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Патент USA US3075564

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Jan. 29, 1963
c. J. COBERLY
I
3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
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Original Filed Dec; ‘2, 1955
a Sheets-Sheet 1
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Jan. 29, 1963
c. J. COBYERLY
3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
Original Filed Dec. 2, 1955
Ma. 51
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Jan. 29, 1963
c. J. COBERLY
3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
Original Filed Dec. 2, 1955
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Jan. 29, 1963
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3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
Original Filed Dec. 2, 1955
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3,075,554
c. J. COBERLY
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
(‘riginal Filed Dec. 2, 1955
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Jan. 29, 1963
c. J. COBERLY
3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
Original Filed Dec. 2, 1955
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Jan. 29, 1963
c. J. COBERLY
3,075,554
ENGINE VALVE FOR FLUID-OPERATED PUMP
Original Filed Dec. 2, 1955
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United States Patent 0
1
3,075,554
a
1C6
Patented Jan. 29, 1963
2
including a ?oating, tubular cylindrical member making
3 075 554
ENGINE VALVE Foii FIiUlD-OPERATED PUMP
Clarence J. Coberly, San Marino, Calif., assignor to
Kobe, Inc., Huntington Park, Cali?, a corporation of
a sliding ?t with the valve rod and making a sliding ?t
with the larger of the inside diameters of the valve mem
ber, this ?oating member serving to separate the inner
and outer annular areas of the valve member.
Another object is to provide a differential-area engine
valve including a tubular valve member having a large
annular area facing in one direction and smaller, inner
and outer annular areas facing in the opposite direction
10 and respectively exposed to different pressures, the inner
and outer annular areas mentioned being provided by
This application is a division of my copending applica
forming the valve member with different inside diameters
tion Serial No. 550,538, ?led December 2, 1955, now
and a substantially uniform outside diameter. A related
Patent No. 2,935,953, granted May 10, 1960.
California
Original application Dec. 2, 1955, Ser. No. 550,538, now
Patent No. 2,935,953, dated May 10, 1960. Divided
and this application Mar. 7, 1960, Ser. No. 13,369
7 ‘Claims. (Cl. 137—622)
object is to provide a differential-area engine ’ valve
The present invention relates in general to ?uid
operated bottom hole pumps for oil wells and, more 15 wherein the large annular area is alternately exposed to
the diiferent pressures mentioned, whereby to produce
particularly, to a novel engine valve for controlling the
reciprocatory movement of the valve member.
?uid-operated engine section of such a pump.
Another object is to provide a ?uid-operated pump
An important object is to provide a ?uid-operated
having an engine valve intermediate motor and pump
pump having its engine valve intermediate its engine and
pump sections and having an engine valve which in 20 sections of the pump, the motor and pump sections in
cluding motor and pump plungers connected by a rod
cludes a valve member encircling and controlled by a rod
connecting engine and pump plungers. A related object
which is sealed by ?oating bushings encircling the rod
between the engine valve and the engine and pump
is to provide a valve member which is hydraulically
plungers.
movable between its operating positions to effect the
Another important object of the present invention is
strokes of the engine plunger, and to provide a connect 25
to provide an engine valve having a component which
ing rod between the engine and pump plungers which
includes inner and outer sleeves secured together with
acts as a pilot valve for controlling the application of
a ?uid-tight ?t therebetween, there being ?uid passages
?uid pressure to the valve member to move it between
its operating positions.
in one of the sleeves at the interface between the sleeves,
. Another object is to provide a ?uid-operated pump in 30
preferably formed by providing the inner sleeve with
which a rod interconnecting engine and pump plungers
is slidable in a tubular valve member of the engine valve,
outer sleeve.
grooves in its exterior
The two
in a ?uid-tight manner
the outer, by shrinking
surface which are closed by the
sleeves may be secured together
by pressing the inner sleeve into
the outer sleeves onto the inner,
and wherein the valve member is slidable on the rod in
one direction to produce movement of the engine and
pump plungers in such direction and is slidable on the 35 or the like.
Another object is to provide an engine valve having a
rod in the opposite direction to produce movement of the
two-sleeve
component of the foregoing nature which
engine and pump plungers in the opposite direction.
constitutes a valve body for the tubular valve member
With this construction, the valve member always moves
hereinbefore discussed.
in the same direction as the rod, except at the ends of
The foregoing objects, advantages, features and results
the working and return strokes, so that friction between
the rod and the valve member constantly biases the valve
member toward its proper operating position, which is
an important feature.
.-Another object is to provide a single~acting pump
having an engine valve which is located intermediate
engine and pump sections of the pump, and which has
a three-speed governing action during the working stroke
of the pump and a single-speed action during the return
stroke thereof.
50
Another object of the invention is to provide a fluid
of the present invention, together with various other ob
jects, advantages, features and results thereof which will
be evident to those skilled in the art in the light of this
speci?cation, may be attained with the exemplary embodi
ment of the invention which is illustrated in the ac
companying drawings and which is described in detail
hereinafter. Referring to the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view, on a’ reduced scale,
illustrating the present invention as installed in a well;
FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 are enlarged, horizontal sectional
views respectively taken along the arrowed lines 2-2‘,
operated pump having a differential-area engine valve
3—3 and 4—4 of FIG. 1;
intermediate engine and pump sections of the pump.
FIGS. 5 and 6 are vertical sectional views respectively
Another object of importance is to provide a differ
ential-area engine valve including a tubular valve member 55 taken along the irregular arrowed lines 5—5 and 6—6
of FIG. 2. and taken at the same level;
"
having a uniform external diameter and a variable in
FIG. 7 is a downward continuation of ‘FIG. 5; ternal diameter to provide a plurality of pressure areas.
FIGS. 8, 9 and 10 are vertical sectional views ‘respec4
More particularly, an object is to provide a valve
tively taken along the irregular arrowed lines 8-——8, 9—-9
member of the foregoing nature having a uniform out
side diameter and having two different diameters ad; 60 and 10-10 of' FIG. 3 and taken at the same level, FIG.
8 being a downward continuation of FIG. 7;
jacent the respective ends thereof, whereby to provide the
FIG. 11 is a vertical sectional view taken along the
valve member with a large annular area at one end
irregular
arrowed line 11-11 of FIG. 4, and is a down?
thereof, a small, outer annular area at the other end
ward continuation of FIG, 8;
thereof, and a small, inner annular area facing in the
FIGS. 12 and 13 are enlarged, fragmentary vertical
same direction as the outer annular area.
