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Патент USA US3075188

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Jan. 22, 1963
WAY DONG woo EI'AL
3,075,179
MAGNETIC comer. SYSTEMS
Filed Dec. 2, 1953
FIG. 2
l0
//
°_
PULSE
o
DRIVER
/0
‘
/s ’5 56 1/
/3 I5 /6
‘TIME
DELAY
[2
‘ DELAY
TIME
\@
I2
29
I
27
1776. /
,
'
+2“!
'
/NVEN
ToRS
‘WAY Dolvs Woo
ROBERT D. Koo/s
SM/L RUHMAN
BY
ATTORNEY
lmatented Eats. 22, lg?d
2
3,975,179
Way Dong Woo, Arlington, Rehert ll). Kodis, Roxhury,
MAGNETEC QGNTRQL §YSTEM§
and Snrii Ruhman, Waltham, Mass, assignors to Ray
theon Company, Lexington, Mass, a corporation of
Delaware
Filed Dec. 2, 1%3, Ser. No. 395,692
6 Saints. (Cl. Edd-$74)
to the input winding to eifectively energize said winding.
This invention further discloses that the amplitude of
pulses into the delay network and the time duration of the
actuation pulses into the actuation windings may be
closely controlled to produce reliable operation of the
system by feeding all the actuating windings of the cores
in series with each other. Preferably, the actuation wind
ings are fed from an ampli?er having a high plate resist
ance, such a vacuum tube pentode ampli?er also some
This invention relates to a magnetic control system and 10 times known as a constant current generator.
more particularly to systems for storing and transferring
Referring now to the accompanying drawings:
information pulses for computer purposes. It has pre
‘FIG. 1 illustrates a diagrammatic view of a system em
viously been known that information could be stored
bodying this invention showing the details of the source
in torodial magnetic cores by driving the cores into
‘of actuation pulses; and
saturation. If the cores had a high magnetic retentivity, 15
FIG. 2 illustrates a diagrammatic view of a system
the information would remain in the core as long as it
embodying this invention illustrating a particular network
is desired, an could be read out of the core by subjecting
useful for interconnecting the output windings and the
the core to a current pulse of a predetermined polarity
input windings of the cores.
of sumcient amplitude to drive the core from saturation
Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown a plurality of
in one magnetic polarity into saturation in the opposite
magnetic cores illustrated diagrammatically at it). These
magnetic polarity. An output winding would then produce
cores, as shown here, are preferably toroidal in form
an output pulse if the core were driven from saturation
of one polarity to saturation of the other polarity, but
would produce no output pulse if the core were pre
viously saturated in the opposite polarity by the stored
and may be made of any desired material having the
characteristics of high magnetic retentivity and a relative
ly open hysteresis loop characteristic, preferably ap
proaching that of a rectangle. These characteristics are
information. Thus, each core could be used to store a
available in cores made from plastic bonded ferrites or
binary digit of information. It has also been previously
cores made of nickel-iron alloys. Each of cores 10 has
known that groups of cores could be oriented and inter
wound thereon a ?rst winding 11, a second winding 1'12,
connected to produce various combinations of storage
and a third winding 13. The windings ll serve as input
30 windings whereby signals may be stored in the cores
and transfer systems for computer purposes.
This invention discloses a particular inter-connection
1%, the windings l2 serve as actuation windings whereby
of groups of cores wherein signals may be transferred
signals stored in the cores 10 may be driven out there—
from one core to another with extreme rapidity and
from, and the windings l3 serve as output windings
wherein a minimum number of cores and control cir
whereby signals stored in the cores ill may be transferred
cuits are required for the storage of any given number or 35 to other cor-es, or any other desired circuit. As shown
bits of information. Brie?y, the system comprises a
here, the windings Ill on the ?rst core is connected to a
plurality of cores, each of which has an input winding,
pair of input terminals 14, which may be the output of
an output winding, and an actuation or transfer wind
a previous core, or any other desired source of informa—
ing positioned thereon. The output winding of one core
ticn pulses. The output windings 13 of the cores are
is connected to the input winding of another core through 40 connected through rectifiers l5 and delay networks 16
circuitry including a unidirectional conductor and the
to the input windings ill, respectively, of successive ad
actuation coils of all the cores are connected in series
jacent cores. The output of the time delay network 16
with each other to a source of actuation pulses, which
fed by the last of the output windings 13 of the cores
preferably comprises a constant current driver, such as
10 is shown connected to a set of output terminals 17,
a vacuum tube pentode ampli?er. The circuit connection 45 which may be connected to any desired output circuit,
between the output windings and input windings of the
or if desired, may be connected back to the input terminals
different cores contain time delay devices which delays the
14 of the first core winding either directly or through any
output pulse from the preceding core until after passage
desired number of successive core stages.
