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Патент USA US3074658

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Jan. 22, 1963
w. R. sToNE
3,074,648 `
FLUID DISCHARGE GUN
Filed April l2, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Jan. 22, 1963
'
w. R. STONE
3,074,648
FLUID DISCHARGE GUN
Filed April 12, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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WÍNTHROP R. STONE
SWW
ATTOR
Y
United States Patent Oiiìce
I
dßïlißtië
Patented dan. 22, lgí’iîi
l
E
3,674,648
means comprising components añxed to the ‘body and
.stem portions of the gun.
FLUED DESQHARGE (GUN
Winthrop lit. Stone, Winfield, W. Va., assigner to Union
(Iarhide Qorporation, a corporation of New York
Filed Apr. l2, .11961, Ser. No. M2595
d @iai-ins. (Ci. Z39-»197)
With the foregoing and other features in view, which
shall more fully hereinafter appear, the invention com~
prises novel constructions, combinations and arrangements
of components as will now be described and as defined in
the appended claims and as illustrated in preferred em
The present invention relates to `a fluid discharge gun
bodiment in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FEGURE. 1 is an elevational longitudinal sectional view
for spray-feeding of fluids and more particularly to a gun
for feeding a wide variety of waste products into a furnace 10 of the residue burning gun of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a cross sectional View through a point ad
for disposal by burning. The materials that can be suc
jacent the nozzle end of the gun of FIGURE 1 showing
cessfully handled may be of variable viscosity and com«
position, contain iiocculated or granular particles and |be
the concentric arrangement of component parts at that
highly corrosive or erosive in nature.
point and
Many industrial processes produce by-product waste
materials which are difficult of disposal since they vary
in composition, consistency and in viscosity.
Known
FIGURE 3 is a cross sectional View through a point
adjacent the coolant ports showing the concentric arrange
ment of component parts at that point and the arrange
ment of the coolant baflies.
waste burner guns which are adapted to handle a particu
In an embodiment of the apparatus of the present in*
lar waste substance efficiently are found to malfunction
when other substances are introduced to the waste stream. 20 vention according to the drawings, a cylindrical body l1
of the gun is shown provided with a coolant inlet l5 and
Not infrequently, waste product streams are found to con
a coolant outlet i7. A pair of longitudinally extending
tain foreign matter such as wood splinters, fibers and
baffles l2 and ld- divides chamber lêâ into «two end-con
nected fiow paths to assure full length travel of the cool
rive from points at varying process pressures, and from 25 ant. One end of the 'body ll, which end shall for con
venience be called the nozzle end, is formed to define a
different types of pumps, according to particular systems,
radial intrusion 19 bounded by a short axially extending
steady pressure cannot be maintained at the burner gun.
annular wall 2l and by axially and radially extending
Known guns have been found to operate inefiiciently
walls 23 and 25. The other end of body ll is formed to
under varying input pressure. Waste materials which are
corrosive or erosive, or both, react with and cause severe 30 define a bolting flange Z7. A gun head assembly 29,
having a bolting ñange 3l, which matches flange 27, in
wear on known burner guns, necessitating their frequent
cludes a packing gland 33, `a packing follower 35, a spring
replacement. Known burner guns have also been found
seat base 37 and an adjustable spring seat 39 threadedly
occasionally to heat to excess, causing the coking of cer
engaged in the base 37 and ‘having an axially extending
tain residue materials inside the gun and sometimes burn
35 center bore therethrough.
ing of the gun itself.
A reciprocally movable stem assembly which shall be
The apparatus of the present invention comprises a
metallic and organic scales which tend to clog ports and
orifices of known burner guns. Since waste materials de
unique residue burning gun which offers outstanding ad
vantages over known burner guns in versatility, reliability,
long life, ease of rnaintainence, and operating characteris
tics. The residue burning gun of the present invention 40
provides for crushing of solid particles in the waste feed
stream, adjusts to constant furnace feed rates for a wide
more completely described below, extends through the
gun body and gun head assembly land is held in coaxial
alignment therewith 'by means of sliding contact with
bearing liner 49, a centerbore in the flange portion of head
assembly 29, the packing follower 35 and the centerbore
of spring seat 39. A coil spring 65 is installed, biased
compressively, between spring seat 39 on the gun head
variety of upstream pumping apparatus over a wide pres
assembly `and a spring seat component on the stern assem
sure range, regardless of the viscosity or composition of
the feed, and is self-adjusting and self-cleaning. The gun 45 lbly in a manner which tends to close the nozzle end of the
gun.
