Патент USA US3074399код для вставки
Jan. 22, 1963 L. R. c. LILLY 3,074,389 LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed May 11, 1962 ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 ' F162. INVENTOR LESLIE R. C. LuLLv Jan. 22, 1963 L. R. c. LILLY 3,074,389 LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed May 11, 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 / /4 I“ m /4 25 \ A95 \ \ / \3 , \/5 a‘: 32 3/ / - 30 w/ 2/ 22: 20 F1613‘. J24 _ I \23 »2/ iNvEN'roR LESLIE R. C. LILLY hwfw 9éwvwa ATTORNEYS Jan- 22, 1963 L. R. c. LILLY 3,074,389 LIQUID-COOLED CYLINDER HEADS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed May 11, 1962 T (4. ‘ Y 52 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 ’( 46’ 5019 FIG 6_ $4 in; \ \ 50A ‘49 INVENTOR LESLIE R. C. LlLLY A-rTosaNEYs E‘a'tentetl San. 22, 1953 2 3,074,389 CYLlNDEiR MAKES FGR \TAL QQI’ABUSTEQN ENGlN? Leslie it. Q. Lilly, Worthing, Sussex, England, assignor to lllicardo 1?; (Io.7 Engineers (W27) Limited, London, England, a company of Great Britain (Iiaires , Filed May ill, 1962, Scr. No. 194,1(37 only, application Great Britain May 15, 1961 ‘11 (liaims. (Cl. i23—41.'73) This invention relates to castings constituting liquid cooled cylinder heads for internal combustion engines operating on the four-stroke or two-stroke cycle and of the overhead poppet valve type, that is to say the type hav ing at least one port, controlled by a poppet valve formed in the cylinder head, and is particularly but not exclusively applicable to engines of the liquid fuel injection compres sion ignition type. For convenience it will be assumed that the cylinder head is applied to the upper end of a vertical cylinder. ‘Liquid-cooled cylinder heads to which the invention is applicable are of the kind in which the cylinder head consists of a one-piece casting including a cooling liquid space lying between spaced upper and lower walls and a surrounding side wall, with one or more inlet and/or exhaust ports formed in the lower wall while there are provided within the cooling liquid space at least three cast-in hollow bodies each constituting either an inlet or an exhaust passage leading to a port or a housing for a fuel injector or sparking plug or constituting a combustion pocltet, the hollow bodies being di ributed within the plan area of the cylinder head. An object of the present invention is to provide an arrangement in which adequate cooling of the part of the lower wall which extends between the hollow bodies and the adjacent parts of the hollow bodies can be obtained more readily and efficiently than hitherto. in a liquid-cooled cylinder head of the kind referred to according to the invention, the casting constituting the a nozzle directing a jet of cooling liquid into such down wardly extending coolant passage. in one example the cylinder head is of the kind in which the cooling liquid for the cylinder head ?ows up wards from the water jacket of the associated cylinder into the cooling liquid space of the head through com municating openings formed respectively in the upper face of the cylinder block and the lower face of the cylinder head, and in this case at least one of such openings in the 10 cylinder head may open into the delivery passage so as to deliver the cooling liquid ?owing therethrough, either in the form of a jet or otherwise, into the open end of the downwardly extending coolant passage (or one of the downwardly exhausting passages if there be more than one), in the projection. At least a part of the delivery passage may be constituted by a pipe inserted into the cylinder head, or alternatively a part of the delivery pas sage may be constituted by a passage cast in the cylinder head and arranged to deliver cooling liquid, either directly 20 or through a pipe inserted into the cylinder head, into the upper end of the appropriate downwardly extending coolant passage in the projection. The invention is particularly applicable to the cylinder heads of internal combustion engines of the compression ignition type in which the cylinder head is provided with inlet and/ or exhaust passages extending from inlet and/ or exhaust ports for the cylinder in the lower wall ?rst up wardly and then laterally to inlet and/ or exhaust openings in the side wall of the cylinder head, and a combustion pocket, for example or spheroidal or similar form, com municating with the cylinder bore through a restricted passage formed in the head or in a plug inserted into the head in known manner. The inlet and/ or exhaust ports and, the combustion pocket, and other hollow bodies in plan view, may be angularly distributed about a vertical axis which may either lie adjacent to or be between the axis of the cylinder bore and at least one of the axes of the hollow bodies. For example, the axes of the inlet and/ or exhaust ports may lie on opposite sides of and be approxi cylinder head includes a thickening of the lower wall