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Патент USA US3074246

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Jan. 22, 1963
Filed April 7, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
A r rM u.4
Jan. 22, 1963
Filed April 7, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2v
Jan. 22, 1963
J. A. um
Filed April 7. 1958 .
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Jan. 22, 1963
Filed April 7, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
United States Patent ()? ice
Fatented Jan. 22, 1963
.lames A. Lilly, Qarlsbad, N. Mex.
walls of the shaft and 10, 1th’, 11, 11’, 12, and 12.’ the
main form panels of the apparatus. The circular form
is completed with additional narrow units 13, 14, 15.
Filed Apr. 7, 1958, Ser. No. 726,821
3 Claims. (Cl. 61-41)
When a Working depth has been reached the steel form
closure segments, the narrow units 13, 141, 15 are set
in ?xed relationship by being bolted at their ends to an
This invention relates to mine shafts, in particular to
chorages 16, 17, 18 by means of bolts 21}, 21, 22', 2-3, 214,
apparatus for lining said shafts and a method of fabricat
25. For the structure shown a complete circumference
mg concrete linings in the said shafts.
is made with four main panels and four narrow units.
It is a fundamental object of this invention to provide 10
At the bottom of the excavated section, as shown in
an apparatus for forming a concrete lining in a mine
FIGURE 3, the narrow panels are bolted to ‘a continuous
shaft such that parts of the apparatus or form may be
circular ring 1%‘. It is apparent, thus, that the narrow
panels are long enough to extend \to the bottom of the
excavated depth and thus exceed the height of a main
15 form panel to a substantial extent. This arrangement is
congenieutly used as the lining is cast from the top down
_Another object of the invention is to provide a com
bmation of segments for forming a concrete shaft lining.
to provide for locating the anchorage lines correctly and
such that they may be conveniently handled within the
for handling relatively small sections of extreme rigidity.
restricted shaft diameter and may be guided and lowered
The elementary structure so formed is a skeleton freely
to changed positions with a maximum of convenience.
‘suspended from the surface, if it is the ?rst section at
Other objects and advantages of the invention will in
the start of [a shaft, or from previously poured concrete.
part be obvious and in part appear hereinafter.
With the use of a spreader template 250, as shown in FIG.
The invention, accordingly, is embodied in an apparatus
5 the correct cylindrical relationship of the narrow units
for forming a cylindrical concrete lining in a mine shaft,
is established and maintained :and, with proper alignment,
which is characterized by the combination ‘of a plurality
the bottom ring is securely blocked with the load carried
of large segments to make up a major portion of the 25 on jacks.
circumference with a plurality of small segments in rela
At a point in the circumference corresponding to the
tion to the entire circumference of the shaft lining, the
joint between any pair of form segments, e.g., 11 and
segments being shaped to form a continuous shaft liner
11', the closure or narrow unit is provided. Once it
and joints in the concrete lining, said liner giving a
is set in place as part of the skeleton structure referred
?nished concrete surface in the interior of the shaft, with 30 to, it provides means for locating anchorage units in the
a pilaster provided with means for attaching guides and
concrete of the shaft. Thus, a typical anchorage unit
supports for completing the remainder of the shaft.
is shown consisting, in this case, of l-beam section 16,
Reference to the drawings ‘accompanying ‘this applica
held in place on panel 13 by bolts 29 and 21 set in an
tion will give a better understanding of the details of the
chors 20’ and 21'. The ‘I-beam section is useful to give
35 mass to the bolt anchorage. Actually any female con
In the drawings—
nection suitable for being set in concrete and capable of
FIGURE 1, and its parts 111, lb and 1c are a transverse
taking the subsequent load of panels will do. By means
section showing joints in a circular mine shaft with the
of such an ‘arrangement spatially on the narrow panel
novel liner of ‘this invention set in place;
13, a vertical sequence of accurately placed anchorages
FIG. 1d shows an alternate structure for use in the 40
assembly of FIG. 1 as shown by parts 1a, 1b and 10;
FIGURE 2 is a partial vertical section through a mine
is provided.
