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Патент USA US3075728

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Jan. 29, 1963
D, J; EDWARDS
3,075,726
AIRBORNE PROXIMITY INFRARED FIRING ERROR INDICATOR
Filed Jan. 30, 1959
J
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Jan. 29, 1963 ,
D. J. EDWARDS
3,075,726
AIRBORNE PROXIMITY INFRARED FIRING ERROR INDICATOR
Filed Jan. 30, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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7 _. /h-/\./h‘m,_.n/lI|v_?.H!’
Jan. 29, 1963
D. J._ EDWARDS
3,075,726
AIRBORNE PROXIMITY'INFRARED FIRING ERROR INDICATOR
Filed Jan. 30, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
_
INVENTOR.
DAV/0 ¢ 604/4?”
BY
at‘
United
' tae
Patented Jan. 29, 1953
a
sawsnze
amnonrin raoxnvnry INFRARED no
reason nsnrcsron
David 3. Edwards, 218 Hawthorne Court,
Fort Walton Beach, Fla.
Fiied Jan. 3%, 1959, $91‘. No. 7%,3tl7
3 Claims. (Cl. Ltd-d4}
(Granted under Title 35, U5. Code (1952), see. 266)
2
mined by its towing speed and the angle of its ?ns, it
is necessary to account for this rotational velocity.
A correction may be applied by determining the revo
lutions per second of the frangible target. The appa
ratus to achieve this objective is provided by a mirror
attached to a tow cable which is connected between the
towing aircraft and towed target. This mirror does not
rotate since it is attached to a swivel on the nose of
the frangible target to prevent rotation of the cable. A
T‘ e invention described herein may be manufactured 10 small light source is placed on the nose of the towed
and used by or for the United States Government for
target so that its energy can strike the mirror. From
governmental purposes without payment to me of any
the
mirror, the energy is re?ected to a second infrared
royalty thereon.
etector also located on the nose of the towed target.
This invention relates to an airborne proximity ?ring
The light and the detector rotate at the speed of the
error indicator system and more particularly to a system 15 frangible target since they are an integral part of the
wherein a missile transmitting infrared energy is directed
target, while the mirror is stationary. Therefore, for
towards an airborne target containing a system provid
each revolution of the target, the energy from the light
ing data relating to the proximity of the aimed missile
source is reflected to the detector by the mirror. Conse
to the target.
quently, the number of revolutions of the target is
The method and system of providing proximity infor 20 counted by referencing the output of the ?rst infrared
mation is one in which an airborne frangible target is
energy detector to a time base.
towed by another aircraft. Since the target is being
The number of slots in the outer periphery of the
towed, the velocity thereof is known or in the alternative
aforesaid chopping reticle is governed by the time con
can be precisely controlled and predetermined by the
stant of the infrared detector enclosed therein. The
aircraft towing said target. The missile which may be
shorter the time constant, the greater the number of
aimed at said target would be conventional and its ve
slots that may be used, and consequently, the greater the
locity well known. Therefore the relative velocity of
accuracy. Of course the speed of the constant speed
the missile in relation to the target is known or can be
motor must be compatible with the number of slots se
easily prearranged. The target has a boom extension
lected. The slots for the chopping reticle may be either
attached to its tail. The longitudinal axis of the target 30 etched or punched, and the accuracy of the system is
its boom extension are identical. The boom ex
tension is generally in the form of an extruded shell.
The boom extension is comprised of a material such as
lithium ?uoride which readily passes infrared energy.
The boom extension is blackened to inhibit passage there
through of infrared energy, except ‘for a cylindrical area
providing a desired ?eld of view.
A standard infrared detector, having a cylindrical
form, is mounted within the boom extension and is con
centric with the unblacliened cylindrical area. The active
surface is applied to the detector at its outer cylindrical
determined primarily by the accuracy of the slots them
selves.
An object of the present invention is to provide a novel
infrared airborne system for scoring missile ?rings at
airborne towed targets wherein the towed target rotates.
Another object of the present invention is to provide
an airborne infrared system located in a towed rotating
target for detecting infrared energy transmitted by an
aimed missile directed at the towed target and convert
ing the received infrared energy into electrical data rep
resentative of the proximity of the aimed missile to the
periphery’. The detector is also mounted concentrically
towed target.
within a constant speed, rotating, chopping reticle which
A still further object of the present invention is to
is in the form of a slotted drum.
provide an infrared system located in an airborne, towed,
45
The purpose of the chopping reticle is to provide a
rotating target for determining the proximity of an aimed
reference time base for counting and to provide ap
missile to the towed target.
plication of alternating current circuit techniques. The
Yet another object of the present invention is to pro
chopping re icle provides a reference base by rotating at
vide an infrared airborne system for determining the
a constant speed, and since the infrared detector is lo
proximity of an aimed missile to an airborne target
cated concentrically therein, its output, if infrared energy 50 wherein the system is located in the towed target and
is present in the aforesaid ?eld of view, will be a series
including automatic means for correcting the proximity
of electrical pulses whose frequency is proportional to
data as errors occur as a result of the rotation of said
the chopping rate. By keeping the rotational speed of
towed target.