65 sectional views respectively taken along the arrowed lines
Another object of the invention is to provide a differ
12——12 and 13—13 of FIG. 8, FIG. 12 illustrating a
ential-area engine valve of the foregoing nature in which
pump piston means of the invention and FIG. 13 illus
a valve rod extends through the valve member and has
trating an engine valve thereof;
a diameter substantially equal to the smaller of the inside
FIG. '14 is similarto FIG. 13, but illustrates various
diameters of the valve members.
70 components of the engine valve in other operating posi
Another object is to provide a differential-area engine
valve of the nature outlined in the preceding paragraph’
tions;
re
8,075,554
.3
FIGS. 15 and 16 are fragmentary, enlarged, vertical
sectional views respectively duplicating the upper and
lower halves of FIG. 13;
IFIGS. 17, 18, 19 and 20 are transverse sectional views
respectively taken along the arrowed lines 17-17,
18-18, 19-19 and 20-20 of FIG. 15;
‘FIGS. 21 and 22 are horizontal sectional views re
spectively taken along the arrowed lines 21-21 and
22-22 of FIG. 16; and
FIGS. 23 and 24 are simpli?ed, diagrammatic views
illustrating the operation of the ?uid-operated pump of
the invention and showing various components thereof
in di?erent operating positions.
General Description
A.
sures in the supply and return tuhings 44 and 46 to the
piston means 58 to alternately produce the working and
return strokes thereof, and a pump section 64, FIGS. 8
and 11, for pumping production ?uid from the well into
the production tubing 48.
The bottom-hole assembly
40 includes, generally, an upper sealing collar 66, FIG.
5, which receives the upper end of the engine section
60 of the pump 42, an intermediate sealing collar 68,
FIG. 8, which receives the engine valve 62 located inter
mediate the engine and pump sections 60 and 64, and a
lower sealing collar, or bottom shoe 70, FIG. 11, which
receives the lower end of the pump section 64 of the
pump.
The Bottom-Hole Assembly 40
15
Considering the bottom-hole assembly 40. in more de
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the numeral
tail, and taking up- the path followed by the operating
30 designates a casing set in a well bore 22, the lower
?uid under pressure from the supply tubing 44 ?rst for
end of the casing being shown perforated to admit pro
convenience, the supply tubing 44 is threaded at its lower
duction ?uid from a productive formation 54. The
end into the upper sealing collar 66, and communicates
casing 30 terminates at its upper end in a casing head 36 20 with the upper end of a longitudinal bore, not shown,
from which a tubing system 38 is suspended in the cas
through this sealing collar. Threaded into the lower end
ing. The tubing system 38 supports a bottom-hole
of the upper sealing collar 66 in communication with the
assembly 40 within the lower end of the casing 30, the
aforementioned bore therethrough is a pipe 72, FIG. 9,
bottom-hole assembly housing a ?uid-operated single
which extends into a longitudinal bore 74 in the upper
acting free pump 42, FIG. 2 et seq., when this pump is 25 end of the intermediate sealing collar 68', and which is
in its operating position in the well. The pump 42 is
sealed relative to this sealing collar by an O-ring 76.
supplied with operating ?uid under high pressure through
Thus, operating ?uid under pressure from the supply tub
a supply or power oil tubing 44 which forms part of the
ing 44 ?ows through the upper sealing collar 66 and the
tubing system‘ 33, this tubing system also including a
pipe 72 into the bore 74, and, from this bore, it ?ows
power oil return tubing 46 through which spent operating 30 through
a passage 78 into a main bore 80‘ through the
?uid discharged by the pump 42 is returned to the sur
intermediate sealing collar 68. The enginevalve 62 of
face. A production tubing 48 completes the tubing sys
the pump 42 is disposed in the main bore 80 and pro
tem 364, the production tubing performing the function
vides an operating ?uid intake 82 of the pump 42. At
of conveying the production ?uid discharged by the
the ends of the main bore 80 through the intermediate
pump 42 upwardly to the surface, and also performing 35 sealing collar 68 are counterbores 84 and 86 into which‘
the function of conveying the pump 42 between the sur
are pressed sleeves 88 and 90, the pump 42 carrying O-rings
face and its operating position in the well. Since the
tubing 48 is utilized to convey the pump 42 between its
operating position and the surface, this tubing is the larg
92 and 94 which engage the sleeves 88 and 90, respec
tively, when the pump is in its operating position to iso
late the operating ?uid intake 82 from all but the supply
est of the three tubings 44, 46 and 43, so that utilizing
it as the production tubing as well minimizes production
?uid friction, which is a feature of the invention.
The tubing system 38 terminates at its upper end in a
control device 50 having valve means, not speci?cally
tubing 44.
Tracing the path of the spent operating ?uid through
the bottom-hole assembly 40 to the return tubing 46, the
pipes 52, 54 and 56, respectively, during operation of the
longitudinal bore 102 in the upper sealing collar 66. The
?uid column in the production tubing 48, as by applying
connected to and extending into a counterbore 122 in the
upper end of the intermediate sealing collar. The en
gine valve 62 of the pump 42 is provided with a spent
return tubing is threaded at its lower end into a bore 98,
FIG. 6, in the upper end of the upper sealing collar 66..
shown, for connecting the supply, return-and production 45 This
bore communicates through a passage 100 with a
tubings 44, 46 and 48 to supply, return and production
bore 102 communicates at its lower end with a passagev
pump. 42, the supply pipe leading to a suitable source,
104 which leads to a bore 106 in the upper sealing collarv
not shown, of operating ?uid under high pressure, and
the return and production pipes leading to suitable points 50 66. Pressed into the bore 106 is a sleeve 112 which is
engaged by Oerings 114 on the pump 42, the lowermost
of: disposal for the ‘spent operating ?uid and the pro
O-ring 114 isolating the spent operating ?uid from other
duction ?uid. As will be discussed hereinafter in more
fluids. Extending into the bore 106 in the upper sealing
detail, the. aforementioned valve means of the control
collar 66, and threadedly connected to the upper sealing
device 50 may be operated to reverse the flow through
collar, is a pump-housing tube 116, there being an an»
the return pipe 54 and the return tubing 46 to displace the
nular space 118 between the engine section 60 of the
pump 42 upwardly through the production tubing'43 to
pump 42 and'the pump housing tube 116 which is in con-~
the. surface when it is desired to remove the pump from
stant communication with the return tubing 46 through
the well. The control device50 also provides means,
the
bore 106, the passage 104, the bore 102, the passage
such as valve means, not shown, for maintaining a ?uid
pressure differential between the ?uid columns in there 60 100 and the bore 98. The annular space 118 communi-~
cates with port means 120 in the pump 42, this port
turn and production tubings 46 and 48 to effect the
means, as hereinafter described, constantly applying the
return stroke of an engine and pump piston means 58
pressure in the return tubing 46 to the upper end of the
in the pump 42, the working stroke of the piston means
piston means 58.
being effected by operating ?uid under pressure from the
The annular space 118 between the pump 42 and the
supply tubing, as will be discussed hereinafter. Pref 65
pump housing tube 116 extends downwardly into the in
erably, the return stroke of the piston means 58 is pro
termediate sealing collar 68, the lower end of the pump
duced by maintaining the pressure in the ?uid column
housing tube 116, as shown in FIG. 8, being threadedly
in the return tubing 46 higher than the pressure of the
a back pressure to the return tubing 46 by means of the
control device.