of the actuation pulse through the actuation winding.
The recti?ers 15 may be any desired low impedance
50
The signal in the delay network then feeds into the input
winding and and introduces the signal from the previous
core into the core.
This invention further discloses a particular system for
delaying the output signal from the output winding until
after passage of the actuation pulse. Brie?y, this com;
prises a condenser connected in series with the undirec
tional conductor across the output winding of the core,
said condenser being connected in series with a resistor
across the input winding of the next core. The condenser
recti?er illustrated diagrammatically as crystal recti?ers.
Conventional selenium recti?ers will produce good re
sults, but preferably, germanium recti?ers using gold—
bonded contacts are used.
If desired, vacuum tubes or
gaseous discharge recti?ers having suitably low drops,
could be used, most of those available, however, requir
ing a relatively large number of turns on the windings 11
and 13 to produce su?iciently high voltages for adequate
operation.
The time delay networks 16 may be of any desired type,
must be charged by the signal available at the output
for example, they may be conventional lump constant
winding of the previous core to a high enough energy
inductance capacitance type networks. indeed, it should
level to adequately actuate the input winding of the next
be clearly understood that the term “time delay means”
core when discharged through said winding in series with
as used throughout the speci?cation and claims includes
the resistor. The value of the resistor, in combination
all means and methods of producing a time delay of elec
with the resistance of the input winding, is large enough 65 trical signals, such as a sonic time delay with transducers,
to cause the circuit including the input winding, the con
an electronic time delay using vacuum or gaseous dis
denser, and the resistor to have substantial damping,
charge devices, magnetic time delays wherein information
preferably greater than critical damping, whereby oscil
is stored, for example in cores, then read out therefrom,
lations in this circuit will not occur. The value of the
electrostatic time delays wherein the signal is stored as
resistor is large enough to prevent any substantial dis— 70 a charge, for example in a condenser for a period of
charge of the condenser during the actuation pulse, but
time, or any other known means of producing a time
small enough to allow su?icient subsequent current ?ow
delay.
3,075,179
4
3
While discharge of the condenser 33 begins the ?ow of
current through the resistor 34 and the input Winding 1-1
while the actuation pulse is present, the bulk of the en
‘The actuation windings 12 are all connected in series,
one end of the series being connected, for example'by
a lead 18 through an inductance 19 to the anode 20 of a
sum: ‘current actuation pulses ‘for driving the windings
12 "such that the cores‘chan'ge from magnetic saturation
ergy fed into the condenser 33 remains there until after
cessation of the actuation pulse. With such a circuit, in
formation may he stepped along from one core to the
of one polarity to magnetic ‘saturation of the opposite
next at a rate in excess of 20 kilocyclcs per second. The
vacuum pentode 21, which serves as a source of con
junctions between the recti?ers l5 and the condenser 33
may be used for output pulses, as indicated by terminals
tube 21 “are ‘connected t'o'ground. The screen grid 24 of
tube 21 is connected ‘to a ‘source of positive potentialof, 10 35, which may be connected to other registers for com~
puter purposes, or the terminals 35 ‘maybe used to set up
for ‘example +150 volts, while the grid 25 of tube '21 is
or introduce pulse information into the cores. In this
connected to a current-limiting‘resistor 26 and the sec
event, the opposite sides of the condenser 33 are normally
o'n‘dary winding 27 ‘of a pulse ‘transformer '28 in series is
grounded, as indicated.
