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Патент USA US3075651

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Jan. 29, 1963
Filed Dec. 14, 1959
Ken/7 ef? 7.‘ Jaye/er
United Sttes
' atnt
Patented Jan. 29, 1963
section of the bituminous composition in the package; and
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a pipe joint formed
Kenneth T. Snyder, 4101 San Jacinto, Houston 4, Tex.
Filed Dec. 14, 1959, Ser. No. 859,237
1 Claim. (Cl. 206~56)
with the preformed section of the bituminous composi
tion which has been positioned at the joint by means of
the package of this invention.
Heretofore, in the forming of pipe joints between sec
tions of concrete pipe, cast iron pipe, or similar types of
pipe, several standard ways have been employed. In some
instances, cement mortar has been hand applied to the
joint between adjacent sections of the concrete pipe after
the sections of the pipe are positioned in the ditch in their
?nal abutting contact. The cement mortar is normally
This invention relates to a new and improved bituminous
composition package and method of applying same.
In United States patent application Serial No. 818,529,
a bituminous composition is disclosed which has perma
nent or substantially permanent adhesive and sealing char
placed in the pipe joint by trowelling or other similar hand
acteristics in addition to other desirable qualities.
methods. Such type of joint is extremely di?icult to apply
An object of this invention is to provide a package for
said bituminous composition disclosed in said patent ap 15 and it cannot be satisfactorily applied in a ditch which has
plication wherein the bituminous composition is preformed
by extruding or otherwise forming same into elongate
any substantial amount of water therein at the time of the
strips or other desired shapes and wherein such preformed
sealing of the joint. Additionally, the cement requires a
period for curing before the cement is hard enough to be
composition is protected from adhering to adjacent stips
Therefore, whether or not a cement mortar
or sections thereof during storage and is also protected 20 type of joint is satisfactory depends upon the quality of
the workmanship during the mixing of the cement mortar
from contamination by foreign bodies in use.
and also during the application thereof to the pipe joint.
Another object of this invention is to provide a new
Additionally, the conditions under which the cement mor
and improved method of applying the bituminous com
tar is applied will adversely affect the type of seal ob
position of said patent application wherein a preformed
strip or section of said composition is applied to one sur
face of an object such as a pipe joint to be sealed, and
wherein such preformed strip or section has a releasable
protective cover on the external portion thereof to protect
the preformed composition against contamination by
water, rocks, dirt and other foreign bodies prior to placing
such external portion of the preformed composition in
contact with another surface for sealing with same.
A particular object of this invention is to provide a new
Also, even after the cement mortar dries, assum
ing that it is initially satisfactory, it is subject to cracking
upon a shifting of the adjacent sections of the pipe at the
joint. Therefore, generally speaking, the cement mortar
type of joint is highly unsatisfactory.
Various types of solvent mastics and plastics have been
employed for sealing pipe joints, but they must be applied
after the pipe sections are positioned in the ditch adjacent
to each other in the abutting contact.
Once the solvent
and improved bituminous composition package and
mastic or plastic is mixed or is exposed to the air, it must
method of using same for the sealing of pipe joints be 35 be used very quickly or otherwise the solvent will evap
tween pipe sections wherein a sealing strip or gasket is
formed of said bituminous composition and is provided
orate and the adhesive or sealing material will lose its
ability to seal. Therefore, there can be no preliminary
with at least one releasable protective strip which is tem
preparation of a pipe joint with the solvent type of sealing
porarily adhered thereto, and preferably with one releas
able protective strip temporarily adhered to each side of
the sealing strip or gasket, and wherein such package is
composition. Additionally, the solvent type of sealing
applied to a pipe joint surface on one pipe section with
one releasable protective strip thereon which is subse
quently released from the sealing strip or gasket for ex
composition is inflammable and even explosive and pro
duces toxic odors. Therefore, the solvent types of sealing
compositions have generally been undesirable, but have
been widely used for lack of a better material.
Another previously used method for forming pipe joint
posing the covered portion of the sealing strip or gasket 45 seals has been the use of asphalts or other adhesives which
for sealing contact with a pipe joint surface on another
pipe section adjacent to said one pipe section.
