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Патент USA US3075274

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Jan. 29, 1963
J. N. woGNuM
3,075,264
CONTINUOUS CASTING
Filed Feb. 19. 1:?59
4 Sheets-Sheet 2'
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Jan. Z9, 1963
J. N. woGNUM
3,075,264
CONTINUOUS CASTING
Filed Feb. 19, 1959 `
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3,075,264
CONTINUOUS CASTING
Filed Feb. 19, 1959
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Patented dan, 29, i963
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contact and propagate the casting on their forward strokes
3,®’ïê',264
in either longitudinal direction depending upon the
angular direction of the orbital paths of movement of
the mold sections, but allowing the'mold sections to be
15 Claims. (Ci. 22-57.3)
out or" contact with the casting onvtheir return strokes to
CGNTENUOUS CASTHNG
James N. Wognum, 9369 S. Pieasant Ave., Chicago, Eil.
Filed Feb. 19, 1h59, Ser. No. 794,3i4i
This invention relates to the art of continuous casting
of metals and alloys, and more particularly to an improved
thereby minimize sticking and adherence of the casting to
the mold sections.
'
It is another object of this invention to provide an
method and apparatus of the vibrating mold type for
improved method and apparatus of the vibrating mold type
continuous casting in a more efficient manner.
10 for continuous'casting wherein the frequency of vibration
For many years attempts have been made to commer
of the orbital movementof the mold 'sections is extremely
_cially cast metals continuously in the form of continuous
high as compared yto anything used heretofore and of
strip, bars, billets, tubes, or other shapes in order to
very small amplitude, so as to minimize casting surface
gain the obvious economies resulting therefrom. A cer
efects and to minimize the adherence of the casting to
tain degree of success has been obtained commercially, but 15 the mold side walls. i
'
'
most of it has been in the non-ferrous field With only a
It is still another object of the invention to provide an
small amount of success obtained when using iron and
improved continuous Vcasting apparatus of the vibrating
steel, and then only with higher grade alloy steels which
mold type in which improved >means are used to cause
ordinarily are more homogeneous due to a finer grain
vibration of the mold sections.
20
structure, and greater freedom from gas occlusion.
It is another :object of the invention to provide an im
Apparatus has been provided for continuous casting
in which a single peripherally closed mold having a central
proved continuous casting apparatus of the vibrating mold
type in which the mold comprises a plurality of sections
`passage through which the casting is withdrawn is recipro
which can be vibrated While all of the mold sections re
cated longitudinally of the travel of the cast metal. Sepa
main in contact with each other in order to maintain a
rate means is provided for continuously withdrawing the 25 peripherally closed mold and thereby prevent leakage
cast metal in one direction while the movement of the
mold is iirst in the same direction as the cast metal and
then in a reverse direction against the movement of the
cast metal.
of tiuid metal transversely between the mold sections.
It is another object of this invention to provide a con
tinuous casting apparatus embodying improved means for
continuously feeding lubricant to the strip being cast.
Other objects and advantages of the invention should
One of the most prevalent difficulties when continu~
ously casting with this apparatus as Well as with others
become apparent’ by referring to the accompanying draw
has been the frictional drag and adherence of the solidified
ings in which
metal against the Walls of the mold. This adherence and
FIG. l shows a top plan view of the main portions of a
friction has been so great at times that the first solidified
preferred embodiment made according to the invention of
thin shell of the casting within the mold is ruptured by 35 one form of a continuous casting apparatus for casting
the high tension required to draw the casting through the
mold. This has created a very rough casting surface and
sometimes rendered the coating withdrawing mechanism
inoperative and thereby interrupted the entire operations
billets;
FîG. 2 shows a front elevation of the apparatus shown
in FiG. 1;
FEG. 3 shows a sectional view as viewed along line 3-3
of the casting machine until the mold walls have been 40 of FÍG. 2 and particularly shows a means used to vibrate
cleared of the hardened metal. This condition has been
the mold sections of the apparatus;
partially alleviated by the use of various lubricants on the
FiG. 4 shows a partial'sectional view along the line
inside of the mold with only varying degrees of success.