is also adapted for the easy replacement of high-wear
To assemble the gun 4according to the drawing, a gas
components, obviating the necessity of replacing the entire
ket fil, an annular seat ring ¿i3 and a gasket 45 are in
apparatus because of worn individual parts. Due to the
serted into body il. from the flanged end and are posi
use of especially hard materials at critical wear points,
the gun has an extraordinarily long operating life even 50 tioned against wall 2.3 of radial intrusion 19. A sleeve
bearing d'7' with a bearing liner «t9 is next inserted from
when used with highly abrasive materials such as sand and
the body 1l flanged end. Bearing liner :t9 is provided
the like. The gun is also provided with a water jacket to
with an axially extending -annular protrusion having an
cool the gun and feed stream and prevent burning the
outer periphery which engages the inner circumferential
gun or coking of waste materials in the feed stream.
‘When used with corrosive materials, the design of the 55 wall of seat ring 43 in a close tit to concentrically align
the several parts. A backing plate 5l is next inserted
apparatus of the present invention permits the use of mate
to fit behind the sleeve bearing and bearing liner. The
rials of construction capa-ble of withstanding the corro
rearwardly projecting portion of backing plate 5l, i.e.,
sion of internal parts without requiring the use of such
the face away from the nozzle end of the gun body, is
materials for body portions of the apparatus.
In general, the apparatus of my invention comprises a 60 provided with a male hub which engages an interior
fixed generally cylindrical hollow body portion, or barrel,
adapted for mounting in a furnace wall, with a fuel inlet
end exterior of the furnace and a nozzle end interior of
Wall of one end of a gun liner sleeve 53, which liner
sleeve extends coaxially inside gun body lli, defining a
small annular space between its outer peripheral wall and v
the inner wall of body 1l. The other end of the liner
the furnace. An elongate stern is concentrically disposed
and resiliently suspended in the body portion and moves 65 sleeve 53 is supported and aligned by a male hub on a
threaded sleeve retainer 55 which screws into threads in
reciprocally therein, according to gun body internal pres
the flange end of the gun body ll. Sleeve retainer 55 is
sure working against bias exerted by a resilient means
provided with a relatively large axially extending opening
connecting the body and the stern. An orifice of variable
56 which, in the embodiment shown, is shaped’ to ac
cross-section is defined at the nozzle end of the gun be
tween matching surface portions of the body and the stem. 70 commodate a square-ended wrench to facilitate assembly.
In some instances it may be found desirable to ñll the
For the reduction of solids occurring in the fluid stream,
annular space between the liner sleeve 53 and the gun
the gun includes comrninuting means, said comminuting
d.
3
body interior wall with a non-congealing lubricating com
pound which can facilitate disassembly of the gun.
A breech 57, provided with a fuel or residue entry
port 59 is mounted between the ñanges 27 vand 3l, which
are provided with `facia recesses to accommodate the
ments in which the apparatus of my invention is used.
Here it should be noted that, since headpiece @l is re
ciprocally movable along with the movable stem portion
of the gun, cooling system connections are best made
thereto by means of flexible conduits.
breech ends. Gaskets (il are installed in the „flange facia
[recesses to effect sealing and the `assembly is secured by
The gun is mounted in a furnace `¿fall ‘.vith the nozzle
end projecting into a combustion chamber. Conduit
containing the fluid to be introduced into the furnace
a circumferential array of bolts o3.
through the gun, is connected to the breech at iiuid entry
rl`he movable stem portion of the gun is comprised
mainly of a relatively thin hollow cylindrical stem piston 10 port
Under pressure of the -fluid system, the fluid
67 having a radially enlarged head e? of a circumference
i lls the breech, ilows through the opening in sleeve re
tainer 55 into the annular space defined by the inner
greater than the inner circumference of radial intrusion
wall of liner sleeve 53 and the outer surface of stem
i9 at ‘the nozzle end of the gun body. Stern head 69
is provided with a rearwardly extending (i.e., to the left
in the drawing) relatively sharp annular projection de
iined by the respective axially and radially extending sur
faces 7l and 73. The movable stem portion of the gun
is assembled by first arranging a gasket 75, a valve disc
piston 67, through the flutes 83 in ferrule Si and out
of the nozzle end of the gun through the fuiste-conical
aperture deiined between the parallel axially and radially
extending surfaces of seat ring ¿i3 and valve disc 77.