The preferred embodiment of this invention will be de
scribed hereinafter, together with other features thereof,
and additional objects will become evident from such de
The invention will be more readily understood from a
reading of the following speci?cation and by reference
are heated and are poured into the pipe joints. In some
instances, the pipe joints are provided with a trough or
form extending substantially entirely around the joint and
the hot asphalt or other adhesive is poured into such form
which holds the adhesive until it cools and hardens. Such
joints can obviously be formed only after the pipe sections
are in the ditch or are otherwise in the ?nal position.
The quality of the seal depends upon the skill of the
to the accompanying drawings formed a part thereof,
workmen and the care in applying the hot asphalt or
wherein an example of the invention is shown, and
other adhesive. If bubbles or air spaces are permitted to
accumulate in the adhesive when it is hot, the seal will be
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of one form of the package
defective. It is therefore believed evident that the hot
of this invention wherein a bituminous composition is in
pour type of sealing material has numerous disadvantages.
a preformed section between protective coverings on each
Another type of seal for pipe joints is a rubber seal or
side thereof, and with a portion of one of such protective 60 gasket which does eliminate some of the disadvantages
coverings pulled back;
of the previous types of seals mentioned above since it
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a modi?ed
does not depend upon the skill and workmanship of the
form of the package of this invention wherein a single
man-in the ?eld to the same extent as the other methods
layer or sheet of the protective covering material is uti
described above. However, the rubber type of gasket
lized in conjunction with ‘the preformed section or strip 65 for sealing pipe joints is considered undesirable because
of the bituminous composition to form the package;
of the fact that the rubber does not readily conform to
‘FIG. 3 is an isometric view illustrating the end of a
irregularities in the surfaces of the pipe joint. The sur
section of pipe which is to be sealed at the joint or con
faces of the pipe joint on concrete pipe are not formed
nection to an adjacent section of pipe, and to ‘which the
70 with the precision of machined metal parts and therefore
package of this invention is being applied;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3,, except that the pro
tective covering has been removed from the preformed
the rubber gasketlmust conform to substantial irregu
larities if a complete and reliable seal is to be obtained.
Furthermore, the rubber gasket must necessarily be rela
tively hard and non-porous in order to be effective and
to retain sui?cient shape for sealing. Such requirements
further prevent the necessary conformance of the rubber
at 210° F. of from about 50 seconds to about 250 sec
onds. Such residual should also have a minimum ?ash
point (Cleveland Open Cup) of about 475° F. as deter
mined by the A.S.T.M. test D92-56, and the speci?c
Special lubricants are
gravity as determined by A.S.T.M. test D71-52 should
also normally required in connection with the use of
be between about 0.95 and 1.04, with the preferred range
rubber gaskets for pipe joints and special tools are also
generally required to force the pipe sections together
being 0.97 to 1.00. The prefered range for the Saybolt~
to the surfaces of the pipe joint.
with the rubber seal at the joint.
The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of
such previous methods and provides a convenient, sim
ple and readily useable package and method of applying
Furol viscosity at 210° F. is from about 100 seconds to
about 200 seconds. It will be understood by those skilled
in the art that the Saybolt-Furol viscosity is determined
by the A.S.T.M. D88-44 procedure. It will also be un
derstood that the designation “A.S.T.M.” as used herein
same to pipe joints so that a highly desirable seal and a
identi?es the American Society for Testing Materials and
substantially permanent seal is obtained at such joints.
the tests are those speci?ed by such group. The bitumen
residual which is used in the composition of this inven
tion should also have a low temperature susceptibility
factor. As is well known, the susceptibility factor is cal
Brie?y, the present invention includes a bituminous com
position package and a method of applying same wherein
the package A (FIG. 1) includes a preformed strip or
section 10 of a bituminous composition, the details of
which are disclosed in the aforesaid patent application,
Serial No. 818,529, and which will be more fully referred
to hereinafter. The preformed strip or section 10 has
culated by dividing the penetration of the asphalt or
other material at 77° F. by the penetration at 32° F.
