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Патент USA US3074697

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Jan. 22, 1963
Filed Oct. 28. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
14:11.01 8¢ 16101
United States Patent 0 ”
Patented Jan. 22, 1953
of a 'foroid to conform closely to the curved wall of the
toroidal chamber on one side of the piston. A similar
Harry A. Garrison, 5309 Marlborough Drive, San Diego,
Calif.; Garrison E. Murphy, 650 Cabriilo Ave., Coro
nado, Calif.; and John E. Murphy, S309 Marlborough
Drive, San Diego, Calif.
Filed Get. 28, i966, Ser. No. 65,847
2 Claims. (El. 253-23)
baffle 36 extends from the face 30 of each piston on the
diametrically opposite side from the baille 34, and the two
bañles constitute opposed, scoop-like extensions of the
The disc 20 is iixed to the'shaft 22 by a spline 38, or
similar means, for a direct driving connection.
For con
venience the housing 10 is made in two halves, divided
The present invention relates generally to hydraulic 10 diametrically on the center line normal to the axis of
shaft 22, the halves 40 and 42 having radially projecting,
motors and more particularly to a reversible hydraulic
paired lugs 44 which are secured together by bolts 46
power unit.
and nuts 48.
The primary object of this invention is to provide a
The housing 'l1-alf 40 is provided with a iluid inlet port
hydraulic power unit utilizing a unitary rotating member
having a plurality of piston-like elements driven by lluid 15 `50 angularly disposed on the side of the toroidal chamber
12 to direct fluid inwardly and circumferentially against
pressure in a toroidal chamber, the rotation being smooth
the face 28 and baille 34 of each piston. The housing
and continuous and the speed being fully vari-able by con
half 42 has a fluid outlet port 52 of the toroidal cham
trolling the ll-uid pressure.
ber 12 and circumferentially spaced from the inlet 50.
Another object of this invention is to provide a hy
draulic power unit in which the piston-like elements are 20 The terms inlet and outlet are arbitrary and relative since
the power unit is reversible by reversing the fluid llow,
double sided, so that the rotating member and power out
the original outlet then becoming the inlet. Fluid leak
put shaft can be driven in either direction with equal
age inwardly toward the hub ld is prevented by means
of 4annular sealing rings 54 recessed into the radical walls
Another object of this invention is to provide a hy
draulic'power unit in which the piston-like elements have 25 16 inwardly of the toroidal chamber 12, said sealing
rings riding on and sealing against the opposite faces of
extended baffles to form pockets into which the hydraulic
the disc 20.
lluid is directed for maximum driving force. '
The power unit is driven by pressurized lluid, a typical
A further object of this invention is to provide a hy
draulic power unit which can be used as a motor, power
transmission, or other device for converting fluid pres
sure into rotary power.
arrangement being illustrated diagrammatically in FIG.
30 4. A conventional type of pump 56 pumps fluid from
a reservoir 5S, through a reversing valve 6d, to the inlet
port Si?, the lluid returning from outlet port 52, through
Finally, it is an object to provide a hydraulic power
the valve, to said reservoir. Any suitable power source
unit of the aforementioned character which is simple and
can be used to drive the pump 56. The fluid entering
convenient to manufacture and use and which will give
35 the inlet port Sti exerts pressure against the face 28 of
generally efllcient and durable service.
the adjacent piston 26, the scoop effect of the baffle 34
With these and other objects definitely in view, this in
greatly increasing the driving power of the lluid. As
vention consists in the novel construction, combination
each piston 26 advances beyond the outlet port 52 the
and arrangement of elements and portions, as will be
fluid escapes, the actual separation between inlet and out
hereinafter fully described in the specifications, particu
larly pointed out in the claims, `and illustrated in the 40 let being determined by the lluid pressure and llow rate,
the circumferential dimension and relative extent of each
drawings, which form a material part of this disclosure,
piston and other design factors in the engine. Also the
and in which:
angle of the inlet and outlet and the exact configuration
FIG. l is a front elevation view of the power unit with
of the bailles 34 and 36 will be determined by the particu'
one portion of the housing removed;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of 45 lar flow characteristics. Since the pistons are dou-ble
ended, the rotor lâ will be driven in either direction with
EFIG. l;
equal eilîciency, rotational speed being controlled vir
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of
tually entirely by fluid llow rate, such as by a regulating
a portion of the rotor and drive shaft; and
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the
The power unit can be used for many different pur
line d-d of FIG. 1, with the associated hydraulic system 50
poses, a particularly useful application being in the prime
shown diagrammatically.