4_4 of FIG. 3 and shows further a means used to vibrate
Alleviation of this problem has been sought in another
the mold sections;
Way, as evidenced by Welblund, U.S. Patents Nos. 2,284, 45
FIG. 5 shows a perspective View of apparatus substan
703 and 2,284,704, by providing a moid divided longitu
tially identical to that as shown in FIGS. l through 4;
dinally into two halves which are given a small amplitude
FIGS. 6 to 9 show a few of the possible mold section
vibration transversely to the direction of travel of the
shapes which can be used with the apparatus of FIGS. l
metal being cast, the frequency of vibration being sug
t0 5;
gested in the range of about 1Gb to 1500 vibrations per 50
FIG. l0 shows a perspective view partially cut away and
minute. With this apparatus, as in others, separate means
in partial section of an embodiment of the invention
is required to pull the strip through the mold because the
which is used to cast strip;
mold sections themselves do not provide any propelling
FIG. ll shows a partial sectional view of the upper
force or motion for propagating the casting. In fact, as
portion of the apparatus shown in FIG. l0; `
the casting is withdrawn, it is longitudinally retarded along 55
FIG. l2 shows a sectional View of one mold section
its surface at the time intervals when it is in contact with
shown in FIG. l0 and particularly shows the Water cooling
the reciprocating mold halves during the cycle portions
duct;
when the mold halves are brought toward the casting.
'It is the principal object of this invention to provide
FIG. 13 shows a sectional perspective view of a third
embodiment of the invention which is used to cast metal
an improved method and apparatus of the vibrating mold
vertically upward; and
60
type for continuous castings wherein the mold halves or
FIGS. 14 to i8 show partial sectional views of some >of
sections are provided with both transverse and longitudinal
the possible shapes which can be cast in the apparatus of
reciprocating movement combined in a harmonic or orbital
FIG. 13 and also shows the shapes of the inner portions
type vibratory movement or variations thereof, such move
of the mold sections required to make the shapes shown.
ment causing the mold sections themselves to repeatedly 65
A preferred embodiment of the invention as shown in
3,075,264
3
4
FIGS. l. to 4 comprises a support frame l which is
mounted in -a position above the floor or ground where
«the apparatus is to be located. This support frame 1 is
supported in la fixed position relative to its general loca
chronous, and appropriate synchronous electric motors
tion.
Due to the eccentric weighting of the bobs 25, when
rotated, they cause the mold sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 to
vibrate in orbital paths. The orbital paths of the mold
Resting on the upper surface 1a of but not con
nected to the support frame 1 is a mold 19 composed
of four mold sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 which are generally
rectangularly block shaped. These sections are each
provided with two corners 2a, 3a, 4a and 5a, respectively,
which are cut at forty-five degree angles, and these sec
tions are positioned in the formation of a cross as shown
in FIG. 1 with the adjacent of the corners 2a, 3a, 4a
and 5a in abutting relation.
Molten metal 11 is poured into the space 12 which is
the central rectangular opening between the mold sec
tions 2, 3, 4 and 5i. As the metal passes through the
are available as standard purchased parts.
When the shafts 30 are rotated by the motors 33, the
shafts 24 and the bo‘os 25 attached thereto are rota-ted.
sections are synchronized in such a way that their corners
2a, 3a, 4a and 5a are always in contact. This is ac
complished by having each section orbiting in an op
posite direction to the section opposite it and by having
each pair of opposite sections 2 and 4 orbiting 180 de
grees out of phase with the other opposite pair of sec
opening 12, it gradually solidilies and emerges con-tinu
tions 3 and S. The effect is that sections 2 and 4 ap
proach each other as sections 3 and 5 separate and sec
tions 2 and 4 separate while sections 3 and 5 approach
each other. The intermediate positions of the mold sec
ously below the mold sections in the regio-n 13 as a
solidified cast billet or strip 18. Two feed rolls 14 are
set of extreme positions are indicated there by phantom
tions are as shown in solid outline in FIG. 1 while one
suitably iournalled on shafts 15» with their peripheral 20 lines, the extreme position shown being when sections
surfaces 16 aligned to contact the two opposite surfaces
.17 fof the billet lâ. These rolls 14 are power driven
by conventional means not shown in Vorder to control
«the speed of withdrawal of the billet 18 from between the
mold sections, even though, in a manner to be described,
the mold sections themselves propagate the billet through
’ the mold.