Considering the pump 42 and the bottom-hole assem
operating-?uid exhaust 124 which communicates with
bly 40 generally, the pump includes an upper, engine
the counterbore 122, the exhaust 124 thus constantly
or motor section 60, FIG. 5, an intermediate engine
communicating with the return tubing 46 through the an
valve 62, FIG. 8, for alternately supplying the fluid pres‘ 76 nular space 118, the bore 106, the passage 104, the bore
3,075,554
102, the passage 100 and the bore 98. The aforemen
tioned O-ring 92 is located between the operating ?uid
intake 82 and the exhaust 124 for spent operating ?uid,
thereby separating these from each other.
The pressure in the return tubing 46 is also transmitted
downwardly into the bottom shoe 70 for the purpose of
unseating the pump 42 and moving it upwardly upon re
8
tends upwardly through a bore 189 through the sealing
collar 68, and is threaded at its upper end, FIG. 5, into
the lower end of the upper sealing collar 66 in com
munication with a longitudinal bore 190 therein. The
upper end of the bore 190 communicates with a radial
passage 191 which leads to an external annular groove
192 in the sleeve 112, this ‘groove communicating with
radial ports 193 leading to an internal annular groove 194
in the sleeve. Registering with the groove 194 and lo
cated between the O-rings 114 is an external annular
groove 195 in'a ?tting 196 which is carried by the pump
42 and which carries the O-rings 114. Radial ports 197
in the ?tting ‘196 connect the groove 195 to an axial bore
198 therein, there being at the upper end of the bore 198
versal of ?ow through the return tubing, as will be de
scribed in more detail hereinafter. For this purpose, the
intermediate sealing collar 68 is provided with a pas
sage 126, FIG. 10, which communicates with a longi
tudinal bore 128 in this sealing collar, the bore 128 com
municating at its lower end with a passage 130 which
communicates with a bore 132 in the lower end of the
intermediate sealing collar. Threaded into the bore 132 15 a seat 199 for an upper pump standing valve 200 which
?unotions to prevent back?ow of production ?uid into
is the upper end of a pipe 134 which, as shown in P16.
the pump 42 when the latter is not completely ?lled with
11, extends into the upper end of a longitudinal bore 136
production
?uid. Production ?uid ?owing upwardly past
in the bottom shoe 70. The lower end of the bore 136
the standing valve 200‘ ?ows through radial ports 201 and
communicates through a passage 138 with a counterbore
140 in the bottom shoe 70. At the upper end of the 20 202 into a counterbore 203 in the sealing collar 66 above
the bore 106 therein, the lower end of the production
counterbore 140 is a short bore 142 and above this bore
tubing being threaded into the counterbore 203. Thus,
is a counterbore 144 into which is pressed a sleeve 146.
the bottom-hole assembly 40 establishes ?uid communi
An O-ring 148 on the pump 42 engages the Sleeve 146 to
cation between the production ?uid outlet 182 of the
isolate the spent operating ?uid in the counterbore 144
25 pump section 64 ‘and the production tubing 48, the pro
from other ?uids.
duction ?uid ?owing upwardly through the relatively
Below the counterbore 144 is a counterbore 150 into
large production tubing with a minimum of frictional
which is pressed a seat 152 for a standing valve assembly
resistance.
154 which includes a standing valve 156. The standing
The Pump 42
valve assembly 154 extends through a short bore 158 in
Considering the pump 42 now in more detail, it in
the bottom shoe 70 into an inlet pipe 160 threaded into 30
a counterbore 162 in the lower end of the bottom shoe.
cludes at its upper end a packer nose assembly compris
The standing valve assembly 154 is similar to that dis
ing ‘a packer mandrel 204 threaded into the ?tting 196 to
retain the valve seat 199 in this ?tting, the radial ports
201 being formed in the packer mandrel. Mounted on
closed and claimed in my copending application Serial
No. 487,303, ?led February 10, 1955, now Patent No.
2,869,490, and, consequently, will be considered only
generally herein.
The standing valve assembly 154 provides a tapered
the mandrel 204 is a packer cup 205 of a size to make a
?uid~tight ?t with the inner wall of the production tub
ing 48 when it is disposed therein, whereby ?uid supplied
beneath the pump‘ 42 will move the pump upwardly
seat 164 for the pump 42, or, more speci?cally, for an
inlet plug 166 at the lower end of the pump. As will be
through the production tubing to the surface. However,
discussed in more detail hereinafter, the inlet plug 166 40 when the pump is in its operating position wherein the
provides an inlet 168 for admitting production ?uid from
inlet plug ‘166 is seated on the seat 164, the packer cup
the well into the pump section 64 of the pump 42.
205 is disposed within the counterbore 203, which is suf
Rounding out the description of the spent operating
?uid system, when the ?ow through the return tubing 46
is reversed, ?uid enters the counterbore 1-40 surrounding
ficiently large that the production ?uid can ?ow upward
Considering the flow of production ?uid through the
bottom-hole assembly 40, interconnecting the sealing
engine valve 62. Reciprocable in the engine cylinder 208
ly therepast into the production tubing. The packer
mandrel 204 terminates at its upper end in a tapered
the inlet plug 166, and acts upwardly on an annular area
nose 206 engageable by a pump catcher, not shown, car
of the pump equal to the difference between the areas
ried by a removable closure 207, FIG. 1, mounted on
indicated by the dimensional arrows 170 and 172, thereby
the control device 50.
unseating the pump and moving it upwardly. The op
The lower end of the ?tting 196 is threaded into. and
50
eration of removing the pump 42 from the well in this
forms a closure for the upper end of an engine cylinder
manner will be described more completely hereinafter
208, this cylinder having threaded into its lowerv end a
in discussing the operation of the present invention.
tube 210 which is threaded onto ‘a valve body 212 of the
is an engine piston or plunger 214 having end portions
collar 68 and the bottom shoe 70 is a pump housing tube 55 216 and 218 of reduced diameter which enter recesses
174, this tube being threadedly connected to the lower
220 and 222, respectively, in the ?tting 196 and the tube
end of the sealing collar 68 and being inserted into a
210 at the ends of the working and return strokes, re
counterbore 176 therein below the counterbore 86, as
spectively, of the engine plunger. The end portions 216
shown in FIG. 8. Referring to FIG. 11, the pump hous
‘and 218 of the engine plunger are only slightly smaller
ing tube 174 is threaded at its lower end into the upper 60 than the recesses 220 and 222 so that, in effect, dashpots
end of the bottom shoe 70 and extends into a counter
are provided for ‘decelerating the engine plunger at the
bore 178 therein above the counterbore 144. The pump
ends of its working and return strokes.