Similar characters of reference indicate similar or iden
tical elements and portions throughout the specifications
and throughout the views of the drawing.
The power unit comprises a housing 1d having an outer
toroidal chamber l2 and a central hub ld connected to
the toroidal chamber by spaced radial walls 16. Within
the housing l@ is a rotor 18 comprising a disc `2li mounted
on a shaft 22, which is freely rotatable in bearings 2d in
the hub lli, the periphery of said disc carrying a plurality
of piston-like elements which will be referred to herein
simply as pistons 26 which are circumferentially spaced
and rotate in the toroidal chamber l2. Each piston 26
is double sided, having opposed radial faces I28 and Sii
extending diametrically to the cross section of the toroi
dal chamber l2, and each piston is provided with a pis
ton ring 32, or multiple rings, for proper sealing. Each
piston 26 has 4a baille 3d» integral therewith, extending
circumferentially from the face 28 on one side of and
generally circumferentially of the disc 20 and having a
curved edge extending from the outer edge of said face to
the periphery of said baille being substantially a portion
mover of a vehicle.
A single power unit can be used
in place of the usual transmission and coupled to the
driving Wheels by >a differential gearbox. Alternatively,
a separate unit may be attached to or built into the hub
of each driven wheel. Since the speed is infinitely vari
able throughout the designed operating range, no gears
are necessary, the throttle control being -a simple valve.
An electric motor or internal combustion engine may be
used to drive the pump 56 and, if necessary, a pressurized
fluid reservoir can be used to provide emergency power
in the event of engine failure.
The power unit is a smoothly operating driving means
having a higher efficiency than the conventional vane or
gear type hydraulic motors. The single rotating corn
ponent, the rotor 1S, may be made as a unitary structure,
together with the pistons and ballles, reducing the total
number of parts to -a minimum. By using piston rings on
each piston, the fit of the pistons and bailles within the
toroidal chamber is far less critical, the machining oper
ations involved being greatly simplified.
Since no high temperatures are involved and wear is
, limited to the contact surfaces of the piston rings 32 and
posed to direct pressurized fluid against each piston and
sealing -rings 54», the majorA portion of the structure may
be of light alloy material. The drive portion of the unit
is self-lubricating, the toroidal housing being iilled with
the working fluid while in operation.
The operationof this invention willrbe clearly compre
hended from ,a consideration of the foregoing description
of the mechanical details thereof, taken in connection
with the drawings and the Iabove recited objects. It will
be obvious that all said objects are amply achieved by
this invention.
It is understood that minor variation from the form of
baffles, in one direction, as said rotor disc rotates; said
bañies being portions of .a toroid and conforming closely
to the inner surface of said toroidal chamber; and said
housing having annular sealing rings therein engaging the
opposite faces'of said rotor disc radially inwardly of said
2. A hydraulic power unit according to claim 1 and
wherein said major portion of the distance is substantially
10 one-'half of the distance between adjacent pistons.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
the invention disclosed herein may be made without de
parture from the spirit and scope of the invention, and
that the specifications and drawings are to be considered 15
as merely lillustrative rather than limiting.
Messer ______________ _- June 7, 1887
Lucas _______________ __ Apr. 10, 1894
Lighthall ____________ __ May 2, 1899
1, A hydraulic power unit, comprising: a housing hav
ing a toroidal chamber; a rotor disc freely rotatably
mounted in said housing; said rotor disc having a plu
Schneider _____________ __ Oct. 3, 1905
Crary __'_____________ __ `Mar. 5, 1907
Simons _____________ __ Nov. 26, 1912
rality of circnmferentially spaced pistons extending sub
Phillips ______________ „_ June 8,v 1915
Geppert ____________ __ Mar. 28, 1961
Switzerland _____ __'..___ Nov. 30, 1953
We claim:
stantially radially therefrom and fitting closely inÍsaid
toroidal chamber, each of said pistons being double
sided and having opposed, substantially iiat faces; bañies
integral with said pistons and extending circumferentially 25
a major portion of the dist-ance between adjacent pistons
and extending from said opposed -faces on diametrically
opposite sides of each piston; said toroidal housing havin-g
ì a pair of Huid conducting ports circumferentially spaced
“The American Inventor,” April 1906,7‘vol. 15,` No. 4,
on opposite sides thereof; each of said ports being dis 30' page 101.
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