in 40 mately equally spaced from a plane containing the cylin~ der axis and the axis of the combustion pocket and them the form of an upward projection from the upper surface selves lie in a plane containing the axis of the cylinder of the lower wall, between the hollow bodies, such pro~ upon which the cylinder head is adapted to be positioned, jection having formed in it, as by casting in or drilling, or displaced from the axis of the cylinder, while the axis coolant passages extending between the hollow bodies in of the combustion pocket is substantially displaced from a direction having a substantial component parallel to the the cylinder axis, e.g. lies on or close to the circumference plane of the lower wall (and hereinafter for convenience of the cylinder bore. Thus the axes of the inlet and/ or alled horizontal coolant passages), and each horizontal exhaust ports and of the combustion pocket are angularly coolant passage communicating at its inner end (that is to distributed, conveniently approximately evenly, about a say the end which lies adjacent to the area between the hollow bodies) with a coolant passage (herein called for 50 vertical axis which lies between the axis of the cylinder bore and the axis of the combustion pocket, and the hori convenience downwardly extending coolant passage) ex zontal coolant passages are disposed radially with respect tending downwardly from the upper face of the projection, to this vertical axis. and circulating means for causing a flow of cooling liquid The invention be carried into practice in various through the coolant passages in the projection. In many cases the downwardly extending coolant pas 55 ways, but three embodiments will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying sage or passages may be comparatively short or be con drawings which show a cylinder head and part of a com— stituted by openings into the inner ends of the horizontal pression ignition engine, and in which: coolant passages. FlGURE l is a horizontal section of a cylinder head Conveniently the inner ends of the horizontal coolant according to the present invention for a four-stroke-cycle passages in the projection communicate with a single com 60 engine, the section being taken in the plane of three mon downwar tly extending coolant passage while their horizontally extending coolant passages formed between outer ends open into the cooling liquid space around the the inlet passage, the exhaust passage and the combus projection. tion pocket of the cylinder head, The circulating means for causing a ?ow of cooling FIGURE 2 is a sectional elevation of part of the cyl 65 licjuid through the coolant passages in the projection con— inder head and part of the associated cylinder block on veriently comprises a delivery passage or passages ar the line ll—ll of FZGURE 1 in the plane of an inserted ranged to deliver cooling liquid into the upper end or ends feed pipe shown communicating with the cylinder water jacket of the cylinder block, of the downwardly extending coolant passage or passages. FIGURE 3 is a sectional side elevation of the cylinder The delivery passage or each delivery passage may 70 head and part of the cylinder block, on the line lll—lll terminate at a point above the upper end of its associated of FIGURE 1, downwardly extending coolant passage so as to constitute 3,074,889 3 FIGURE 4- is a similar view to that of FIGURE 2 showing a modi?ed construction also as applied to a cylinder head for a four-stroke-cycle engine, FIGURE 5 is a similar view to FIGURE 1 of a con struction according to the invention as applied to a two stroke~cycle engine, and FIGURE 6 is a cross section on the line VI—VI of FIGURE 5. The cylinder head of the compression ignition engine 4 cylinder head, in which it makes a close ?t also. The upper end or" the pipe ‘49 is closed by a resilient sealing cap 42, and the pipe connects adjacent to its upper end, through a port 43, with the end of a passage 44 cast in the cylinder head constituting the other part of the de- . livery passage and connecting at its other end with the opening 24. As in the previous embodiment the ports between the hollow bodies, 8, l1 and 14 are cooled by' Water led from the cylinder water jacket 21 through the shown in FIGURES 1 to 3 comprises a one-piece casting 10 passage 44 and the pipe 49 directly into the passages 18, 1 having spaced upper and lower walls 2 and 3, and a surrounding side wall 4 extending between them and in both these embodiments the three hollow bodies 8, de?ning a water space 6. l1 and 14 can be considered approximately evenly an The casting I. is also formed with three spaced hollow gularly distributed about and equidistant from a vertical cast-in bodies, comprising an inlet passage 8, leading 15 axis and it will be seen that this axis is coaxial with the from an inlet opening 9 in the side wall 4 of the head to downwardly extending passage 18 and is between the an