As illustrated in connection with the closure 13‘ its out
side curvature is made to match the inside curvature of
form segments 11 and 11' so that its longitudinal edges
are substantially tangent to the edges of the form seg
shaft corresponding to that shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a partial vertical section showing a mine
shaft equipped with the forms made in accordance with 45 ments.
this invention;
A corresponding joint is illustrated in conjunction with
FIGURES 4, 5 and 6 illustrate the method of sinking
the closure or narrow unit 14 which is held in place
a mine shaft and lining it with concrete carried out in
by bolts 22, 23 and anchorage consisting of nuts 22’
accordance with this invention.
and 23’ and I-beam section 17. Here the closure seg
Referring now to FlGURE 1, therein the ground forma
ment 14, for purposes of illustration, is made planar and
tion 1 is a general representation of a horizontal section
the form segments 18) and 10' are shown planar near
through a vertical mine shaft. As is preferred in good
their longitudinal edges so that a simple closure by en
mining practice, the raw shaft itself is provided with a
gagement of the flat surfaces at 31) and 31 can be ef
concrete lining to seal off water seepage and particularly
to prevent crumbling or collapse of the walls. Since the
A third variation ‘of the closure joint is shown in con
shaft as ?nished must have a diameter large enough to
nection with ‘the closure or narrow unit 15 which is held
permit the passage of mining machinery, the raw shaft
itself is excavated to a slightly greater diameter than the
?nished shaft need be and this is accomplished in sec
in place by bolts 24 and 25 and anchorage consisting of
tions of about ten feet at a time.
of a circle meeting the planar closure segment 15 with
the ?ller strips 57 and 58 employed to seal the joint and
provide the substantially continuous concrete face and
Thereupon the problem becomes one of holding forms
centered in the shaft, spaced from the sidewalls, so that
nuts 24’ and 25', and I-beam section 18. Here the main
form segments 12 and 12' are shown as continuous arcs
concrete may be poured around them. Provision must
pilaster desired.
be made in the pouring for supporting the forms from
For holding the main segments in place, the quadrants
the poured section when additional excavation has been 65 typi?ed by 10, 11 and 12 are provided with keepers 69
completed and it is necessary to cast additional liner.
which may be integrally joined to separate form seg
Referring to the drawings, FIGURE 1 and its parts
ments 10, etc., the said keeper having undercut section 61
illustrate details of the inter-relationship of segments of
to permit the insertion of ?ller wedges 62 between the
the apparatus of this invention and the relationship of
the whole apparatus to the surrounding earth formation 70 narrow panel or closure segment and the said keeper.
Each of the joints around the circumference of a shaft
as assembled just prior to pouring concrete. In the draw
is thus ?nished off and the details of matching the clo
ing 1 represents the earth formation comprising the side
sure segment to the form segments may be varied to suit
the cuto?? forms and loosen the closures. As shown in
FIGURE 5, in proceeding further they remove the form
wedges and bolts from the inserts and having done so,
then detach the closure segments with the cutoff form
attached and lower it to its next position. The guides
the individual conditions. In general I have found the
form of closure segment tangent to the form segments,
as shown'in connection with panel 13,. to be the most sat
isfactory in relation to ease of handling of the parts
The particular structure used to effect this assembly
may be varied. For example, in place of sliptype wedges,
screwtype wedges t55—66 may be used, as in FIGURE
‘FIGURE 2 constitutes a vertical section through a
typical lining which has been terminated with a cuto?
form and also shows parts corresponding to parts shown
for the super structure are then set in place so that the
structure 222 may ultimately be lowered to a depth be
low that of the joint, the guides then being bolted to the
cutoff form. Following this, inserts corresponding to 16,
17 and 18 are then fastened in place and the spreader
template 259 is also attached in place with jacks and the
closure is plumbed into position. The forms themselves,
either individually, or a plurality of quadrant sections
bolted together, comprising essentially the entire form for
in FIGURE 1. It will be seen that beam section 16 is
relatively short and is a section which is cast in the con 15 a quarter, are then lowered to the cutoff form and re
crete matrix 76. Beam 32 is continuous throughout the
bolted to the base cutoff form.
length of the concrete shaft to be formed and provides a
Following wedging of the forms in place, as shown
guide for completing subsequent sections of the liner.
in FIGURE 6, concrete is poured at the rate consistent
with the task being performed. Generally, in an ordi
Though shown as an i-beam, it may be any section, since
it serves essentially ‘as a stitfener for the closure form.
nary mine shaft twenty cubic yards per hour is a useful
If the closure segment itself is stiff enough, this stiffener
rate of pour.
From the description of the novel form of making the
may be omitted.
joints given in connection with FIGURE 1, its parts to
Beam sections 43 and 41 which are cast into the con
crete ‘lining 7d are placed so as to meet the cars 42 and
gether with the outline of the method of sinking a shaft,
43 of the form segments themselves and constitute an 25 it will be apparent that certain advantages accrue from
the accurate fabrication of the forms in accordance with
anchor means by which the form segments may be held
in place.
this invention. It is ‘understood, of course, that in the
concrete lining of a mine shaft, the lining must be ?rm
Thus, in FIGURE 2, 70 represents a concrete lining
and it must be also accurately placed, because certain
in. a mine shaft which has been terminated at 71 by a
cuto? form. The use of cuto?? forms in cast concrete 30 power machinery, such as the muckers and drill jumboes,
require a given degree of clearances and a shaft to be
mine shaft is essentially a conventional operation and a
detailed explanation of the use of a typical one may be
most useful must be made of a given size to close toler
ance and clearance kept uniform throughout. Also, it
is essential that the shaft have guide means for steering
supports cast into the section and are the desirable means 35 or directing the equipment in the vertical direction.