Such penetrations are obtained by the standard A.S.T.M.
test designated D217—48. Using such basis for calculat
ing the susceptibility factor, the bitumen residual in the
two broad sides and two narrow sides. One protective
composition of this invention should have a susceptibility
covering 11 is temporarily adhered to one of the broad
factor not greater than 6 and preferably from about 2
sides but is releasable therefrom. In the preferred form
of the invention, a second protective covering 12 is tem 25 to about 4. Also, the bitumen residual should be ad
hesive rather than unctuous and that can be determined
porarily adhered to the other broad side of the strip or
section 10 opposite from the other protective covering
readily by observation and contact. In other words
11. In that way, the protective coverings 11 and 12
an ‘adhesive residual will tend to stick to the ?ngers when
contacted by the ?ngers but an unctuous residual will
completely protect the section or strip 10 to prevent con
have an oily feel and will not be adhesive or stick to the
tamination thereof. Also, when such packages A are
placed together in a container, the protective coverings
11 and 12 prevent the sticking or adhering of adjacent
The composition includes an additive which includes
?nely ground material and/or ?brous material so that
the composition remains pliable or workable and also
The protective coverings 11 and 12 may he formed of
any material which is adapted to be temporarily ad 35 sag-resistant at temperatures at least as high as 300° F.
bored to the bituminous strip or section 10, but which
There are a number of ?nely ground materials and
is readily releasable therefrom without pulling or remov
?brous materials which will serve as the additive or ad
ing any of the bituminous strip or section 10 with the
ditives in the composition. By way of example, the
protective covering as it is released. Also, since the pro
?nely ground material or materials may be bentonite,
tective covering may be exposed to rain or moisture
diatomaceous earth, colloidal clays, talc, slate four and
during the use thereof, which will be explained herein
silicates, each of which should be ?ne enough to pass
after, it is highly desirable to provide a covering mate
standard mesh screens from 100 to 400 in size. It is
rial which has water resistance and su?icient wet-strength
desirable, and in some cases essential to provide a ?brous
to prevent separation upon becoming wet. Preferably,
material such as asbestos, Wollastonite or other mag
the covering strips 11 and 12 are formed of kraft paper 45 nesium silicate which is chemically inert to acid and al
which is coated on at least one surface thereof with sili
kali resistant materials may be employed. For example,
strips or sections 10.
cone or a similar coating which will temporarily adhere
diatomaceous earth, ground vegetable or mineral ?bers,
to the bituminous strip 10 but which will permit the re
lease therefrom without removing the bituminous com
knolwn organic or inorganic ?brous materials may be
position therewith. Polyethylene and other plastics may
cotton linters, rice hulls, jute, hemp, bagasse and other
also be used for the covering strips 11 and 12.
It is important to note that the components set forth
As previously explained, the bituminous composition
above would not have a solvent therewith, and no por
used for the preformed strip or section 10 is the com
tion of the composition is subject to evaporation or drying.
position described in United States patent application
To illustrate the composition more speci?cally, the
Serial No. 818,529 and it includes a petroleum derived 55 following speci?c examples or embodiments of the com
bitumen residual which is the residual bitumen or prod
position are set forth, but it is to be understood that such
uct resulting from the distillation of petroleum. Such
examples are by way of illustration and are not to be
bitumen residual should have a Saybolt-Furol viscosity
construed as limiting.
Tests on Final Product
Speci?c Gravity, ASTM D71—52___
Wt./Gal.,_ Speci?c Gravity x 8.33..
Example I
Flash Po1nt(COC),ASTM D92-56 .......................... -_ 475° 13‘. mini_
Example II
Example III
Example IV
1.20 _______ __
“ 1 30
475° F. mini-
T. 47'5" F.1nini
Soft Point, ASTM D36-26 ................................... -- 1500 r. minl-
350011151.3 ‘mim
Ductility @ 77° F., ASTM 13113-44 .............. _-
Percent Finely Ground and Fibrous Material b W l ht,
AASHO T. 111-42.