_
connected to a ‘source of negative ‘potential of, for ex
polarity. ‘The ‘suppressor grid 22 and the cathode 23 of
ample, '—65 vvolts, which maintain "tube 21 normally
c'ut elf. Transformer secondary winding v1.2."1’7is'shunted
15
Sincejthe load presented to the actuation pulses ap
plied to the windings l2'v'a‘riés greatly, dependent on
whether ‘an information pulse is stored in a particular
by a'resistor‘fvii' ‘for the purpose of broadening ‘the fre
core, ‘or whether ‘the "core has nothing stored therein, it
quency response characteristics of transformer ‘28 and
is desirable, for reliable operation, that the cores 12 all
insuring ‘against any undesired spurious oscillations from
being generated vin the'grid circuit oftube 27.. The pri 20 b‘eko'hnbbted in ‘series from "the same driver. Under
these‘ conditions, the magnetizing current in all the wind
mary winding 29 of transformer 23' may be driven from
ings is equal at 'all times and the‘dura'tion of the current
in ‘all‘w'i‘ndin'g‘s is v‘equal at all vtin'ies. If, ‘for leitample,
any desired source of triggering pulses, preferably having
substantially‘the same voltage shape as the desired cur
rent wave form to’ be passed‘ through the windings 712,.
The other end of the series of windings: 12. from that con
the windings were fed in vparallel from a source of pulses,
25 there would be a larger current through those windings
nected to the inductance‘ 1g is ‘connected to a source of
positive potential of," for ‘example, +200’ volts.
- “In operation input‘ pulses are ‘applied to the’ terminals
14, which may be, for example positive current pulses,
the presence of a’pulse' signifying, for example‘ one in
formation 'bit'and the absence ‘of a pulse signifying an
other information bit. The presence otapulse causes the
?rst magnetic core 1d 'to'be saturated ‘in 'a‘predetermined
direction designated, for example, 'as'a positive direction.
where 'novp'ulse signals 'wereis'tored than through those
windings where ‘pulse signals were stored. The ratio of
the current ‘through the windings 'for these two condi
ti'ons‘m'a'y be as ‘great as seven to ‘one, ‘and under these
conditions, substantially ‘no current would pass through
the “winding having the larger impedance, and, hence,
an eifective output pulse would not occur. In addition,
the'e‘nergy content in'the high impedance winding would
be’ greater, and, accordingly, current would ?ow therein
If an actuation pulse is applied to the winding 12 after 35 following ‘cessation of Ithe fpulse due to lthe'iinductive
kick thereofgsaid current ?owing in the reverse direc—
the ?rst core has,v been saturated‘ in‘ its'positive direction,
tion through any windings having low i'rnpedanccs due
said actuating pulse having a polarity such that it drives
the magnetization of the core into its negative saturation
to ‘the presence of ‘zero pulse positions, this, in turn,
region, a ‘high amplitude pulse‘appears'at the‘output wind
ing '13. if, however, core 10 has not been saturated in a
positive direction indicating the absence of a previous
positive input pulse to the input winding 11, ‘the previous
‘producing an undesirable oscillatory condition in the
actuation cii'cuits'which would-seriously affect the-operas
tion‘of the ‘storage systern,'if, indeed, operation at all
possible. The _'series connection of the actuation wind
actuating pulse would have left the core saturated in "a
ing's Ilisp'artioular'ly usefullinthecase where ‘successive
negative polarity, and, hence, the next actuation pulse
cores are actu‘at'ed‘by ‘the‘same'aetuation signals. Under
produces "no output at the output winding‘lE's. The ef
fective delay of the delay ‘network 16 is suiiicientiy long
to allow ‘the'actuation pulse to terminate before the‘signal
introduced therein from the output winding reaches the
input winding of the next core, and, therefore-the ‘in
formation is preserved‘during the period'of the actuation
pulses and not masked out thereby.