‘housing tube 174 provides an annular space 180‘ around
Referring to FIG. 8 in particular, connected to the
the pump section 64 of the pump, this annular space be
lower end of the valve body ‘212 is a tube 224 onto which
ing sealed at its upper end by the O-ring 94, FIG. 8, and 65 is threaded awpump cylinder 226 having the production
at its lower end by the O-ring 148, FIG. 11. The an
?uid outlet therein adjacent the upper end thereof. 7 The
?nular space 180 communicates with a production ?uid
lower end of the pump cylinder 226 has threaded there
outlet 182, FIG. 8, of the pump 42, whereby production
into a ?tting 228 which carries the O-ring 148 and into
?uid discharged by the pump section 64 of the pump
the lower end of which is threaded the inlet plug 166.
enters this \annular space. Referring particularly to FIG. 70 When the pump 42 is in operation, production ?uid from
-11, the lower end of the annular space 180 communicates,
the well flows through the standing valve assembly 154
'just above the sleeve 146, with a passage 184 in the bot
and the inlet 168 into the ?tting 228. Clamped between
tom shoe 70. This passage communicates with a longi
the inlet plug 166 and the ?tting 228‘ is a' seat 230 for a
~tudinal bore 186 into which extends the lower end of a
pipe 188. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 8, the pipe 188 ex 75 lower pump standing valve 232, which is shown as a
3,075,554
simple ball valve. Upward movement of the standing
valve 232 off its seat is limited by a stop 234 which is
3
return tubings 44 and 46 are applied to the lower end
of the engine plunger 214 by the engine valve 62 will
pressed into the ?tting 228 and which is provided with
be considered in detail hereinafter.
apertures 236 for production ?uid ?ow therethrough into
Considering how the return stroke of the piston means
the pump cylinder 226. The purpose of the standing 5 58 is produced, it will be apparent that, since the pres
valve 232 is to prevent back?ow out of the pump cylinder
sure in the return column is applied to both ends of
226 without necessitating seating of the standing valve
the engine plunger 214 during the return stroke, the
156, the latter preferably having a delayed seating action
as more fully discussed in my aforementioned copending
application.
engine plunger has applied thereto a downward pressure
force equal to the product of the return column pressure
10 and the area of the rod 242. Similarly, since, during
the return stroke, the pressure in the production column
ton or plunger 240 which is connected to the engine
is applied to both ends of the pump plunger 240, the
plunger 214 by a piston rod 242. As more fully dis
pump plunger has applied thereto an upward pressure
Reciprocable in the pump cylinder 226 is a pump pis
cussed herein-after, the piston rod 242 extends through
force equal to the product of the production column
the engine valve 62 and controls the operation thereof, 15 pressure and the area of the rod 242. Expressed more
the piston rod acting as a pilot valve.
Referring particularly to FIG. 12, the pump plunger
248 includes a plunger body 244 into the upper end of
which the piston rod 242 is threaded. Threaded onto
the lower end of the plunger body 244 is a ?tting 246
having silver soldered therein a seat ‘248 for a working
valve 250, shown as a simple ball valve. Upward move
ment of the working valve 250 is limited by a stop 252
which is clamped between the ?tting 246 and the lower
simply, the pressure in the return tubing 46 acts down
wardly on an effective area equal to the area of the rod
242, and the pressure in the production tubing 48 acts
upwardly on an effective area equal to the area of the
rod. Thus, by maintaining the pressure in the return
tubing 46 higher than the pressure in the production
tubing 48, the return stroke of the piston means 58
will be effected when the lower end of the engine
plunger 214 is exposed to the pressure in the return
end of the plunger body 244, and which is provided 25 tubing by the engine valve 62. As hereinbefore in
with ‘apertures 254 therethrough for ?ow of production
dicated, the pressure in the return tubing may be main
?uid upwardly into a longitudinal passage 256 through
tained higher than the pressure in the production tubing
the plunger body. The upper end of the passage 256
by means of the control device 50 at the surface, and
communicates with radial ports 258 through which pro
the pressure differential between the return and produc
duction ?uid may ?ow into the pump cylinder 226 above 30 tion columns can be varied at the surface. Con
the pump plunger 240. As will be apparent, during the
sequently, the speed of the return stroke of the piston
working stroke of the pump plunger 240, which is the
means 58 is controllable at the surface independently
upward stroke in the particular embodiment illustrated,
of the speed of the working stroke, and other factors,
the working valve 250 closes so that production ?uid
and may be any value whatsoever, as desired, which is
above the pump plunger 240 is displaced upwardly
an important feature of the invention.
through. the standing valve ‘200, production ?uid from
The Engine Valve 62
the well simultaneously being drawn into the lower
end of the pump cylinder through the standing valves
Turning now to a consideration of the environment
156 and 232. During the return stroke of the pump
of the engine valve 62, the rod 242, as previously indi
plunger 240, which is the downward stroke thereof in
cated, extends through the engine valve. The rod 242
the particular construction illustrated, the working valve
is sealed at each end of the engine valve 62 by means
250 opens and the standing valve 232 closes so that
of ?oating bushings, the ?oating bushings at the upper
production ?uid is displaced from the lower end of
end of the engine valve being designated by the numeral
the pump cylinder 226 into the upper end thereof past
264}, and those at the lower end thereof being designated
the working valve 250 and through the apertures 254,
by the numeral 262. As best shown in FIG. 13, the
the passage 256 and the ports 258. During the return
lowermost of the ?oating bushings 260 is seated against
stroke, the standing valve 156 remains open due to the
‘a bushing 264 inserted into the upper end of the valve
delayed action discussed in detail in my aforementioned
body 212, which is tubular. The uppermost of the ?oat~
copending application. The standing valve 280 also
ing bushings 260' is seated against a bushing 266 pressed
tends to remain open during the return stroke, except 50 into the tube 210, this bushing having an internal thread
when the pump cylinder 226 is not completely ?lled.