Here it should be noted that this aperture is in effect an
automatic nozzle port for the gun. Spring o5 is corn
77 and a gasket 79 in the recess under stern head 69 de
ñned by surface 7l and the end of stem piston 67. A 20 pressed by adjustment of spring seat 39 to a bias which
effects full closure of the aperture between seat ring d3
iluted ferrule Sd, having a multiplicity of axially extend
ing circumferentially spaced ilutes S3, is assembled be«
:and valve disc 77 up to a preselected fluid pressure and
hind gasket 79. Ferrule til is essentially a hollow cyli der
then a grad-ual opening of the aperture according to pres
sure of the fluid system.
having an inside diameter to lit slidably over stein piston
Solid particles such as wood übers and organic granu
67 and an outside diameter to lit slidably inside liner 25
49 of sleeve bearing ¿57, seat ring ¿i3 and backing plate
lar material collect at the nozzle aperture. When they
Si.
build up or agglomerato su?liciently to `attenuate the dis
The liutes S3 in ferrule Sl can be milled or other
charge, backpressure builds up in the gun, causing the
wise formed in the peripheral surface of the ferrule and
stem piston to move, opening the aperture Wider and
extend for slightly less than the ferrule full length.
ln the preferred embodiment of apparatus according 30 permitting discharge of the obstructing material into the
to my invention, the ilute depths are diminished to meet
the outer circumference of the ferrule at the ferrule end
faces. A gasket 85 and a locking nut 37 are then in
stalled to complete the stem lassembly at the nozzle end
of the gun.
35
The partially assembled stem portion is then inserted,
thin end ñrst, through the nozzle end of gun body Ell,
combustion zone of the furnace. After each such occur
rence, the return of the valve disc to its original position
with respect to seat ring 43 is automatically accomplished
by the biased spring 65.
The reciprocal movement of the stem portion of the
gun also causes relative movement of ñuted ferrule 83
with respect to the several parts within which it is ar
ranged. This action not only has a comminuting eifect
seat ring 43, bearing liner- 49', backing plate Sil, liner
on most contaminant particles but also prevents clogging
sleeve 53, opening 56 in retainer 55, breech 57, the
centerbore in flange 3l of the head assembly, packing 33, 40 by particles too hard to be commiuuted. Some com
packing follower 3S and the centerbore of spring seat 39.
Coil spring 65 is then installed over the end of stem
piston o7 projecting from spring seat '39 and spring seat
89 is assembled over the spring and stern piston.
A
iniuution also takes place in the nozzle laperture itself due
to the relative movement of the aperture walls defined by
the parallel-extending
and
valve disc '77. Thus,
opposed
it will be
surfaces
seen that
on the
seatapparatus
ring
cylindrical headpiece 91, which is a combination coolant 45 of the present invention comprises a residue burning gun
connector and lassembly loclr nut is axially centerbored
and threaded to screw onto threads on the projecting end
which not only comminutes inost contaminant particles
occurring in the feed fuel stream, but which also adjusts
to discharge particles which cannot be eiîectively com
minuted during passage through the gun. Fluted ferrule
of piston stern 67. Headpiece 9i is also Provided with
a tapped counterbore concentric with the center-bore, into
which counterbore is screwed a long relatively thin cool
til sliding in backing plate 5l and bearing liner d@ with
ant conduit 93 which extends from the headpiece 91
a close clearance acts to crush and shear any oversized
through stem piston 67 to a point just opposite the in
granular or fibrous solid particles entering the flutes 83.
terior wall of stem head 69. In the preferred embodi
This autom-atie reduction of solids greatly reduces the
ment, this interior wall is provided with a conically pro
fouling tendency at the discharge nozzle of the gun and
jecting flow divider 95 arranged in the flow path of coolant 55 makes for smoother operation.
emerging from the nozzle end of coolant conduit 93.