2 and 4 are closest to each other and when sections 3
land 5 are farthest from each other. The other extreme
position (not shown) would be when the sections 2 and
4 are farthest `apart and when the sections 3 and 5Y are
closest to each other. Since the orbital amplitude should
be very small, in the order of only a few thousandths of
an inch, obviously the relative positions of the molds are
Extending ythrough each mold section 2, 3, 4 and 5
exaggerated. This is done for pictorial convenience only
are three circular apertures 20 which are provided with
since a few thousandt‘hs «of an inch difference could not
a plurality of roller bearings 21 which are spaced from 30 be readily apparent on the drawings otherwise.
The particular type of circular or orbital motion of
each other longitudinally. The outer races 22 are press
the mold sections is such that opposite mold sections
fit into the «apertures 20 and are thereby held stationary
'are brought into contact with the billet or strip being cast
with respect to the mold sections. The inner races 23
while >the sections are moving toward each other and
of the bearings 2.1 in each aperture 20 are provided with
a hollow 'tubular shaft 24 passing through their central 35 d-ownwardly. Before the bottom of their stroke, the sec
tions move away from each other and the billet, and
openings land these inner races 23 permit rotation of
they, «af-ter reaching bottom, rise upwardly on a re
the shaft 24 relative to the m-old section. The spacing
turn stroke in a direction opposite to the direction of
of the bearings 21 is provided by means of disc shaped
travel of the billet when out of contact with it. Upon
eccentrically weighted bobs 25 'which are mounted in
fixed positions on the shaft by means of keys 26. The 40 this return stroke, the sections reach a maximum height
as they again return toward each other and toward the
eccentric weights 27 on Vthese bobs 2S protrude laterally
billet and ñnally reengage it. It is on these forward
as shown in FIGS. 3 Iand 4. However, other shapes are
strokes that the billet is actually moved or propagated
possible. It is only necessary that there be eccentric
forward by the mold sections. By having the mold sec
weighting of each bob 25. For example, another man
-tions cycling in opposite pairs at a 18-0 degree out of
ner of obtaining the proper eccentric loading is by
phase relationship, -as described, it is possible to have
providing a symmetrical circular disc 4and drill a hole
longer total eng-agement of the billet with mold sections
or holes through one portion of the margin.
than if only two mold sections are used at the same cycl
The mold sections 2 and 4 «are each provided with only
ing frequency.
two bobs 2S and three bearings 21 while the mold sec
As to the frequency of cycling, it appears that a fre
tions 3 and ‘5 are each provided with three bobs 25 and 50
quency of from 5000 to 50,000 cycles per minute with an
four bearings 21. This is because of their respective
orbital amplitude of up to about .020 inch will give good
widths |as determined by the dimensions of the billet being
results and, the higher the frequency the better the re
cast. Also, each mold section is provided with three sets
sult. The manner of adjusting the frequency is by using
iof shafts 24 ‘and bobs 2S. A larger or smaller number
of sets can be used depending upon the length of the 55 different motors 33 or by reducing or stepping up the
output speed by standard gear or other well known
mold. If only one set is used on each section, extra
stabilizing means are required to maintain the mold sec
mechanisms. The amplitude of movement can be regu
lated by using different _bobs 25 which »are eccentrically
tions in their proper vertical planes without relative
weighted by different amounts. The amplitude would
angular movement as will be explained.
Each hollow shaft 24 is provided with an internally 60 then be a function of both frequency and the amount of
eccentric weighting.
_ splined mid region 28 which is mated with the externally
Although the feed rolls 14 are not used to propagate
splined end 29 of a shaft 30 which is reduced in diameter
the billet since the mold sections do that, they tend to
away from the splined end 29 so as to be readially spaced
stabilize the forward motion of the billet and it is pre
from the internal wall of the shaft 24 except at the
splined connection. Each shaft 30 extends out of its 65 ferred that they tend to withdraw the billet at the same
shaft 24 and is joined by a coupling 31 to the shaft 32
speed as it is propagated by the mold sections.
of an electric motor 33. Although la separate motor
may be used for each shaft 3% as shown, the shafts
convenience the rolls 14 can be connected to a variable
speed drive means which can be Varied in accordance
can be geared or chain driven together from a single
with the propagating speed of the billet.