Percent Bitumen by Weight, AS’I‘M D4-52
Pingtpatlon Cone, ASTM D217-48 @ 77° F., 5 sec., 200 gm.,
40. a‘
o a .
Petngtpation Cone, ASTM D217-48 @ 32° F., 60 sec., 300 gm.,
o a .
Petmzgation Cone, AS'I‘M D217~48 @ 115° F., 5 sec., 150 gm,
In the foregoing examples, the “ASTM” designations
the previously known methods have been discussed above.
refer to the well known tests of the American Society for
Testing Materials, as previously explained. The test for
the percentage of the ?nely ground and/or ?brous mate
Therefore, by way of illustration, the method of this in
rial is an “AASHO” test and is also a well known test
established by the American Association of State High
way Officials.
The percentage of the bitumen or bitumen residual in
vention will be described in connection with the applying
of the package of this invention to a pipe joint or to
surfaces between adjacent ends of concrete pipe sections.
The method of this invention is therefore partially illus
trated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. In FIG. 3, one end of a
section of concrete pipe P is shown with the package A
‘being applied to the ?anged end 20 of the pipe P. The
the composition may vary from about 45% by weight to
about 95% by weight, the amount depending to some ex 10 package A as shown in FIG. 3 includes the preformed
strip or section of the composition 10 to which is adhered
tent upon the particular application for the composition.
a protective covering 11. If the package A includes an
The bitumen referred to in the foregoing examples is the
additional protective covering 12 (FIG. 1) such protective
petroleum derived bitumen residual described previously
covering 12 is stripped or released from the composition
in this speci?cation and should have the properties pre
viously referred to herein. The percentage of the addi 15 strip or section 10 prior to positioning the package A as
shown in FIG. 3. The composition strip or section 10 is
tives, namely, ?nely ground material and the ?brous mate
directly positioned on the ?anged end 20 of the pipe P
rial, may vary between about 5% by weight and 55% by
(FIG. 3) so as to seal therewith. The protective covering
weight, and generally such materials are present in a mix
11 remains on the exterior of the portion of the composi
ture with equal parts of each material. In each of the
above examples, the ?nely ground material was bentonite 20 tion strip 10 which is unattached to the pipe P. Such
protective covering 11 may be left on the composition
and the ?brous material was asbestos and they were pres
strip 10 even after the strip 1% is completely positioned
ent in equal amounts. Such materials are intimately
on the ?anged end 20 so as to provide a protection for
mixed with the residual with standard mixing equipment.
the composition strip 10 against contamination by water,
By way of further example, each of the foregoing exam
ples may be varied by using as the additive all of one of 25 rocks, dirt and other foreign bodies or material. In that
way, the composition strip 10 is protected until such time
the ?brous materials previously set forth or all of one of
as it is ready for sealing contact with an adjacent pipe P'
the ?nely ground materials, or a mixture of any of such
materials, in the various percentages set forth in the
(FIG. 5).
Because of the nature of the composition forming the
Examples I through IV. In such instances, the other
properties of the materials in each of such examples would 30 strip 10, as previously explained, the strip 10 does not
be the same.
Although the package A of this invention preferably
includes the protective coverings 11 and 12 on opposite
sides of the preformed strip or section 10 of the compo
become hard or dry even after extended periods of ex
posure. Therefore, the package A may be placed upon
the ?anged end 20 of the pipe P prior to positioning the
pipe P in a ditch or other location where it is to be used.
sition, as previously explained, the composition strip 10
35 In fact, it is even possible to apply the package A at the
covering 11 would be coated with silicon or would other
wise be provided with a coating or a material which would
position 10 to leave the composition 10‘ exposed on the
silicone coating on each side thereof since both sides of
P and P’ together as in the case of rubber gaskets. Also,
factory where the pipe P is made and the pipe P may then
may be packaged with only a single protective covering
be shipped to the point of use in the ?eld with the package
or strip 11. For example, if a plurality of strips of the
A already thereon.
composition 10 are to be packaged in relatively long
When it is desired to form the pipe joint between the
lengths, the single protective covering or strip 10* between
each of the composition strips 10 would prevent the com 40 sections of the pipe P and P’, the section of pipe P which
has the package A thereon is further prepared by releas
position strips 10 from adhering to each other. With such
ing or stripping the protective covering 11 from the com
construction of the package, both sides of the protective
?anged end 20 (FIG. 4).
