition of the trialkyl lead
sul?de dissolved in liquid hydrocarbon, such as isooctane.
J
Research
Octane
Motor
Octane
__. None-base fuel ............. ._-_ Tetraethyl Lead ____________ _-
94.4
99.2
82.5
87.7
...... ._ Bis(trimethyllead) sul?de_-__.
99.0
87.0
also be used as a free radical initiator in polymerization
10 reactions.
I claim:
Bis(trimethyllead) sul?de.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent '
UNITED STATES PATENTS
15
The examples summarized in the above table show that
the improved gasoline composition of the invention con
taining the novel bis(trimethyllead) sul?de of the inven
tion is surprisingly comparable on the basis of octane 20
number rating to gasoline compositions of the type pre
ferred heretofore.
The organolead compounds of this invention are also
1,949,948
2,936,224
2,938,776
2,955,124
Alleman _____________ .... Mar. 6,
Fontana ____________ __ May 10,
Hamer ______________ __ May 31,
Blitzer et al. ___________ .__ Oct, 4,
1934
1960
1960
1960
OTHER REFERENCES
Chem. Reviews, vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 146, 260-437.
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