So far, only four mold sections have been described for
motor, or else four motors can be used, one for the 70
shafts of each mold section, any of these arrangements
being of conventional form and obvious to one skilled in
>the art. lf one motor is used, all shafts will necessarily f
rotate in synchronism. If a plurality of motors are used,
it is essential, as will be explained, that they be syn 75
For
casting a billet of rectangular cross section as diagram
matically shown in FIG. 6. However, the apparatus can
be modified to produce other shape billets as shown in
FIGS. 7 through 9. FlG. 7 shows the mold section shapes
that may be used to produce an elliptical shaped billet 34,.
l3,075,264‘
5
.d
FlG. 8 shows the mold section shapes for a circular billet
or rod 35 while FIG. 9 shows the mold section shapes
that could be used for an octagonal billet 36. lt is 0b
vious that only four mold sections are required even for
the billet 36, but eight are shown for illustration as to
48 whose outer ends ¿i9 and 5i) are pivotally connected
to two sets of support linkages 51 and 52 which are suit
ably pivoted on fixed. frame members 53 and 54. The
pivotal movement of these arms and linkages permits the
orbital movement of the mold sections 35 and 39 while
how a larger number than four can be used if desired.
at the same time stabilizing the movement of the mold
In such a case, each opposite pair of mold sections would
be orbited together~ in the same phase relation, but each
ment with each other. ln order to provide resilient sup
adjacent mold secton would be orbited 90 degrees out or"
phase with the one adjacent to it. The overall eiiîect
would, however, be the same. The angular contacting
sections to maintain them in substantially parallel align
port for the two mold sections 3S and 39, springs 3&1
and 39a are provided. These springs or equivalent resil
ient supports are preferably mounted on a rigid frame
corners would remain in contact with each other at all
support connected to the fixed frame members 53 and
times to prevent spillage transversely between the mold
S4. ln addition, two more springs 51a and ‘52a or
sections.
equivalent resilient means are suitably mounted against
ln all of the mold sections shown and described so far, 15 the linkages 51 and 52 to urge the two mold sections 3S
it is essential that cooling means be provided in order
and 39 toward each other. The mold sections are limite
to maintain the proper temperature of the mold. The
in their movement toward each other, to thereby maintain
cooling medium can be water or other suitable coolant
'proper spacing between them, by keeping the corners Sib
which is circulated through U-shaped passages 3’7 pro
and 52b of linkages 51 and 52 squared to limit pivotal
vided in each mold section. Five such passages are 20' movement of the linkages Si. and S2.
shown for the mold section 5, but any desired number
Even though this particular arrangement is shown, it
can be used.
~is possible to use a plurality of sets of shafts and bobs in
An alternative form of the structure shown in FlGS.
each mold section as shown for the apparatus of FIG. 5
1 to 4 is shown in FIG. 5. ln PEG. 5, the similar or identi
and, in that case, the mold sections would be supported
cal members are the support frame 1, the four mold sec 25 on spring cushioned supports rather than on the arms ¿i7
tions 2, 3, ¿l and 5 which have included in them the
and 4S. Conversely, the type of supporting structure of
idenlical mold vibrating means shown in FIGS. 1 to 4,
FIG. 10 could be used in place of that shown for the
and the two feed rolls 13 and 1d.. The additional or
apparatus of FIGS. 1 through 4.
different members are the two vertically mounted springs
The front faces 55. and 56 of the mold sections 3d and
6 and the four horizontally mounted springs '7 for each 30 39 are spaced apart by the approximate thickness of the
mold section, and the four spring retaining walls S, one
. strip 57 to be cast and side guides 58 and 59 are posi
adjacent each moid section. These walls d are rigidly
tioned against the sides of the mold sections in order to
secured to the upper surface la of the support frame 1
prevent transverse flow of metal. These guides 58 and
and are provided with recesses 3a into which the outer
S9 are held by suitable means (not shown) against the
ends of the springs 7 are positioned. The inner ends of
mold sections, but not fastened to them in order to permit
the springs ’I are positioned within recesses 'ía in the
the free orbital movement of 'the sections.
mold sections 2, 3, d and 5'. These recesses da and 7a
Two feed rolls 6i) and 6i are mounted to drive the
retain the springs '7 in horizontal alignment and sufri
strip 57 at the same speed as it is propagated by the mold
ciently maintain them located in their horizontal posi
sections and are similar in all respects to the rolls 14 of
tions. The vertical springs âë are retained by means of 40 FlGS. 1 through 5. As shown best in FIG. ll, the
opposed recesses on in the support frame Il and recesses
tundish 62, which is positioned above the mold sect'ons
6b in the mold sections 2, 3, ¿l and 5i.
