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Патент USA US3074399

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Jan. 22, 1963
L. R. c. LILLY
3,074,389
LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed May 11, 1962
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
LESLIE R. C. LuLLv
Jan. 22, 1963
L. R. c. LILLY
3,074,389
LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed May 11, 1962
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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ATTORNEYS
Jan- 22, 1963
L. R. c. LILLY
3,074,389
LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed May 11, 1962
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INVENTOR
LESLIE R. C. LlLLY
A-rTosaNEYs
E‘a'tentetl San. 22, 1953
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3,074,389
CYLlNDEiR MAKES FGR
\TAL QQI’ABUSTEQN ENGlN?
Leslie it. Q. Lilly, Worthing, Sussex, England, assignor to
lllicardo 1?; (Io.7 Engineers (W27) Limited, London,
England, a company of Great Britain
(Iiaires ,
Filed May ill, 1962, Scr. No. 194,1(37
only, application Great Britain May 15, 1961
‘11 (liaims. (Cl. i23—41.'73)
This invention relates to castings constituting liquid
cooled cylinder heads for internal combustion engines
operating on the four-stroke or two-stroke cycle and of
the overhead poppet valve type, that is to say the type hav
ing at least one port, controlled by a poppet valve formed
in the cylinder head, and is particularly but not exclusively
applicable to engines of the liquid fuel injection compres
sion ignition type. For convenience it will be assumed
that the cylinder head is applied to the upper end of a
vertical cylinder.
‘Liquid-cooled cylinder heads to which the invention is
applicable are of the kind in which the cylinder head
consists of a one-piece casting including a cooling liquid
space lying between spaced upper and lower walls and a
surrounding side wall, with one or more inlet and/or
exhaust ports formed in the lower wall while there are
provided within the cooling liquid space at least three
cast-in hollow bodies each constituting either an inlet or
an exhaust passage leading to a port or a housing for a
fuel injector or sparking plug or constituting a combustion
pocltet, the hollow bodies being di ributed within the plan
area of the cylinder head.
An object of the present invention is to provide an
arrangement in which adequate cooling of the part of the
lower wall which extends between the hollow bodies and
the adjacent parts of the hollow bodies can be obtained
more readily and efficiently than hitherto.
in a liquid-cooled cylinder head of the kind referred
to according to the invention, the casting constituting the
a nozzle directing a jet of cooling liquid into such down
wardly extending coolant passage.
in one example the cylinder head is of the kind in
which the cooling liquid for the cylinder head ?ows up
wards from the water jacket of the associated cylinder
into the cooling liquid space of the head through com
municating openings formed respectively in the upper face
of the cylinder block and the lower face of the cylinder
head, and in this case at least one of such openings in the
10 cylinder head may open into the delivery passage so as to
deliver the cooling liquid ?owing therethrough, either in
the form of a jet or otherwise, into the open end of the
downwardly extending coolant passage (or one of the
downwardly exhausting passages if there be more than
one), in the projection. At least a part of the delivery
passage may be constituted by a pipe inserted into the
cylinder head, or alternatively a part of the delivery pas
sage may be constituted by a passage cast in the cylinder
head and arranged to deliver cooling liquid, either directly
20 or through a pipe inserted into the cylinder head, into the
upper end of the appropriate downwardly extending
coolant passage in the projection.