for locating the next succeeding tier of form segments
Reference to FIGURE 1 and its parts will demonstrate
11" and 12". The forms are slipped into place and
that when the shaft is cast using form segments 11, 11’,
12 and 1.2’, formed in either of the alternatives shown
thereafter the beam section 16 which appears in FIG
in the several parts of the drawing, the ?nished concrete
URE 2, with corresponding sections 17 and 18, provide
liner will have internal pilaster accurately plumbed at
the substantial means for supporting the subsequent tiers
each quadrant of the shaft. That is, the method of
of forms. Thus, the guide beam 32, and corresponding
beams 32’ and 32", which is of a length corresponding
fabrication utilizing the beams, the supports 16, 17, 18
set in the concrete require accurate alignment in ad
to several form segments is attached to the anchor 16
with the corresponding closure form segment 13. Each
vance and having once been aligned the pouring of the
concrete around the form develops the accurately
beam with its. closure segment is bolted in place and
thereafter serves as a guide for the placement of the main
oriented pilaster which has its advantages in the subse
form segments.
quent handling of machinery in the mine shaft.
In FIGURE 3 a substantially completed assembly in
Although the invention has been described in terms of
amine shaft is shown. Therein 1 represents the ground
a single embodiment, it is to be understood that varia
and 100 the actual concrete liner itself. Within the con
tions thereof may be practiced without departing from
its spirit or scope.
crete liner are cast the short anchor sections till, 102,
What is claimed is:
etc., corresponding to 16, 17 and 18 of FIGURE 1. It
will be seen in FIGURE 3 that the concrete lining has
1. An apparatus for forming a concrete cylinder com
been carried to a level 120 which represents the line
prising, ?rst segments each curved and spaced from the
formed by the cutoff form. Guide beams 136, 149 and 55 other thereby constituting a substantial portion of a sur
154} are attached to the respective corresponding anchor
face of a cylinder, said segments each approximating
sections cast in the concrete liner. The ?nal segment in
a quadrant but being less than a quadrant, second seg—
the shaft liner is the cuto? segment 18tlwhich it will. be
ments each having a dimension greater than the space
seen has a downwardly ?ared circumference which pro
between said ?rst segments and‘ spanning the adjacent
vides a ?nished face for the concrete shaft liner. It is 60 spaced ?rst segments on the inner face of said ?rst
aligned with the guides, using spreader templates to main
mentioned segments, thereby de?ning a space for receiving
tain the correctcylindrical relationship, and then blocked
concrete to form a pilaster in the area thus spanned and
in place with the load carried on jacks.
between the adjacent edges of said ?rst segments, keep~
In understanding how the device is put into actual
ers on said ?rst segments receiving wedges, said wedges
operation, reference to FIGURES 4, 5 and 6 will be help 65
engaging the second segments to maintain said ?rst and
ful. There the mine shaft 200 in the ground. 1 is shown
segments in overlapping edgewise detachably se
lined with concrete 201 in which there have. been set a
cured contacting relationship to complete a cylinder, said
sequence of anchor sections 2612, 266, etc., at intervals
found in United States Patent 2,667,750.
In FIGURE 2, bolts 44, 45, 46, 47 represent typical
to form anchor points for the shaft lining. _ Attached to
second segments being provided with mounting means
the anchor points are a series of guides 220, 221 which 70 secured to their outer surfaces, said mounting means
extending into said spaces beyond the outer faces of said
direct the carriage structure 222 which in turn is sus
?rst segments, said mounting means after casting of the
pended by cable 223 from surface winch apparatus.
concrete being retained so as to be accessible for use at
The cage 225 carrying workmen 226 and 227 is lowered
to the end of the concrete shaft where the men observe
the faces of the pilasters.
and check the shaft clearance and remove the bolts from 75
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 which has a
?ller strip interposed between overlapping portions of
said ?rst and second segments.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 in which said
?rst curved segments have planar areas in the portions
thereof adjacent to their longitudinal edges, which por- 5
tions are overlapped by said second segments.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
MacHarg ____________ __ May 28, 1901 1°
Albrecht _____________ __ Oct. 10,
Scholz ______________ __ Oct. 24,
Peck ________________ __ May 13,
Meem ______________ __ Nov. 13,
Sharp _______________ __ Oct. 25,
Bain _________________ __ Feb. 2,
Great Britain _______________ __
Germany ____________ __ Feb. 13, 1917
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