and into which the molten metal 63 is poured, is pro
The su `port of the springs 6 keeps the mold sections
vided with recesses 64 on its under surface to provide
2, 3, 4 and è' at all times above the level of the support
spaces 65 into which a mold lubricant can be poured.
frame i while the support from the springs 7 keeps the
Conduits 66 are provided for guiding the lubricant from
mold sections separated from the retaining walls ä. The
receptacles 67 to the spaces 65. The receptacles 67 are
purpose of the springs is essentially for maintaining the
mounted on the fixed frame members 5d and S5. Also,
mold sections Z, 3, ¿i and 5 supported on cushioned
at the top adjacent surfaces of the mold sections are pro
means for permitting fully responsive movement to the
vided serrations or saw toothed cuts §18 which cause iiow
orbital vibration imparted to the mold sections during 50 of the lubricant from the spaces 65 into the mold where
operation of the equipment with minimum wear and
the lubricant can run down the front faces 55 and Se of the
damage to the equipment due to the vibration. ln the
mold sections to lubricate the strip and further assist in
embodiment of FIGS. l to 4, since the mold sections Z,
preventing sticking of the strip on the mold section faces.
3, 4 and 5 rest directly on the rigid support frame i, the
These serrations also hold back the molten metal and
vibration tends to impart more wear and da nage to the
prevent it from leaking out between the lower surface of
equipment. ln the embodiment of 'HSS l to 4 this can
the tundish '62 and the upper surfaces d8 and 69 of the
mold sections.
also be minimized, however, by providing cushioned sup
ports between the support frame i and its rigid support.
Similar to the U-shaped passages 37 of the apparatus
The cushioned supports can, for example, be either springs
of FÍGS. 1 to 5, these mold- sections 3S and 39 are pro
or rubber cushions, or any other resilient means.
60 vided with passages 7d (FIGS. 11 and 12) through which
In FIG. 10 is shown another embodiment of the in
coolant iiuid can be passed.
vention which is particularly adapted for the continuous
Both embodiments shown so -far are adapted for con
casting of strip which may have substantial width but may
tinuously casting billets or strip as they are moved verti
be relatively thin. In such a situation, only two mold
cally downward. When so doing, it is not possible _to
sections 38 and 39 are required. These sections are each 65 produce anything but solid shapes. However, it is known
provided with one hollow shaft d@ which is identical
that hollow shapes can be continuouslyk cast by arranging
to the shafts 2e of FIG. 3 and this shaft du is provided
the cast object to 4be movedor propagated vertically up
with weighted bobs, bearings and a connection to a drive
ward while it takes molten metal from a tundish positioned
shaft 4l identical to those associated with the apparatus
below the mold sections. The orbital mold motion of
of PEG. 3. Each drive shaft 4l is connected by a coupling
this invention is equally applicable to such a type appa
d2 to the shaft of a synchronous electric motor 43 which
ratus and one form of it is shown in FIG. 13.
is mounted on a fixed support de. Only one shaft di?
The support frame 71 for it is carved out or cast with
and set of bobs and parts are shown for each mold sec
a «modified ‘tl-shaped dish 72 having two chambers 73
tion because the sections are connected to the inner ends
and 74 connected by a conduit 75 between them. Molten
45 and 46 of two flat wedge shaped support arms 47 and 75 metal '76 is poured into the chamber '73 as required and
*3,075,264
ward the receiving end of said cavity while said metal is
it pours through the conduit 75 to ñll up the chamber 74.
In this way, the huid metal in chamber 73 provides -a
pressure head for forcing the iluid up to a particular level
in chamber 74.
in said cavity so that resistance to the forward movement
of the metal by the inside Surfaces of the sections is
minimized.
'
2. Apparatus according to claim l wherein said sec
tions are arranged in radially opposed pairs, and means
Mounted on sloped walls 77 of the chamber ’74 is a disc
shaped member 7S which may be manufactured of re
to cause said vibrating means to vibrate the sections of
fractory material or metal which is of less specific gravity
than the molten metal 76 so that the member 78 will
each said pair so that the inside surfaces of said pair
vibrate synchronously with each other during their vibra
ordinarily ñoat on the molten metal. The upper sur-face
of the member 78 is also provided with dished walls 79 10 tion.