With the foregoing description in mind, mechanically
Coolant inlet 97 which connects to the tapped counter»
bore and coolant outlet 99 which connects to the interior
skilled persons can readily select suitable materials of
construction and can adapt the apparatus of my invention
`of stem piston 67, are also provided in headpiece 9i.
to particular applications. it will be apparent from the
In operation, any suitable coolant, such as water, is 60 description that the parts of the apparatus which are
introduced under pressure through coolant inlet 97 to
most subject to corrosive or erosive attrition such as gun
conduit 93 from which it emerges in piston head 69
liner sleeve 55, bearing liner 49, ferrule dll, seat ring 43,
opposite flow divider 95, ñlls the cooling chamber in
valve disc 77 and similarly related parts are readily re~
the piston head, iiows back through the annular space
placeable, obviating the need to replace main body por
eñned by the outer surface of conduit 93 and the inner
tions of the gun. This design feature also permits the
wall of stem piston 67 and discharges through coolant
use of materials of construction able to withstand corro
outlet 99. Coolant is also supplied to the body portion
sion and erosion without requiring the use of such rela
of the gun through inlet yl5 whence it ilows through a
tively eXpensive materials for body portions of the device.
first half-annular portion of cooling chamber 13 to the
In a particular embodiment of apparatus according to
nozzle end of the gun, around the baffle ends and back 70 the present invention, la residue burning gun was designed
through a second half-annular portion of chamber lâ to
and constructed to inject waste fluids from hydrocarbon
the coolant outlet i7. The type or” coolant used, the
production processes into an industrial power plant boiler,
pressure, ñow rate, temperature control, recirculation
under pressures of from 400 p.s.i.g. to 600 p.s.i.g. Bear
systems and other matters of concern in cooling will vary
ing liner 49, ferrule ill, backing plate 5l, gun liner sleeve
depending von the particular applications and environ 75 53, `and the stem head 69 are‘fabricated from Stainless
3,074,648
5
tungsten carbide, all gaskets are of soft aluminum and
body 11, head assembly 29 and «other parts were of mild
steel.
>
This gun was installed where severa-l standard commer
cially available residue burning guns had previously been
used with less than satisfactory results. Prior to the in
stallation of the apparatus of the present invention, mal
functioning due to clogging and plugging of known appa
_fwras
6
fluid pressure-induced movement of said stem, said direc
tion being a direction of movement tending to close the
fluid discharge aperture and coolant passages disposed in
said body portion and in said stem portion, adapted for
connection to circulating coolant cooling systems.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1 in combination with
comminuting means adapted for the reduction of solids
occurring in fluids discharged through the gun, said com
steel. Valve disc 77 and seat ring 43 are made from
minuting means comprising la ñrst component affixed to
the body portion of the gun and -a second component
affixed to the stern portion of the gun.
3. Apparatus according to claim 1 in combination with
replaceable first comminuting means adapted for con
ratus occurred continually at periods of »from one hour
or less up to maximum operating times of six to eight
hours. Routine cessation of residue waste feeding and re
moval and cleaning of the then used apparatus was re
quired. Excessive abrasion and corrosion -occurred on
tinual compressive reduction of solids occurring in ñuids
discharged through the gun, said first comminuting means
these guns when kept in this service for only short periods
of time. Some of the known guns employed required
comprising two gener-ally conical and substantially match
ing surfaces, yone of said surfaces being on a component
steam or air service connections for atomizing the fluid
residues. It was also found that, even when these known
guns were running unclogged, there was considerable diñi
aflìxed to the body portion of the gun and the other of
watery residue, too little of heavy emulsion or tarry com
ferrule on the stem portion of the gun arranged to move
ponents and to clog and shut off completely when solid
reciprocally in the hollow cylindrical liner.