for engagement with a tool for removing it from the
Considering the ?uid pressures which produce the
tube 210. Thus the ?oating bushings 260 are retained
reciprocatory movement of the piston means 58, com’
between the bushings 264 and‘266. Similarly, the ?oat
prising the plungers 214 and 24%) and the piston rod
ing bushings 262 are retained between a bushing 268,
242, the upper end of the engine plunger 214 is always 55 FIG. 13, inserted into the lower end of the valve body
exposed to the ?uid pressure in the return tubing 46
212 and a bushing 270, FIG. 8, pressed into the tube
through the port means 120, FIGS. 5, 23 and 24. The
224 to which the pump cylinder 226 is connected. For
annular area at the upper end of the pump plunger
convenience in manufacture, the bushings 262, 268 and
240, equal to the difference between the area of the
270 are identical tow the bushings 260, 264 and 266,
pump plunger and the area of the rod 242, is always 60 respectively, although, as will become ‘apparent, the two
exposed to the ?uid pressure in the production tubing
sets of bushings, except for their rod sealing functions,
48 through the production ?uid outlet 182, FIGS. 8, 23
perform somewhat diiferent functions.
and 24. The lower end of the pump plunger 240 is also
Considering the engine valve 62 itself, the engine valve
exposed to the pressure in the production tubing 48
is hydraulically operated under the control of the piston
during its return, or downward, stroke due to opening 65 rod or pilot valve 242 to connect the lower end of the
of the working valve 250 and closing of the standing
engine cylinder 208 alternately to the supply and return
valve 232, and is exposed to the pressure of the ?uid in
tubings 44 and 46 to produce reciprocatory movement
the well during its working, or upward, stroke. The
of the piston means 58. The valve 62 governs with a
annular area at the lower end of the engine plunger 214,
three-speed action during the working stroke of the pump
equal to the difference between the area of the engine 70 42 and has a single-speed action during the return stroke
plunger and the area of the rod 242, is exposed to the
thereof. Except for some important differences in me
pressure in the supply tubing 44 during the working, or
chanical structure, the engine valve 62 is basically quite
upward, stroke and is exposed to the pressure in the
similar to and operates in substantially the same manner
return tubing 46 during its return, or downward, stroke.
as the engine valves disclosed in my Patents Nos. 2,311,
The manner in which the pressures in the supply and 75 157 and 2,580,657. Consequently, in order to avoid un
3,075,554
necessary descriptive matter in this speci?cation, the
structure and operation of the engine valve 62 will be
described herein only in a general way, except for the
important differences in mechanical structure mentioned,
which" will be described in detail hereinafter.
Referring particularly to FIGS. 15 and 16 of the draw
ings, and also to FIGS. 23 and 24 thereof, the engine
valve 62 includes a tubular valve member 272 which is
10'
242 and the valve member 272 biases the valve member
downwardly into its proper operating position, which is
the lower position thereof in this case. Consequently,
there is no necessity for opposing friction between the
rod 242 and the valve member 272 with ?uid pressure,
except at the extreme ends of the working and return
strokes, which is an important feature of the invention.
Considering how the foregoing is accomplished, FIGS.
13 and 23 of the drawings illustrate the positions of the
disposed in the tubular valve body 212 and which en
circles the rod 242, the valve member 272 having a sliding 10 rod 242 and the valve member 272 when the piston means
58 is at the extreme upper end of its stroke. Under such
?t with both the valve body and the rod. Externally, the
conditions, the valve member 272 has moved downwardly
valve member 272 is of uniform diameter and, internally,
preparatory to beginning the downward, or return, stroke
the valve member is provided with a minor diameter 274
of the piston means. The upper end of the valve member
and a major diameter 276, the minor diameter being such
272 uncovers ports 290, FIGS. 13, 15, 18 and 23, and
as to receive the rod 242 with a sliding ?t. With this con
places them in communication with the operating ?uid
struction, a differential-area valve member results, having
exhaust 124 through the annular space around the ?oating
a large annular area 278 at its lower end, and smaller
sleeve 284. The ports 290 communicate with passages
inner and outer areas 280 and 282, respectively, at its
292 which extend upwardly through the valve body 212
upper end. The areas 280 and 282 are preferably equal
and communicate at their upper ends with an annular
and each is preferably equal to one-half the area 278,
space 294 around the ?oating bushings 260. Referring to
the area 280 being equal to the difference between the
FIG. 8, the annular space 294 communicates at its upper
cross-sectional areas of the rod 242 and the bore 276
end with longitudinal grooves 296 extending through the
and thus including the area of the lower side of an internal
bushing 266 and leading to the interior of the tube 210.
annular channel 312 in the valve member 272 which is
The interior of this tube communicates at its upper end
described hereinafter. The inner and outer annular areas
with the lower end of the engine cylinder 208. Conse
280 and 282 are separated from each other by a ?oating
quently, the lower end of the engine plunger 214 is placed
sleeve or bushing 284 which has a sliding ?t with the
in communication with the operating ?uid exhaust 124,
rod 242 and a sliding ?t with the major diameter 276
whereby to produce the downward or return stroke of the
of the valve member 2.72. Thus the differential-area valve
piston means 58 by means of the pressure differential
member 272 is similar in principle to those disclosed in
between the return and production tubings 46 and 48, as
my Patents Nos. 2,081,220, 2,081,223, 2,134,174 and
hereinbefore discussed. Thus the valve member 272,
2,204,120, except that, instead of being externally stepped,
when in its lower position, as shown in FIGS. 13 and 23
it is internally stepped and the resulting areas are sepa
rated by the ?oating sleeve 284, which are important
features of the invention.
of the drawings, produces the downward or return stroke
of the piston means.
When the valve member 272 is in its upper position,
As shown in FIGS. 13 to 15, 23 and 24, the operating
as shown in FIGS. 14 and 24, it produces the working or
?uid exhaust 124 in the valve body 212 communicates
upward stroke of the piston means 58. Considering how
with the outer annular area 282 of the valve member 272
at all times, irrespective of whether the valve member is 40 this is accomplished, it will be noted that the annular
channel 286 in the valve member 272 connects the oper
in its lower position, as shown in FIGS. 13 and 23, or in
ating ?uid intake 82 to the ports 290, whereby operating
its upper position, as shown in FIGS. 14 and 24, down
?uid‘ ?ows upwardly through the passages 292, the an
ward movement of the valve member being limited by
nular space 294, the grooves 296, and the interior of the
engagement thereof with the bushing 268 and upward
tube 210 into the lower end of the engine cylinder 208
movement of the valve member being limited by engage
to act on the lower end of the engine plunger 214. Thus
ment thereof with the ?oating sleeve 284. Thus the outer
the working or upward stroke of the piston means is
annular area 282 is constantly exposed to the pressure in
produced when the valve member is in its upper position.
the return tubing 46. The operating ?uid intake 82 is in
The foregoing description of the manner in which the
constant communication with the inner annular area 280
valve member 272 effects the return and working strokes
through an external annular channel 286 and radial ports 50 is general only. For a complete description applied to
288 in the valve member. Consequently, the valve mem
a basically similar'valve member, attention is directed
ber 272 is constantly biased downwardly by the pressure
to my aforementioned Patents Nos. 2,311,157 and
in the return column acting on the outer annular area 282
2,580,657.