3. Apparatus according to claim l wherein each of
upon which four mold sections Sil are positioned. (Because
said
sections is substantially in sliding contact along its
of the sectional view, only three sections are shown.)
lateral margins with the sections adjacent to it, the vibra
Although not shown in FIG. 13, the mold sections can be
tion of one section relative to an adjacent section being
suitably vibrated in orbital paths by power from synchro
nous motors such as 33 and ¿t3 which are connected to 15 out of phase with the vibration of said adjacent section
by an amount suiiicient to substantially maintain sliding
drive internal mechanisms 81 similar to those on the appa
contact between the lateral margins of adjacent sections
ratus of FÍGS. l to 5. Also, suitable coolant passages
and thereby tending to avoid leakage of molten metal be
82 can be provided as required.
tween the lateral margins of the sections.
The purpose of the lioating disc member 78 is to permit
4. Apparatus according to claim l wherein said vibrat
slight movement thereof downwardly when the mold sec
ing means comprises for each section an eccentrically
tions are orbited to allow for the movement of the sections.
weighted shaft journalled on that section and means for
In operation, the top level 83 of the molten metal in
rotating said shaft whereby the eccentric weighting of the
the chamber '74 will remain approximately at the same
shaft as it rotates causes said vibration of said section on
level as the upper surface 84 of the molten metal. As
which
the shaft is journalled.
the mold sections are vibrated, the metal in the regions:
5. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein each of said
85 adjacent the lower inner surfaces or faces 86 of the
sections is substantially in sliding contact along its lateral
mold sections is carried upward by the orbital movement
margins
with the sections adjacent to it, the vibration of
of the mold sections. The metal progressively hardens
one section relative to an adjacent section being out of
or freezes from the faces 86 radially toward the center of
30 phase with the vibration of said adjacent section by an
the mold to provide a progressively thicker hardened wall
amount sufficient to substantially maintain sliding contact
while the metal remains molten between the wall. Then,
between the lateral margins of adjacent sections and there
as the hardened wall is propagated above the natural level
|by tending to avoid leakage of -rnolten metal between the
83 of the molten metal, the molten metal is left behind and
a hollow tubular shape emerges, the thickness of the wall 35 lateral margins of the sections, said vibrating means com
prising for each section an eccentrically weighted shaft
of the tube being dependent upon the speed with which
journalled on that section and means for rotating said shaft
the mold sections propagate the cast metal upwardly.
whereby the eccentric weighting of the shaft as it rotates
The greater the speed, the thinner the wall because less
causes said vibration of said section to which the shaft
time is allowed for heat transfer and consequent harden
ing of the wall.
is journalled.
40
6. Apparatus defined by claim l characterized by, every
Feed rolls S7 are mounted to be driven above the level
alternate section in aV direction around the cavity con
of the mold sections 80 in order to support the weight of
the finished tubing and synchronize the withdrawal of the
tube with the speed of propagation provided by the mold
sections.
The particular circular mol-d shape of FIG. 13 is shown
stituting one set of sections and the remaining sections
constituting a second set of sections, and means to cause
»said vibrating means to vibrate the sections of the sets
so that the inside surfaces of each respective set vibrate
synchronously with respect to each other through their
in FIG. l5 and other tubular or non-tubular shapes can
' be produced by the apparatus of FIG. 13 as exemplified
Said two portions of movement.
7. Apparatus defined by claim 1 characterized by, every
by, but not restricted to, the shapes shown in FIGS. 14,
16, 17 and 18, provided the mold sections are appropri
alternate -section in a direction around the cavity con
stituting one set of sections and the remaining sections
ately changed in shape.