Referring now. to HG. w2,-there isshowna particular
time ‘delay network found to be particularly useful for
the ‘network ‘ 16 of FIG. 1,
There, are ‘shown cores with
these conditions where the‘output 'pulse is stored in a
delay network‘betwe‘en ‘successive cores, theitiiningof
the actuation pulses, with respect to the storage time,
is'critical' for ‘optimum operation of the-system, since,
if'the "actuation-pulse, is too long,‘ the pulse-in the delay
network‘is'a'pplied :to the input ‘winding lbefore "term
ination of the ‘actuation pulse ‘a'ndis lost. 'On theiother
handif ‘the 'actuat'ion‘pul‘s'e is'too' small, insu?icie'nt time
is"allowed‘to drive the core completely =into isaturation
in‘the opposite‘directi'on an'd‘the output pulse ‘to'the
windings similar to those shown-in FIG. 1 and designated 55 delay network'is too low tol'pr'od'uce sd?iciériténergy
by similar numerals. The‘ box 32 labeled “pulse driver”
to magnetize the next core completely-‘into ithedésired
may-be similar to the'elements’l?t through 31 of FIG. 1
positive saturation.
and'drives, the'ac'tuation' cores 12 in- series‘ in the same
manner. eThe'dlelay'networlr' rs of FIG; 1 is shown spe
ci?cally‘ in FIG. '2 as a condenser 33 connected in series 60
with, the re'cti?erlS a'crossfthe ‘output winding 13. .A
resistor 34 is also connected in series with the input wind
ing 11 a'cross'the condenser 33. Resistor 34- is adjusted
to critically damp the resonant circuit corn rising'the con
denser 33 and the leakage rcactance of its input winding
11, such that when the output pulse from the output
winding 13 feeds into the condenser 33 and from there
,
This completes the ‘description ‘of lthe‘pafticular em
bodiments of the invention illustratedher'ein. IHoWever,
many‘rno'di?cations thereof'willbe apparent to persons
skilled in the artvwithout departing from the spiritand
scope‘of this ‘invention. For‘ eXarnplq'ya'rious ~f0rms of
pulse drivers could be used using gaseous'dis'chargede
vices,"mag'ne'tic ampli?ers, or other-devices in place? of the
vacuum tube ampli?er‘ shown. The cores ‘need v'not-lnec'es~
'sarily ‘be toroidal in shape, and'rnay'be of any desired
material having ‘the requisite characteristics, and any
feeds into ‘the input winding 11, through vthe resistor 34,
niunb'er of windings can be used -‘on*the'cores for various
oscillations will ‘not occur.
input ‘or output signals in addition to those'alreadyfim
Preferably, the value of re
sistor 34 is‘ sufficiently high to somewhat overdamp this 70 'pre'sfsedi'on thejcoresv. Accordingly, it is desired that this
resonant circuit. Under these conditions, the bulk ‘of an
invention be'not limited to the‘ particular" details,v of‘ the
output signal of an output winding 13 is stored in a con
embodiments illustrated herein, except *as' ‘de?ned by the
denser '33 until the actuation pulse applied to theactua
appended claims,
tion windings lzhas ended, and then condenser 33'dis~
‘What is claimedsis‘:
‘charges through the inputwindingll of theneirt core. 75
'1. ‘A ‘magnetic control system ‘comprising vai'plurality
5
3,075,179
of magnetic cores the magnetic material of high reten
tivity, ?rst, second, and third electrical windings on each
of said cores, critically damped electrical circuitry in
cluding a delay Iunit having a condenser and a damping
resistor for feeding signals within a ?xed time cycle from
said third winding of one of said cores to said ?rst
winding of another of said cores, unidirectional current
means connected between said third winding and said
condenser, and a single series-connected electrical circuit
6
a delay unit provided with a critical damping resistor,
unidirectional current means connected between said out
put winding and said delay unit on each of said cores,
the output of said delay unit connected to a corresponding
input winding on said cores, said connections including
means for transmitting an electrical signal from said out
put winding through said critical damping resistor to
said corresponding input winding within a ?xed time
cycle only when the flux direction Within the core of
for simultaneously feeding said second winding of each 10 said one winding changes in a predetermined direction,
of said cores in series with each other from a substantially
constant current source of actuating signals to cause the
same current to ?ow through all of said second windings.