_
and the pressure in the supply column acting on the
Considering now how the lower end of the valve mem
inner annular area 280, these areas being separated by 55 ber 272 and is alternately connected to the supply and
the ?oating sleeve 284, as hereinbefore discussed. Ac
return tubings 44 and 46, to move the valve member to
cordingly, the valve member 272 may be moved into its
its upper and lower positions, respectively, attention is
lower position, as shown in FIGS. 13 and 23, by connect
again directed to FIGS. 13 and 23 of the drawings. As
ing the large area 278 at the lower end thereof to the
previously indicated, FIGS. 13 and 23 show the relative
return column, and the valve member may be moved to its 60 positions of the rod 242 and the valve member 272 at
upper position, as shown in FIGS. 14 and 24, by connect
the extreme upper end of the travel of the piston means
ing the large annular area 278 to the supply column.
58, the valve member 272 having moved downwardly to
The manner in which this is accomplished will be de
initiate the downward or return stroke. However, just
scribed hereinafter.
before the rod 242 reached the upper end of its stroke,
It is important to note that, during the upward or work 65 the valve member 272 was in its upper position to effect
ing stroke of the piston means 58, the valve member 272
the working stroke. As the rod 242 approached the
is in its upper position and, during the downward or return
upper end of its travel, longitudinal grooves 298 therein
stroke of the piston means, the valve member 272 in its
placed the annular space around the rod below the valve
lower position, except for the ?nal increments of upward
member 272 in communication with the operating ?uid
and downward movement of the piston means. Conse 70 exhaust 124 through a port 300 in the bushing 268, a
quently, during the upward or working stroke, friction
port 302 in the valve body 212, passages 304 in the valve
between the rod 242 and the valve member 272 biases
body, ports 306 in the valve body, and passages 308 in
the valve member into its proper operating position, which
the valve body. Thus the operating ?uid under pressure
is its upper position in this instance. Similarly, during
from
the supply column constantly acting on the inner
the downward or return stroke, friction between the rod 7.5
3,075,554
11
12
annular area 280 of the valve member 272 moves the
valve member into its lower position, as shown in FIGS.
ports and passages, which is an important feature of the
invention.
13 and 23, this occurring by the time the rod 242 reaches
Operation
the upper end of its travel.
Thereupon the downward or
return stroke commences
The valve member is moved upwardly into its upper
position, shown in FIGS. 14 and24, in asomewhat simi'
lar manner. In FIGS. 14 and 24 the rod 242 has reached
the lower limit of its travel and the valve member 272
has moved upwardly into its upper position to initiate the
upward stroke. Just before the rod 242 reached the
lower end of its travel, grooves 310 therein connected the
internal annular channel 312 in the valve member 272,
which internal annular channel always contains operat
ing ?uid under high pressure due to its communication
with the operating ?uid intake 82 through the ports 233
and the channel 286, with ports 314, FIG. 22, in the
valve member. The ports 314 extend outwardly into
Considering now the over-all operation of the inven
tion, it will be assumed that the tubing system 38 and the
bottom-hole assembly 40 have been run into the well, but
that the pump 42 has not yet been installed in its operat
ing position. In order to install the pump‘ 42, the closure
207 is removed and the pump is inserted into the upper
end of the production tubing 48. By means of the con
trol device 50, ‘operating ?uid from the supply pipe 52 is
directed into the production tubing 48 above the pump to
displace the pump downwardly into its operating position,
any ?uid in the production tubing below the pump being
displaced upwardly to the surface through the supply and
return tubings 44 and 46. Ultimately, the pump 42 enters
the bottom-hole assembly 40 ‘and seats on the seat 164
communication with an external annular channel 316 in
provided by the standing valve assembly 154. When the
the valve member which, when the valve member was in 20 pump 42 is in its operating position, the O-rings 114, 92,
its lower position, registered with ports 318 in the valve
body 212. The ports 318 communicate with longitudi
nal passages 320 in the valve body which lead down
wardly to radial ports 322 extending inwardly into com
94 and 14S engage the respective sleeves 112, 88, 90 and
146, and the packer cup 205 is disposed within the enlarged
counterbore 203. Under such conditions, the production
?uid inlet 168 communicates only with the Well, the pro
munication with the lower end of the valve member.
duction ?uid outlet 182 communicates only with the pro
Thus operating ?uid under pressure from the supply tub
duction tubing 48, the operating ?uid intake 82 com
ing 44 is delivered to the lower end of the valve member
municates only with the supply tubing 44, and the port
272 to act on the annular area 278 thereof, thereby ini
means 120 and the operating ?uid exhaust 124 ‘communi
tiating upward movement of the valve member toward
cate only with the' return tubing 46. Thus the pump 42
its upper position in preparation for the upper or work 30 is now ready for operation, being held on its seat 164 by
ing stroke. It should be pointed out that the valve mem
the pressure in the production column thereabove. The
ber 272» is provided with ports 321 therein which com
production column pressure‘ acts downwardly ‘on the en
municate with the operating ?uid exhaust 124, through
tire areaof the'pump 42, whereas the return column pres
a passage 319, the passages 292 and the ports 290, when
sure acts upwardly on only the di?erence between the
the valve member is in its lower position, FIG. 13, to
areas 172 and 170, FIG. 11. Thus there is a pressure
hold the valve member down. Since the ports 321 com
force differential acting downwardly to hold the pump 42
municate with the lower end 278 of the valve member
on its seat.
272, through passages 323, it is necessary that the pres
After the pump is in its operating position, the control
sure drop through the ports 321 greatly exceed the pres
device 570 is operated to connect the supply, return and
sure drop through the grooves 310 in the valve rod 242. 40 production tubings 44, 46 and 48 to the supply, return
Thus, when the grooves 310- connect the lower end 278
and production pipes 52, 54 and 56, respectively, with a
of the valve member 272 to the operating ?uid intake 82
back pressure applied to the return tubing 46 to maintain
as hereinbefore described, su?‘icient pressure is applied to
the pressure therein higher than that in the production
the lower end of the valve member to initiate upward
tubing 48. This maintains the pressure differential be
movement thereof.