l claim:
constituting a second set of sections, and means to cause
»
said vibrating means to vibrate the sections of each set
so that the inside surfaces of each respective set vibrate
synchronously through their said two portions of move
l. Apparatus for continuous casting of metal compris
ing, a mold having a cavity extending longitudinally there
through open at its opposite ends and formed by the in
nient each of said sections being substantially in Sliding
contact along its lateral margins with the sections adjacent
side surfaces of a plurality of mold sections located at all
times around the cavity with said inside surfaces disposed
at all times substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis
of the cavity, one of Said open ends of said cavity being
to it, the vibration of one section relative to an adjacent
section being out of phase with the vibration of said adja
a receiving end through which molten metal can be intro 60 cent section by an amount suiiîcient to substantially main
tain sliding contact between the lateral margins of adja
_ duced into said cavity and the other of said open ends of
said cavity being a discharge end through which said
cent sections and thereby prevent leakage of molten metal
each path consisting of two consecutive portions of move
ment, the ñrst portion of movement involvingmoving
each of said opposed inside surfaces of the sections to
ward said longitudinal axis of said cavity and forward 70
therethrough open at its opposite ends and formed by the
inside surfaces of two mold sections disposed at all times
substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cavity
and positionedat all times opposite each other by an
amount approximately equal to the thickness of the metal
to be cast, one of said open ends of said cavity being a
between the lateral margins of the sections.
i metal can be progressively dischargedfrom said cavity,
8. Apparatus for continuous casting of a metal strip
vibrating means connected Vto vibrate said mold sections
which
is relatively wide as compared to its thickness corn
to cause a selected plurality of opposed surfaces of said 65
prising, a mold having a cavity extending longitudinally
inside surfaces of said sections to vibrate in closed paths,
Y toward the discharge end thereof to provide a driving
force on the metal casting to propagate it through the
cavity, the second portion of movement involving moving
' receiving end through which molten metal can be intro
duced in_to said cavity and the other of said open ends of
each of said opposed inside surfaces in retraction away
from said longitudinal axis and in return movement to 75 said cavity being a discharge end through which said
3,075,264
l@
metal can be progressively discharged "from said cavity,
tudinal axis and in return movement toward the receiv
vibrating means connected to vibrateA said mold sections
to cause said inside surfaces of said sections to vibrate
ing end of said cavity while said metal is in said cavity
in closed paths of motion toward said longitudinal axis
of said cavity and toward the «discharge end thereof to
provide a driving force on the metal strip to propagate
it through the cavity and then in retraction away from
said longitudinal axis and in returning movement toward
.the receiving end of said cavity while said metal is in
by the inside surfaces of the sections is minimized,
l2. The method defined by claim ll characterized by,
said cavity so that resistance to the forward »movement
of the metal by the inside sur-faces of the sections is
minimized.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8 wherein said sec
tions are provided with side guides bridging adjacent lat
eral margins of said sections to tend to avoid leakage
of molten metal from between said lateral margins of
the sections.
10. The method for continuous casting of metal com
so that resistance to the forward movement of the metal
adjusting the vibration of one set of sections relative to
the other set so that all of the sections remain substan
tially in side by side sliding contact to thereby tend _to
avoid leakage of molten metal between the sections.
13. Apparatus »for continuous casting of metal compris
ing, a mold having a cavity extending longitudinally there
through open at its opposite ends and formed by the inside
surfaces of a plurality of mold sections located at all times
around the cavity with said inside surfaces disposed at
all times substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the cavity, one of said open ends of said cavity being a
receiving end through which molten metal can be intro
duced into said cavity and the other of said open ends
prising, introducing molten metal into the cavity of a
of said cavity being a discharge end through which said
mold of a type having the cavity extending longitudinally 20 metal can be progressively discharged from said cavity,
therethrough open at its opposite ends and formed by
vibrating means connected to vibrate said mold sections
the inside surfaces of a plurality of mold sections located
at all times around the cavity with said inside surfaces
disposed at all times substantially parallel to the longi
tudinal axis of the cavity, one of said open ends of said
cavity beinu a receiving end through which molten metal
can be introduced into said cavity and the other of sai
open ends of said cavity being a discharge end through
which said metal can he progressively discharged from
said cavity, abstracting heat from the imolten «metal as it
passes through the cavity to cause the molten metal to
solidify, and vibrating a selected plurality of opposed
surfaces of said inside surfaces of said sections in closed
paths, each path consisting of two consecutive portions of
movement, the first portion of movement involving mov
to cause »a selected plurality of opposed surfaces of said
inside surfaces of said sections to vibrate in closed paths,
each path consisting of two consecutive portions of move
ment, the iirst portion of movement involving moving
each of said opposed inside surfaces of the sections to
ward and into contact with the metal and longitudinally of
the axis of the cavity to drive the metal forward toward
the discharge end thereof to provide a driving force on
the metal casting to propagate it through the cavity, the
second portion of movement involving moving at least
portions of each of said opposed inside surfaces in retrac
tion away from contact with the metal and in return move
ment toward the receiving end of said cavity while said
metal is in said cavity so that resistance to the forward
ing each of said opposed inside surfaces of the sections
movement of the metal by the inside surfaces of the sec
tions is minimized.