If the pipe P is not already in the ditch or other loca
release from the composition 10 since the composition 10 45
tion where it is to be positioned in use, the pipe P is
would be contacting both sides of each of the protective
then lowered into the ditch or other position for use and
coverings or strips 11.
the adjacent section of Pipe P’ is forced or moved into the
In FIG. 2, a modi?ed package A-l is illustrated where
abutting relationship shown in FIG. 5 with the composi
in a single protective covering 11 is employed with the
preformed strip or section 10. The package A—-1 is 50 tion 10 between the ends of the pipe sections P and P’.
Because of the nature of the composition of the pre
formed by rolling the preformed strip or section 10 and
formed strip, such seal is readily made without requir
the protective covering 11 therewith into the coil shown
ing any extreme force to bring the sections of the pipes
in FIG. 2. The protective covering 11 would have a
the protective covering 11 contact the preformed strip or 55 the composition strip 10 readily conforms to any irregu
larities in the pipes P and P’. The curing time which is
section 10. Of course, it will be understood that other
required for other types of sealing materials is eliminated
materials besides the kraft paper with the silicone may be
due to the nature of the composition of the strips 10 and
employed as previously explained so long as both sides
a permanent seal is thus obtained without the disadvan
of the covering 11 are releasable from the composition
60 tages of the previously known materials and methods.
strip or section 10 when such release is desired.
It will be understood that FIGS. 3-5 merely illustrate
In addition to the several packages previously described
one type of pipe joint construction which is customarily
the package of this invention may take other forms. For
example, the protective covering 11 may be shaped like
used, but obviously the package and method of this in
a sack and the preformed section 10 of the composition
vention may be employed with any type of pipe joint.
65 Also, it will be evident that the method of this invention
may be con?ned therein.
In the use of the package of this invention the composi
and the package used therewith may be employed for the
tion has preferably been extruded or otherwise formed
sealing of any adjacent surfaces. Also, it is to be under
into the desired shape for ultimate use and the package
stood that the invention herein is not limited to the seal
preferably formed at the place of manufacture of the
ing of joints of concrete pipe, because such method may
composition into such desired shape or form. As pre 70 be employed in conjunction with the sealing of other ma
viously explained, one of the most troublesome problems
terials such as ceramic, steel, or the like. It is therefore
in the industry today resides in the forming of seals be
believed that the advantages of the package and the meth
tween adjacent sections of concrete pipe and other types
ods. of this invention are evident from the foregoing de
of pipe. The various disadvantages and problems in con
nection with the forming of such sealed pipe joints with 75 scription.
What is claimed is:
A package of pipe joint sealing material, comprising
an elongate strip of solid pliable preformed pipe joint seal
ing material of an adhesive sealing bituminous composi
tion which is of a non-solvent, non-drying type and com
prising two broad opposite sides and two narrow oppo
site sides, and a releasable protective covering on each
broad side of said preformed pipe joint sealing material,
the longitudinal edges of said protective coverings being
releasable from each other throughout the length thereof 10
to enable either of said coverings to be released by pull
ing thereon at any point throughout such length, one of
said coverings temporarily adhering to said preformed
pipe joint sealing material but being releasable from one
of said broad sides for sealing the bituminous composi 15
tion to an object while the other protective covering re
mains on the other broad side of said pipe joint sealing
material to protect same but being also releasable for ef
fecting the seal at a pipe joint.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
CroWther ____________ __ Apr. 17, 1934
Trickey _______________ __ Dec. 6, 1938
McKee ______________ __ Nov. 30, 1948
Lindenberg ___________ __ Oct. 28, 1952
Johnson et al __________ __ Feb. 21,
Fischer et al ___________ __ May 15,
Barton et al ___________ __ Aug. 27,
Svirchev _____________ __ Dec. 30,
Binder ________________ __ Feb. 3,
Couch et al ___________ __ Sept. 15,
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