inlet port it) in the lower wall 3, an exhaust passage axis of the combustion pocket 14 and the axis of the 11, leading from an exhaust opening 12 in the side wall cylinder bore 22 and lies in a plane containing both these 4 to an exhaust port 13, and a combustion pocket 14. axes. This vertical axis between the hollow bodies may These hollow bodies 8, i1 and 14 divide the water space lie adjacent to the axis of the cylinder bore or be close 6 into three parts 6A, 5B and 60 which communicate to the circumference of the cylinder bore. with ‘one another in conventional manner. The cylinder head shown in EiGURES 5 and 6 is for The part of the lower wall 3 between the hollow bodies application to a two-stroke-cycle engine to which air is 8, 11 and 14 is formed with a thickening constituting an admitted through inlet ports (not shown) formed in the upwardly extending projection 35, which is formed with lower part of the cylinder in conventional manner. The three horizontal passages’ to which are drilled through head comprises a casting 45 formed with four exhaust apertures 17A, 17B and 17C in the side wall 4 of the ports as, each controlled by a poppet valve 47 in a cylinder head. The passages 15 communicate at their manner known per se. Thus in this embodiment there inner ends with a common downwardly extending pas are four hollow bodies cast in an upwardly extending pro sage l8 drilled in the projection through an aperture 19 30 jection 43 of the lower wall of the cylinder head, con in the upper wall 2 of the cylinder head. stituting vertically extending exhaust passages 58A or As shown in FIGURE 2, when the cylinder head is 563. Each passage sea communicates with an adjacent mounted on a cylinder block 2% of a compression igni passage Shh such that both passages lead into one of tion engine (illustrated in part), the water space 6 is two parallel horizontally extending exhaust passages 51 connected to the cylinder water jacket 21, so as to receive 35 and hence to an exhaust opening 52 in a side wall 53 of water therefrom, by way of an opening 23 formed in the the cylinder head. Horizontal coolant passages 54 are cylinder block 2% and in alignment with a corresponding drilled in the projection between the hollow bodies 58A opening 24 formed in the cylinder head. or 5W5, each coolant passage communicating at its inner 'A water delivery passage in the form of a detachable end with a common downwardly extending passage 55. pipe 25 of generally semi-circular form, and, for example, Water is delivered from the water jacket of the cylinder made of copper, is inserted into the part 6A of the water block into the upper end of the passage 55 by a gener space through the adjacent aperture 17A in the side wall ally semi-circular pipe 5:’: which extends from an open— 4, and one end of the pipe 25 makes a close ?t in the ing 57 in the lower wall of the cylinder head in align opening 24. The other end 26 of the pipe 25 constitutes ment with a corresponding opening in the cylinder block, a nozzle and is positioned over the upper end of the down as in FEGURE .2. V wardly extending passage 18 into which it directs a jet In some cases each horizontal coolant passage in the of water. Thus coolant water is led directly from the projection between the hollow bodies may communicate cylinder Water jacket 2-1 through the pipe 25 directly with a separate downwardly extending coolant passage. into the passages 16 and 18, and hence into the water it will be understood that the invention‘ can be applied space 6. The apertures 17A and 1713 in the cylinder head to internal combustion engines of the overhead poppet constitute outlet openings for the water, and the apertures 17C and 19, which are screw threaded, are plugged before valve type in which there are three or more ports in the lower wall of the cylinder head, e.g. one exhaust port and two inlet ports, distributed over the plan area of the head, with or without a combustion pocket, to cylinder head in conventional manner. Thus the cylinder head provides a sheath 27 for part of each of two push rods 55 heads in which the hollow bodies are constituted by inlet and exhaust passages and a hollow boss or housing for a (not shown) adjacent to the water space 6, and between fuel injection device or sparking plug housing to engines which is an extension of the water space 6. In addition, in which the hollow bodies are constituted by three or there are provided vertically extending bores 28 for se the cylinder head is positioned on the cylinder block. Other bores and apertures are formed in the cylinder curing bolts (not shown), and smaller bores 2§ consti more passages each constituting an inlet or an exhaust pas fuel-injection device (not shown). combustion pocket. tuting steam vents from the block. As shown in FIGURE 60 sage communicating with an inlet or exhaust port in the lower wall, with or without a further hollow body con~ 3, a spheroidal combustion