The upward movement of the valve 45 tween the return and production tubings 46 and 48 neces
sary to e?ect the return stroke of the piston means 58.
pressure to the area 278 of the valve member through
Considering the operating ?uid ?ow through the pump
other passages which it is thought unnecessary to describe
42,. the‘ operating ?uid under- pressure ?ows downwardly
herein.
through the vsupply tubing 44, through the upper sealing
member 272 is completed by applying the operating ?uid
The foregoing is. only a general description of the
manner in which the valve member 272 is moved be
tween its upper and lower positions. For a complete
description, attention is again directed to my aforemen
tioned Patents Nos. 2,311,157 and 2,580,657.
Another important feature of the invention resides in
the mechanical structure of the valve body 212. As
shown throughout FIGS. 13 to 16 and 18 to 22 of the
drawings, the'valve' body 212 includes an inner sleeve 324
and an outer sleeve 326 secured together in a ?uid-tight
manner, the aforementioned O-rings 92 and 94 encircling
the inner sleeve 324 and engaging the ends of the outer
sleeve 326. Various ones of the passages in the valve
body 212, such as the hereinbefore described passages 3133
and 320, are located at the interface between the inner
and outer‘ sleeves, and are preferably grooves formed in
the inner sleeve 324 for manufacturing convenience.
These grooves in the inner sleeve 324 are closed by the
collar 66-, and through the pipe '72, the bore 74, the pas
sage 78, and the main bore 80 intorthe operating ?uid in
take 820i the pump. The piston rod or pilot valve 242
and the differential-area valve member 272 cooperate to
connect the lower end of the engine plunger 214 to the
operating ?uid intake 82 and the operating ?uid exhaust
124 alternately. The exhaust 124 communicates with the
return tubing. 46 through the counterbore 122 and the
annular space 118, FIG. 8, and through the bore 106, the
passage 104, the bore 102, the passage 100 and the bore
98, FIG. 6. The upper end of the engine cylinder 208 is
in constant communication with the return tubing 46
through the port means 120, the annular space 118, and
the bore 106, FIG. 5, and through the passage 104, the
bore 102,_the passage 100 and the bore 98, FIG. 6. Thus
‘ the upper end of the engine plunger 214 is constantly ex
posed to the pressure in the return tubing 46, while the
lower end of the engine plunger is alternately exposed to
the pressures in the supply and return tubings 44 and 46.
outer sleeve 326 to form the desired passages, such as the
The upper end of the pump plunger 240 is constantly
passages 308 and 320. In order to provide a ?uid-tight
?t between the inner and outer sleeves 324 and 326, the 70 exposed ‘to the pressure in the production tubing 48
through the production ?uid outlet 182 and the annular
inner sleeve may be pressed into the outer sleeve, or the
‘space 180, FIG. 8, through the passage 184, the bore 186
outer sleeve may be shrunk onto the inner sleeve. This
and the pipe 188, FIG. 11, and, FIG. 5, through the pas
construction for the valve body 212 greatly simpli?es
sage 191, the groove 192, the ports 193, the grooves 194
manufacture and results in a minimum number of drilled 75
and 195, the ports 197, the bore 198, the standing valve
3,075,554
13
200, the ports 201 and 202, and the counterbore 203. The
lower end of the pump plunger 240 is alternately exposed
between'the areas 172 and 170 to unseat the pump, this
pressure acting on the entire area of the pump the moment
to the pressure in the well and to the pressure in the pro
duction column. Exposure of the lower end of the pump
prevented by the standing valve assembly 154. By the
the pump has been unseated, back?ow into the well being
time the pump has been moved upwardly su?iciently that
the various O-rings on the exterior thereof disengage the
the ?tting 228, the apertures 236, the standing valve 232,
corresponding sleeves, the packer cup 205 enters the pro
which ‘opens during the working stroke of the piston means
duction tubing 48 to provide a ?uid-tight seal to prevent
58, and through the inlet 168 and the standing valve as
bypassing
the pump 42. Continued delivery of operating
sembly 154, all as shown in FIG. 11. During the return
?uid
below
through the return tubing 46, or
stroke, the standing valve 232 closes and the working 10 through boththethepump
supply and return tubings 44 and 46,
valve 250 carried by the pump plunger opens to connect
results in upward displacement of the pump through the
the lower end of the pump plunger to the upper end there
production tubing 48 to the surface. When the pump 42
of, thereby exposing the lower end of the pump plunger to
arrives at the surface, the tapered nose 206 at the upper
the production column pressure in the same manner as
end of the packer mandrel 204 engages the pump catcher,
15
the upper end of the pump plunger.
not shown, carried by the removable closure 207, where
Under the foregoing conditions, when the lower end of
upon the pump may be removed from the production tub
the engine plunger 214 is connected to the supply tubing
ing 48 by removing the closure.
44 by the engine valve 62 in the manner described, the
Although I have disclosed an exemplary embodiment of
piston means 58 is moved upwardly to accomplish the
the invention, it will be understood that various changes,
20
Working stroke thereof. Under such conditions produc
modi?cations and substitutions may be incorporated in
tion ?uid is discharged ‘into the production tubing 48
such embodiment, and that various individual features of
along the avenue described, and production ?uid from the
the invention may be utilized in other, different embodi
well is drawn into the lower end of the pump cylinder
ments, all without departing from the spirit of the inven
along the avenue described. At the end of the working
tion as de?ned by the claims hereinafter appearing.
stroke, the engine valve 62 connects the lower end of the 25
I claim as my invention:
engine plunger 214 to the return tubing 46 as described,
1. In a ?uid operated engine valve, the combination of:
and the standing valve 232 closes and the working valve
(a) a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
250 opens to expose the lower end of the pump plunger
’ therein;
240 to the pressure in the production tubing 48. Thus,
(b) a tubular, internally-stepped, differential-area valve
under such conditions, the upper and lower ends of the 30
member reciprocable in said valve chamber;
engine plunger 214 are exposed to the return column pres
(c) said valve member having two different inside di
sure and the upper and lower ends of the pump plunger
ameters adjacent the respective ends thereof;
240 are exposed to the production column pressure. The
(d) said different inside diameters providing said valve
plunger to the ?uid pressure in the Well takes place through
return column pressure acts downwardly on the piston
member with a large, annular ?rst area at one end
rod 242, while the production column pressure acts up
thereof, a small, outer, annular second area at the
other end thereof, and a small, inner, annular third
area intermediate the ends thereof and facing in the
means on an effective area equal to the area of the piston 35
wardly on the piston means on the same effective area.