The invention is particularly applicable to the cylinder
heads of internal combustion engines of the compression
ignition type in which the cylinder head is provided with
inlet and/ or exhaust passages extending from inlet and/ or
exhaust ports for the cylinder in the lower wall ?rst up
wardly and then laterally to inlet and/ or exhaust openings
in the side wall of the cylinder head, and a combustion
pocket, for example or spheroidal or similar form, com
municating with the cylinder bore through a restricted
passage formed in the head or in a plug inserted into the
head in known manner. The inlet and/ or exhaust ports
and, the combustion pocket, and other hollow bodies in
plan view, may be angularly distributed about a vertical
axis which may either lie adjacent to or be between the
axis of the cylinder bore and at least one of the axes of the
hollow bodies. For example, the axes of the inlet and/ or
exhaust ports may lie on opposite sides of and be approxi
cylinder head includes a thickening of the lower wall in 40 mately equally spaced from a plane containing the cylin~
der axis and the axis of the combustion pocket and them
the form of an upward projection from the upper surface
selves lie in a plane containing the axis of the cylinder
of the lower wall, between the hollow bodies, such pro~
upon which the cylinder head is adapted to be positioned,
jection having formed in it, as by casting in or drilling,
or displaced from the axis of the cylinder, while the axis
coolant passages extending between the hollow bodies in
of the combustion pocket is substantially displaced from
a direction having a substantial component parallel to the
the cylinder axis, e.g. lies on or close to the circumference
plane of the lower wall (and hereinafter for convenience
of the cylinder bore. Thus the axes of the inlet and/ or
alled horizontal coolant passages), and each horizontal
exhaust ports and of the combustion pocket are angularly
coolant passage communicating at its inner end (that is to
distributed, conveniently approximately evenly, about a
say the end which lies adjacent to the area between the
hollow bodies) with a coolant passage (herein called for 50 vertical axis which lies between the axis of the cylinder
bore and the axis of the combustion pocket, and the hori
convenience downwardly extending coolant passage) ex
zontal coolant passages are disposed radially with respect
tending downwardly from the upper face of the projection,
to this vertical axis.
and circulating means for causing a flow of cooling liquid
The invention
be carried into practice in various
through the coolant passages in the projection.
In many cases the downwardly extending coolant pas 55 ways, but three embodiments will now be described by
way of example with reference to the accompanying
sage or passages may be comparatively short or be con
drawings which show a cylinder head and part of a com—
stituted by openings into the inner ends of the horizontal
pression
ignition engine, and in which:
coolant passages.
FlGURE l is a horizontal section of a cylinder head
Conveniently the inner ends of the horizontal coolant
according to the present invention for a four-stroke-cycle
passages in the projection communicate with a single com 60 engine, the section being taken in the plane of three
mon downwar tly extending coolant passage while their
horizontally extending coolant passages formed between
outer ends open into the cooling liquid space around the
the inlet passage, the exhaust passage and the combus
projection.
tion pocket of the cylinder head,
The circulating means for causing a ?ow of cooling
FIGURE 2 is a sectional elevation of part of the cyl
65
licjuid through the coolant passages in the projection con—
inder head and part of the associated cylinder block on
veriently comprises a delivery passage or passages ar
the line ll—ll of FZGURE 1 in the plane of an inserted
ranged to deliver cooling liquid into the upper end or ends
feed pipe shown communicating with the cylinder water
jacket of the cylinder block,
of the downwardly extending coolant passage or passages.
FIGURE 3 is a sectional side elevation of the cylinder
The delivery passage or each delivery passage may 70
head and part of the cylinder block, on the line lll—lll
terminate at a point above the upper end of its associated
of FIGURE 1,
downwardly extending coolant passage so as to constitute
3,074,889
3
FIGURE 4- is a similar view to that of FIGURE 2
showing a modi?ed construction also as applied to a
cylinder head for a four-stroke-cycle engine,
FIGURE 5 is a similar view to FIGURE 1 of a con
struction according to the invention as applied to a two
stroke~cycle engine, and
FIGURE 6 is a cross section on the line VI—VI of
FIGURE 5.
The cylinder head of the compression ignition engine
4
cylinder head, in which it makes a close ?t also. The
upper end or" the pipe ‘49 is closed by a resilient sealing
cap 42, and the pipe connects adjacent to its upper end,
through a port 43, with the end of a passage 44 cast in
the cylinder head constituting the other part of the de- .
livery passage and connecting at its other end with the
opening 24. As in the previous embodiment the ports
between the hollow bodies, 8, l1 and 14 are cooled by'
Water led from the cylinder water jacket 21 through the
shown in FIGURES 1 to 3 comprises a one-piece casting 10 passage 44 and the pipe 49 directly into the passages 18,
1 having spaced upper and lower walls 2 and 3, and a
surrounding side wall 4 extending between them and
in both these embodiments the three hollow bodies 8,
de?ning a water space 6.