pocket 14 is provided in a stituted for example by a combustion pocket and/or a bore 34) with a hot plug 31 containing a restricted pas fuel injector or sparking plug housing, as well as to en sage 32. leading from the combustion pocket 14 into the gines operating on the two~stroke-cycle in which the‘ cylinder bore 22. In the upper wall 2 of the cylinder head are formed bores 33 for poppet valves 34 controlling 65 hollow bodies are constituted ‘for example by three ex haust passages or two or more exhaust passages and a the inlet and exhaust ports 14}, 13 and a socket 35 for a What 1 claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: similar to the embodiment shown in FIGURES 1 to 3 1. A liquid-cooled cylinder head structure comprising and similar parts are given the same reference numerals 70 spaced upper and lower walls and a surrounding side wall and will not be escribed again. In this embodiment a The part of the cylinder head shown in FIGURE 4 is detachable pipe 4-9 of cylindrical form and constituting de?ning therebetween a cooling liquid space, at least three part of a water delivery passage for the downwardly cast-in spaced hollow bodies positioned within said cool extending passage 18 in which it makes a close ?t, is in ing-liouid space, said lower wall being formed with a serted through an aperture 41 in the upper wall 2 of the 75 thickened part constituting an upward projection between 1); I) 3,074,389 5 6 said hollow bodies, said projection having formed therein delivery passage constituted by a feed pipe inserted into the cylinder head and arranged to direct cooling liquid downwardly into the upper end of said downwardly ex tending coolant passage. horizontal coolant passages extending between said hol low bodies, and a downwardly extending coolant passage extending through the upper face of said projection and communicating with the inner end of each of said hori zontal coolant passages, and means arranged to cause cooling liquid to flow through the said coolant passages in the said projection. 2. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 in which the outer end of each of said horizontal coolant passages opens into the cooling liquid space around the projection. 3. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 2 including a delivery passage arranged to direct cooling liquid down wardly into the upper end of said downwardly extending 9. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 6 in which the said feed pipe terminates above the upper end of said downwardly extending coolant passage to direct a jet of cooling liquid into said upper end. 10. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 in which the hollow bodies are angularly distributed about a vertical axis which passes through the said projection and the said horizontal coolant passages are radially disposed in relation to said vertical axis. 11. A liquid-cooled cylinder head structure comprising coolant passage. 15 spaced upper and lower walls and a surrounding side wall de?ning therebetween a cooling liquid space, and inlet 4. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which at passage, and exhaust passage and a combustion pocket least part of said delivery passage is constituted by a feed pipe inserted into the cylinder head. constituting three cast-hi hollow bodies positioned within said cooling liquid space, said lower wall being formed 5. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which the said delivery passage terminates above the upper end of 20 with a thickened part forming an upward projection be tween said hollow bodies, said projection having formed said downwardly extending coolant passage to direct a therein three horizontal coolant passages extending be jet of cooling liquid into said upper end. tween said hollow bodies, a downwardly extending cool 6. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which said ant passage extending through the upper face of said pro delivery passage extends from an opening in the lower wall of the cylinder head ‘for receiving cooling liquid 25 jection and communicating with the inner end of each of said horizontal coolant passages, a delivery passage ex from a cylinder block. tending from an opening in the lower wall of the cylinder 7. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 3 in which said head and arranged to direct cooling liquid downwardly delivery passage extends from an opening in the lower into the upper end of said downwardly extending coolant wall of the cylinder head and terminates above the upper end of said downwardly extending coolant passage to re 30 passage and to cause cooling liquid to flow through said coolant passages in said projection into said cooling liquid ceive cooling liquid from a cylinder block and to direct a jet of cooling liquid into said upper end. 8. A cylinder head as claimed in claim 1 including a space around said projection. No references cited.