said surfaces being on a component aflixed to the stem
culty in maintaining feed rate control. Waste type residue 20 portion of the gun and replaceable second comminuting
means adapted for continual shearing reduction of solids
feed streams comprise portions which are thin and watery,
occurring in fluids discharged through the gun, said second
portions of varying viscosity emulsions and portions of
comminuting means comprising a hollow cylindrical liner
heavy, tarry fluid, all interspersed with fibrous and granu
arranged and disposed longitudinally in the fixed portion
lar solid contaminants. Thus, the tendency of standard
of the Igun and a cylindrical longitudinally surface fluted
commercially available guns is to yfeed too much thin
4. A fluid discharge gun comprising, in combination, a
fixed generally cylindrical hollow body portion, -a stern
After the installation of >apparatus according to the
present invention in place where `a standard commercially 30 portion arranged longitudinally and concentrically with
respect to said body portion to define a fluid passage ter
available burner gun had been used, the apparatus of the
minating in a variable size fluid discharge aperture having
present invention operated continually for `a period of
a frusto conical shape, fluid inlet means connecting to said
approximately nine months without malfunction and with
fluid passage adapted for connection to a conduit contain
no down time occurring due to either plugging or me
contaminants such as Wood fiber occur in the -feed stream.
ing pressurized ñuid to be discharged through the gun,
chanical failure. During this nine month -period »approxi
mately 2,000,000 pounds of hydrocarbon production
resilient means connecting said body portion and said
stern portion arranged `and disposed to exert a preselected
process waste residues, along With varying small amounts
resilient bias on said stern portion in a direction opposite
of other residues, were processed through the gun. At
the end of this period of duty, the gun was taken out of 40 fluid pressure-induced movement of said stem, said direc
tion being a direction of movement tending to close the
service, dismantled and inspected to determine the con
fluid discharge aperture, first comminuting means adapted
ditions of internal parts. It was found that all of the in
for continual compressive reduction «of solids occurring
ternal parts were in good condition. The bottom surfaces
in fluids discharged through the gun, said first comminut
of the inlet ends of the flutes 83 on ferrule 81 were
»found to be slightly eroded. This component, since it is 45 ing means comprising two generally conical and substan
tially matching surfaces, one of said surfaces being on a
formed symmetrically, was turned around upon reassem
component aflixed to the body portion of the gun and the
bly to present new Wearing surfaces to the flow stream.
other of said surfaces being on a component aflixed to the
stem portion of the gun and replaceable second corn
çIt should be noted here that lluted ferrule 81 is one of
those parts expected to wear and be replaced as occasion
requires. 'I'he tungsten carbide seat ring 43 and valve 50 minuting means ladapted for continual shearing reduction
of solids occurring in fluids discharged through the gun,
disc 77 showed so little evidence of wear as to not even
said second comminuting means comprising a hollow
require refacing or grinding.
Since many changes could be made in the specific corn
binations of apparatus here disclosed and many appar
ently diñerent embodiments of this invention can be made
without »departing from the scope thereof, it is intended
cylindrical liner arranged and disposed longitudinally in
the fixed portion of the gun and a cylindrical longitudi~
f nally surface fluted ferrule on the ste-m portion of the gun
arranged to move reciprocally in the hollow cylindrical
liner.
that all matter contained in the foregoing description and
shown in the accompanying «drawing shall -be interpreted
as being illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:
60
1. A fluid residue burning lgun comprising, in combina
tion, a fixed generally cylindrical hollow body portion
and a stem portion concentrically disposed with respect
to said body portion to define a fluid passage terminating
in a variable size fluid discharge aperture, fluid inlet 65
means connecting to said passage adapted for connection
to a conduit containing pressurized fluid to be discharged
through the gun, resilient means connecting said body por
tion and said stem portion adapted to exert Aa preselected
resilient bias on said stem portion in a direction opposite 70
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
426,805
949,360
1,195,080
2,621,083
2,868,587
2,963,958
2,968,443
2,990,123
Hanford ____________ __ Apr. 29,
Kinealy _____________ __ Feb. 15,
Pettit _______________ __ Aug. 15,
Daniels ______________ __ Dec. 7,
Hegemann ___________ __ Jan. 13,
Shames et al. __________ __ May 17,
Manning ____________ __ Ian. 17,
Hyde ______________ __ June 27,
1890
1910
11916
1952
1959
1960
19611
1961
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