l1 and 14 can be considered approximately evenly an
The casting I. is also formed with three spaced hollow
gularly distributed about and equidistant from a vertical
cast-in bodies, comprising an inlet passage 8, leading 15 axis and it will be seen that this axis is coaxial with the
from an inlet opening 9 in the side wall 4 of the head to
downwardly extending passage 18 and is between the
an inlet port it) in the lower wall 3, an exhaust passage
axis of the combustion pocket 14 and the axis of the
11, leading from an exhaust opening 12 in the side wall
cylinder bore 22 and lies in a plane containing both these
4 to an exhaust port 13, and a combustion pocket 14.
axes. This vertical axis between the hollow bodies may
These hollow bodies 8, i1 and 14 divide the water space
lie adjacent to the axis of the cylinder bore or be close
6 into three parts 6A, 5B and 60 which communicate
to the circumference of the cylinder bore.
with ‘one another in conventional manner.
The cylinder head shown in EiGURES 5 and 6 is for
The part of the lower wall 3 between the hollow bodies
application to a two-stroke-cycle engine to which air is
8, 11 and 14 is formed with a thickening constituting an
admitted through inlet ports (not shown) formed in the
upwardly extending projection 35, which is formed with
lower part of the cylinder in conventional manner. The
three horizontal passages’ to which are drilled through
head comprises a casting 45 formed with four exhaust
apertures 17A, 17B and 17C in the side wall 4 of the
ports as, each controlled by a poppet valve 47 in a
cylinder head. The passages 15 communicate at their
manner known per se. Thus in this embodiment there
inner ends with a common downwardly extending pas
are four hollow bodies cast in an upwardly extending pro
sage l8 drilled in the projection through an aperture 19 30 jection 43 of the lower wall
of the cylinder head, con
in the upper wall 2 of the cylinder head.
stituting vertically extending exhaust passages 58A or
As shown in FIGURE 2, when the cylinder head is
563. Each passage sea communicates with an adjacent
mounted on a cylinder block 2% of a compression igni
passage Shh such that both passages lead into one of
tion engine (illustrated in part), the water space 6 is
two parallel horizontally extending exhaust passages 51
connected to the cylinder water jacket 21, so as to receive 35 and hence to an exhaust opening 52 in a side wall 53 of
water therefrom, by way of an opening 23 formed in the
the cylinder head. Horizontal coolant passages 54 are
cylinder block 2% and in alignment with a corresponding
drilled in the projection between the hollow bodies 58A
opening 24 formed in the cylinder head.
or 5W5, each coolant passage communicating at its inner
'A water delivery passage in the form of a detachable
end with a common downwardly extending passage 55.
pipe 25 of generally semi-circular form, and, for example,
Water is delivered from the water jacket of the cylinder
made of copper, is inserted into the part 6A of the water
block into the upper end of the passage 55 by a gener
space through the adjacent aperture 17A in the side wall
ally semi-circular pipe 5:’: which extends from an open—
4, and one end of the pipe 25 makes a close ?t in the
ing 57 in the lower wall of the cylinder head in align
opening 24. The other end 26 of the pipe 25 constitutes
ment with a corresponding opening in the cylinder block,
a nozzle and is positioned over the upper end of the down
as in FEGURE .2.
V
wardly extending passage 18 into which it directs a jet
In some cases each horizontal coolant passage in the
of water. Thus coolant water is led directly from the
projection between the hollow bodies may communicate
cylinder Water jacket 2-1 through the pipe 25 directly
with a separate downwardly extending coolant passage.
into the passages 16 and 18, and hence into the water
it will be understood that the invention‘ can be applied
space 6. The apertures 17A and 1713 in the cylinder head
to internal combustion engines of the overhead poppet
constitute outlet openings for the water, and the apertures
17C and 19, which are screw threaded, are plugged before
valve type in which there are three or more ports in the
lower wall of the cylinder head, e.g. one exhaust port and
two inlet ports, distributed over the plan area of the
head, with or without a combustion pocket, to cylinder
head in conventional manner. Thus the cylinder head
provides a sheath 27 for part of each of two push rods 55 heads in which the hollow bodies are constituted by inlet
and exhaust passages and a hollow boss or housing for a
(not shown) adjacent to the water space 6, and between
fuel injection device or sparking plug housing to engines
which is an extension of the water space 6. In addition,
in which the hollow bodies are constituted by three or
there are provided vertically extending bores 28 for se
the cylinder head is positioned on the cylinder block.