Since the return column pressure is maintained at a higher
value than the production column pressure by applying a
back pressure to the return tubing 46 at the surface by 40
means of the control device 50, a downward pressure force
differential acts on the piston means 58 to effect the return
member;
(1‘) said tubular cylindrical member separating said
stroke thereof, which is an important feature of the in—
vention. By accomplishing the return stroke of the piston
means in this manner, the speed of the return stroke may
be controlled ‘at the surface independently of all other fac
tors so that the speed of the return stroke may be any de
sired value, which is an important feature. For example,
the speed of the return stroke may be equal to, or greater
60
or less than, the speed of the working stroke.
It should be noted that due to the hereinbefore de
scribed operation of the engine valve 62, the valve member
272 is in its upper position during the upward, working
stroke of the piston means 58, and is in its lower position
during the downward, return stroke thereof, except for 55
the ?nal increments of movement of the piston means.
(1‘) means for alternately applying low and high pres
sures to said annular ?rst area; and
(j) the means last mentioned including a valve rod
extending through said tubular cylindrical member
and said valve member.
2. In a fluid operated engine valve, the combination of:
(a) a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
(b) an internally-stepped, differential-area valve mem—
tion between the rod 242 and the valve member 272 urges
ber reciprocable in said valve chamber;
the valve member into its proper operating position, which
60
well for repair or replacement, the control device 50 is
operated to connect the supply pipe 52 to the return
tubing 46 and to close the supply tubing 44, the produc
tion tubing 48 remaining connected to the production pipe
56. Under such conditions, operating ?uid under pressure
annular second and third areas;
(g) means for constantly applying a low pressure to
one of said annular second and third areas;
(h) means for constantly applying a high pressure to
the other of said annular second and third areas;
therein;
Consequently, during the working and return strokes, fric
is an important feature.
When it is desired to remove the pump 42 from the
same direction as said annular second area;
(e) a tubular cylindrical member in said valve member
and having an outside diameter substantially equal to
the larger of said inside diameters of said valve
(35
?ows downwardly through the return tubing 46 to the
lower end of the pump 42 by way of the bore 98, the
passage 100, the bore 102, the passage 104, the bore 106
and the annular space 118, FIG. 6, the counterbore 122, 70
the passage 126, the bore 128, the passage 130, the bore
132 and the pipe 134, FIG. 10, and the bore 136 and the
passage 138, FIG. 11. The pressure of the operating ?uid
thus delivered to the lower end of the pump 42 acts up
wardly on an annular area thereof equal to the difference 75
(c) said valve member having an axial bore therein
having an inner end;
(d) said valve member having a large, ?rst area adja
cent one end thereof, a small, outer, annular second
area adjacent the other end thereof, and a small,
inner, third area at the inner end of said axial bore
and facing in the same direction as said second area;
(e) a cylindrical member in said axial bore and having
an outside diameter substantially equal to the diame
ter of said axial bore;
(f) said cylindrical member separating said second and
third areas;
(g) means for constantly applying a low pressure to one
of said second and third areas;
(h) means for constantly applying a high pressure to
the other of said second and third areas; and
3,075,554
15
(1') means for alternately applying low and high pres
sures to said ?rst area.
16
(b) a tubular, internally-stepped, differential-area
valve member reciprocable in said valve chamber;
3. In a ?uid operated engine valve, the combination
(c) said valve member having tWo different inside di
(a) a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
(d) said different diameters providing said valve mem
therein;
(b) a tubular, internally-stepped, differential-area
valve member reciprocable in said valve chamber;
(0) said valve (member having two di?'erent inside
diameters adjacent the respective ends thereof;
10
(d) said different diameters providing said valve mem
ber with a large, annular ?rst area at one end there
of, a small, outer, ‘annular second area at the other
end thereof, and’ a small, inner, annular third area
intermediate the ends thereof and facing in the
same direction as said annular second area;
(e) a tubular cylindrical member in said valve mem
ber and having an outside diameter substantially
ameters adjacent the respective ends vthereof;
ber with a large, annular ?rst area at one end there
of, a small, outer, annular second area at the other
end thereof, and a small, inner, annular third area
intermediate the ends thereof and facing in the same
direction as said 'annular second area;
(2) a tubular cylindrical member in said valve mem
ber and having an outside diameter substantially
equal to the larger of said inside diameters of said
valve member;
(7‘) said tubular cylindrical member separating said
annular second and third areas; :and
(g) a valve rod extending through said tubular cylin
drical member and said valve member.
equal to the larger of said inside diameters of said
valve member;
(1‘) said tubular cylindrical member separating said
6. In an engine valve, ‘the combination of 2
(a) 'a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
annular second ‘and third areas; and
(g) means for applying an alternating ?uid pressure to
one of said ‘areas, including 1a valve rod extending
(11) an internally-stepped, differential-area valve mem
through said tubular cylindrical member and said
valve member.
4. In a ?uid operated engine valve, the combination
(a) a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
therein;
(b) an internally-stepped, differential-area valve mem
ber reciprocable in said valve chamber;
therein;
ber reciprocable in said valve chamber;
(c) said valve member having an axial bore therein
having an inner end;
(d) said valve member having a large, ?rst area ad
jacent one end thereof, a small, outer, annular
second area adjacent the other end thereof, and a
small, inner, third area at the inner end of said axial
bore and facing in the same direction as said second
area;
(e) a cylindrical member in said axial bore and hav
ing an outside diameter substantially equal to the
diameter of said axial bore; and
(0) said valve member having an axial bore therein
having an inner end;
(d) said valve member having a large, ?rst area ad
(f) said cylindrical member separating said second and
jacent one end thereof, \a small, outer, annular
third areas.
second area ‘adjacent the other end thereof, and \a
7. A fluid operated engine valve according to claim
small, inner, third area at the inner end of said
1 wherein said tubular cylindrical member is axially slid
axial bore and facing in the same direction as said
able in said valve member and on said valve rod.
second area;
40
(e) a cylindrical member in said axial bore and hav—
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
ring an outside diameter ‘substantially equal to the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
diameter of said axial bore;
(1‘) said cylindrical member separating said second
and third areas; and
(g) means for applying an alternating ?uid pressure
to one of said areas.
5. In an engine valve, the combination of:
(a) a valve body having a cylindrical valve chamber
therein;
647,671
2,048,550
De Lew _____________ __ Apr. 17, 1900
Helenberg __________ __ July 21, 1936
2,555,755
2,690,192
Moore _____________ ___ June 5, 1951
Danhardt ____________ __ Sept. 28, 1954
2,821,141
Sargent ________ _'______ Jan. 28, 1958
3,009,480
Miller _____________ __ Nov. 21, 1961
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