toward said longitudinal axis of said cavity and -forward
toward the discharge end thereof, the second portion of
14. Apparatus for continuous casting of metal compris
movement involving moving each of said opposed inside 40 ing, a mold having a cavity extending longitudinally there
through open at its opposite ends and formed by the inside
surfaces in retraction away from said longitudinal axis
surfaces of a plurality of mol-d sections located at all times
and in return movement toward the receiving end of sai
around the cavity with said inside surfaces disposed at
cavity while said metal is in said cavity so that resistance
all times substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of
to the forward movement of the Imetal by the inside sur
faces of the sections is minimized.
45 the cavity, one of said open ends of said cavity being a
receiving end through which molten metal can be intro
l1. The method for continuous casting of metal corn
duced into said cavity and the other of said open ends
prising, introducing molten metal into the cavity of a mold
of said cavity being a discharge end through which said
of a type having the cavity extending longitudinally there
metal can be progressively discharged from said cavity,
through open at its opposite ends and formed by the in
side surfaces of a plurality of mold sections located at all 50 vibrating means connected to vibrate said mold sections to
cause a selected plurality of opposed surfaces of said inside
time around the cavity with said inside surfaces disposed
surfaces of said sections to vibrate in closed paths, each
at all times substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis
path consisting of two consecutive porti-ons of movement,
of the cavity, one of said open ends of said cavity being
the first portion of movement involving moving each of
a receiving end through which molten metal can be intro
55 said opposed inside surfaces of the sections toward said
duced into said cavity and the other of said open ends
longitudinal axis of said cavity and forward toward the
of said cavity being a discharge end through which said
discharge end thereof to provide a driving force on the
metal can be progressively discharged from said cavity,
metal casting to propagate it through the cavity, the sec
abstracting heat from the molten metal as it passes through
the cavity to cause the molten metal to solidify, every 60 ond portion of movement involving moving each of said
opposed inside surfaces in retraction away from said longi
alternate section in a direction around the cavity consti
tudinal axis and in return movement toward the receiv
tuting one set of sections and the remaining sections con
stituting a second set of sections, synchronously vibrat
ing the inside surfaces of each set of sections in closed
ing end of said cavity while said metal is in said cavity
so that resistance to the vforward movement of the metal
by
the inside surfaces of the sections is minimized, a re
paths, each path consisting of two consecutive portions of 65
ceptacle adjacent the mold for receiving molten metal and
movement, and vibrating the first set of sections out of
guiding it into the cavity of the mold, means for feeding
phase with the second set of sections so that the two sets
a lubricant to the region between the receptacle and the
alternately follow the two portions of movement, the ñrst
mold, and feeding means on the mold moving in direct
portion of movement involving moving the inside surfaces
of the sections toward said longitudinal axis of said cavity 70 response to the movement of the mold for forcefully feed
ing the lubricant from said region to said cavity of the
and forward toward the discharge end thereof to provide
mold.
a driving force on the metal casting to propagate it through
l5. Apparatus for continuous casting of metal compris
the mold, the second portion of movement involving mov
ing an open ended mold, a receptacle above the mold for
ing said inside surfaces in retraction away from said longi 75 receiving molten metal and guiding it into the cavity of
. 8,075,264
12
11
the mold, said mold being vibrated to alternately contract
and expand in cross section in an orbital movement,
means for feeding a lubricant to the region between the
receptacle and the mold, and a projection on the mold for
feeding the lubricant to the surface of the metal being ï .
cast, said projection extending from the Upper end of the
mold and forcing the passage of lubricant to the surface
of the metal being cast each time the mold is contracted
during its orbital vibration.
~References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,135,184
2,284,704
2,597,046
2,690,600
2,775,008
2,893,080
2,895,190
Junghans ____________ __ Nov. 1,
Weiblund et al. _______ __ June 2,
Sendzimir ___________ __ May 20,
Tarmann et al. _______ __ Oct. 5,
Easton et al. _________ __ Dec. 25,
Goss ________________ __ July 7,
Bungerath et al. ______ __ July 21,
1938
1942
1952
1954
1956
1959
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