Other bores and apertures are formed in the cylinder
curing bolts (not shown), and smaller bores 2§ consti
more passages each constituting an inlet or an exhaust pas
fuel-injection device (not shown).
combustion pocket.
tuting steam vents from the block. As shown in FIGURE 60 sage communicating with an inlet or exhaust port in the
lower wall, with or without a further hollow body con~
3, a spheroidal combustion pocket 14 is provided in a
stituted for example by a combustion pocket and/or a
bore 34) with a hot plug 31 containing a restricted pas
fuel injector or sparking plug housing, as well as to en
sage 32. leading from the combustion pocket 14 into the
gines
operating on the two~stroke-cycle in which the‘
cylinder bore 22. In the upper wall 2 of the cylinder
head are formed bores 33 for poppet valves 34 controlling 65 hollow bodies are constituted ‘for example by three ex
haust passages or two or more exhaust passages and a
the inlet and exhaust ports 14}, 13 and a socket 35 for a
What 1 claim as my invention and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
similar to the embodiment shown in FIGURES 1 to 3
1. A liquid-cooled cylinder head structure comprising
and similar parts are given the same reference numerals 70
spaced upper and lower walls and a surrounding side wall
and will not be escribed again. In this embodiment a
The part of the cylinder head shown in FIGURE 4 is
detachable pipe 4-9 of cylindrical form and constituting
de?ning therebetween a cooling liquid space, at least three
part of a water delivery passage for the downwardly
cast-in spaced hollow bodies positioned within said cool
extending passage 18 in which it makes a close ?t, is in
ing-liouid space, said lower wall being formed with a
serted through an aperture 41 in the upper wall 2 of the 75 thickened part constituting an upward projection between
1);
I)
3,074,389
5
6
said hollow bodies, said projection having formed therein
delivery passage constituted by a feed pipe inserted into
the cylinder head and arranged to direct cooling liquid
downwardly into the upper end of said downwardly ex
tending coolant passage.
horizontal coolant passages extending between said hol
low bodies, and a downwardly extending coolant passage
extending through the upper face of said projection and
communicating with the inner end of each of said hori
zontal coolant passages, and means arranged to cause
cooling liquid to flow through the said coolant passages
in the said projection.
2. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 in which the
outer end of each of said horizontal coolant passages
opens into the cooling liquid space around the projection.
3. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 2 including a
delivery passage arranged to direct cooling liquid down
wardly into the upper end of said downwardly extending
9. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 6 in which the
said feed pipe terminates above the upper end of said
downwardly extending coolant passage to direct a jet of
cooling liquid into said upper end.
10. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 in which the
hollow bodies are angularly distributed about a vertical
axis which passes through the said projection and the
said horizontal coolant passages are radially disposed in
relation to said vertical axis.
11. A liquid-cooled cylinder head structure comprising
coolant passage.
15 spaced upper and lower walls and a surrounding side wall
de?ning therebetween a cooling liquid space, and inlet
4. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which at
passage, and exhaust passage and a combustion pocket
least part of said delivery passage is constituted by a feed
pipe inserted into the cylinder head.
constituting three cast-hi hollow bodies positioned within
said cooling liquid space, said lower wall being formed
5. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which the
said delivery passage terminates above the upper end of 20 with a thickened part forming an upward projection be
tween said hollow bodies, said projection having formed
said downwardly extending coolant passage to direct a
therein three horizontal coolant passages extending be
jet of cooling liquid into said upper end.
tween said hollow bodies, a downwardly extending cool
6. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which said
ant passage extending through the upper face of said pro
delivery passage extends from an opening in the lower
wall of the cylinder head ‘for receiving cooling liquid 25 jection and communicating with the inner end of each of
said horizontal coolant passages, a delivery passage ex
from a cylinder block.
tending from an opening in the lower wall of the cylinder
7. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which said
head and arranged to direct cooling liquid downwardly
delivery passage extends from an opening in the lower
into the upper end of said downwardly extending coolant
wall of the cylinder head and terminates above the upper
end of said downwardly extending coolant passage to re 30 passage and to cause cooling liquid to flow through said
coolant passages in said projection into said cooling liquid
ceive cooling liquid from a cylinder block and to direct a
jet of cooling liquid into said upper end.
8. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 including a
space around said projection.
No references cited.
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