2. A magnetic control system comprising a plurality
constant current means for changing the ?ux direction
within the core of said one winding, comprising a single
series-connected winding on each of said cores, and means
for causing the same current to flow through all of said
of magnetic cores of magnetic material of high reten 15 last-named windings.
tivity characteristics, ?rst, second, and third electrical
5. A magnetic control system comprising a plurality
windings on each of said cores, critically damped elec
of magnetic cores the magnetic material of high reten
trical circuitry including a series connected resistor-con
tivity, electrical windings on each of said cores, one set
denser delay unit for feeding signals within a ?xed time
of corresponding windings thereof being connected in
cycle from said third winding of one of said cores to 20 a single series circuit with each other to a source of elec
said ?rst winding of another of said cores, unidirectional
current means connected in series with said third Wind
ing and the condenser of said delay unit to prevent current
?ow back into said third winding, and a single series-con
trical actuating signals, delay circuits comprising series
connected resistive means adapted to critically damp os
cillations and shunt-connected capacitive means con
nected between the output windings of each core and the
nected electrical circuit for simultaneously feeding said 25 input windings of the adjacent cores to form with said
second winding of each of said cores in series with each
latter windings a critically damped intercore circuit, and
other from the plate circuit of a pentode vacuum tube
unidirectional impedance means connected in advance
ampli?er, to cause the same current to flow through all
of each of said delay circuits and after each output wind
of said second windings.
ing to allow voltages of only one predetermined polarity
3. A magnetic control system comprising a plurality 30 induced in the winding of one core to produce signal
of magnetic cores the magnetic material of high reten
current in the winding of the succeeding core and to
tivity, ?rst, second, and third electrical windings on each
prevent voltages induced in the winding of the succeeding
of said cores, electrical circuit connections between said
core from producing signal current in the associated
?rst winding on one of said cores and said third wind
winding of the preceding core.
ing on another of said cores, said connections including 35
6. A magnetic control system comprising a plurality
means for transmitting an electrical signal from said
of magnetic cores the magnetic material of high reten
?rst winding to said third winding within a ?xed time
tivity having substantially rectangular hysteresis char
cycle only when the ?ux direction within the core of said
acteristics, an input winding and an output winding
winding changes from a predetermined flux direction to
on each of said cores, means for connecting actuating
the other ?ux direction in response to an actuating signal
windings on each of said cores in a single series circuit
applied to said second windings, said transmitted signal
to a source of electrical current pulses to be scaled,
causing magnetic ?ux Within the core of said third wind
means connecting each of said input windings to the
ing to be oriented in said predetermined ?ux direction,
output windings of a different one of said cores from
said connections further including a single condenser and
the core of that input winding, said input and output
resistor for providing a critically damped circuit in con 45 windings thereby being connected in closed cascading
nection with said third winding including a time delay
relation through said cores, each of said connecting
between said actuating signal and said transmitted signal,
means including a delay circuit having a resistor and a
unidirectional current means interposed in advance of
condenser adapted to critically damp the leakage of said
said time delay means for cooperating with said time
corresponding input winding, and a unidirectional imped
50
delay means to prevent oscillation and the transmission
ance interposed between each output winding and its
of and electrical signal from said third windings to said
delay circuit, to prevent ?ow-back of energy into said
?rst windings, and means for simultaneously feeding said
output winding.
second windings of each of said cores connected in a
single series circuit with each other from a single source
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
of actuating signals, to cause the same current to flow 55
UNITED STATES PATENTS
through all of said second windings.
4. A magnetic control system comprising a plurality
2,652,501
Wilson _____________ __ Sept. 15, 1953
of magnetic cores the magnetic material of high reten
2,654,080
Browne _____________ .._ Sept. 29, 1953
tivity, electrical input, output and transfer windings on
2,708,722
An Wang __________ __ May 15, 1955
each of said cores, a damped electrical circuit including 60 2,825,890
Ridler ______________ __. Mar. 4, 1958
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