the chopping reticle constant, the number of electrical
The novel features that I consider characteristic of
55
pulses generated is determined by the length of time
my invention are set forth with particularity in the ap-'
the missile energy is present in the ?eld of view of the
pended claims. The invention itself, however, both as
infrared detector located in the frangible target; and
to its organization and its method of operation, together
since the field of view is ?xed, the number of electrical
with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be
pulses generated is representative of the distance from
understood from the following description of speci?c em
the aimed missile to the infrared detector. It is to be 60 bodiments thereof when read in conjunction with the
noted when the missile approaches the target in a plane
accompanying drawings, in which:
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the target, the
FIGURE 1 shows a view of the towed target having a
missile may not pass through the “?ield of view” of the
boom extension attached to and extending from its ter
detector and thus no pulses will be generated, or the
minal end and a towing cable attached to its nose;
missile may pass through the field of view in a plane 65
FIGURE 2. is a diagrammatic view partly in section
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the target but
showing the boom extension including apparatus therein
cause more pulses to be generated than a missile pass
to generate output data relative to the proximity of mis
ing through the ?eld of a view in a plane parallel to
sile aimed thereat;
the longitudinal axis of the target at the same distance
FIGURE 3 shows a perspective view of the chopping
70
from the target.
reticle and its associated infrared detector which are in
Because the frangible target rotates at a rate deter
cluded in the boom extension;
.2
8,075,726
3
and 35 which are in contact with copper plate 24-. Brush
retainer 33 is comprised of nylon based Bakelite. Metal
FIGURE 4 shows the nose of the towed target and
the towing cable attached thereto and including appa
ratus producing rotational data relating to the towed
lugs 36 and 37 are attached electrically to brushes 34 and
35 respectively. Lugs 36 and 37 are connected together
electrically by line 38 and then connected to ampli?er
target;
FIGURE 5 shows the surface of the circular ?ange
facing the towed target; and
39, which provides an output to line 4i}. Line 49 is con
nected to output jack 41. Ampli?er 3% is bolted to ex
FiGURE 6 shows proximity data recorded on a time
baseline as a missile is ?red through the ?eld of view of
truded shell 6.
y
>
Now referring to FIGURE 3, chopping reticle i3’ is
the towed target and also shows rotational data for the
comprised of a drum with outer end 14-’ open to receive
10
towed target.
infrared detector 19. Detector it)’ is positioned con
Referring now to the drawings in detail, there is shown
centrically within chopping reticle 13’ by means of post
in FIGURE 1 the towed target 1. Integral with towed
9’. Chopping reticle 13’ has a number of slots located
target 1 is boom extension 2 which is attached and ex
in its outer periphery. Slot 132 is representative of all
tends from the terminal end thereof. Baseline 3 repre
the slots located in the outer periphery of reticle 13’.
sents the longitudinal axis of towed target 1 and boom
The slots may be formed either by punching or etching
extension 2. Nose 4 of towed target 1 is shown with
depending upon the material used.
towing cable 5 attached thereto.
Now referring to FIGURE 4, there is shown a side
Now referring to FIGURE 2, there is shown a diagram
view of nose 4' of the towed target. Riveted to nose 4'
matic view partly in section of the boom extension 2
which is the boom extension shown in FIGURE 1. Boom 20 is rotatable yoke 43. A swivel coupling is provided by
enclosing the extremity of coupling pin 44 in rotatable
extension 2' is shown with longitudinal axis 3'. Boom
yoke
43. Ball bearings 46 are provided for facilitating
extension 2’ is comprised of extruded shell 6 of gener
rotation. Limit collar 47 is provided for the swivel cou
ally cylindrical contour closed at its outboard end by
pling. Coupling pin 44 is attached to ?ange 48 by means
semi-spherical closure plate 7 having at its center bear
ing element 3 as an anchorage for horizontally extending 25 of rivets. Flange 48 consists of a circular steel casting.
Coupling yoke 49 is attached to ?ange 48 by suitable studs.
post 9 carrying at its inboard end an infrared detector
To coupling yoke 4-9‘ is connected towing cable 5'. A
iii of generally cylindrical shape whose outer surface is
light re?ecting surface, facing towards nose 4’, is provided
coated with active surface 11. Surface 11 is comprised
on the surface of ?ange 48. The light re?ecting surface
of conventional material utilized to detect infrared energy.
Extending post 9 is constructed of nylon based Bake 30 is in the shape of segment of a disc as illustrated in
FIGURE 5.
lite. Extruded shell 6 and semi-spherical closure plate
Now referring to FIGURE 5, there is shown circular
7 are comprised of lithium ?uoride which will readily
steel ?ange 4-8’. Segmental disc 56‘ consists of a material
permit infrared energy to pass therethrough. Any mate
that re?ects light. Segmental disc 50 is on the surface
rial having similar properties as lithium ?uoride may be
substituted therefor. Extruded shell 6 and semi-spherical 35 of ?ange 48' that faces the nose of the towed target.
The remaining surface of ?ange 48’, exclusive of disc 50,
closure plate 7 are coated black to prevent infrared
is coated black so as not to re?ect light.
energy from penetrating therethrough. Area 12 of ex
Now referring again to FIGURE 4, light source 51 is
truded shell 6 remains uncoated and thereby permits free
mounted in semi-spherical closure plate 7' so that its
access of infrared energy into the interior of boom ex
light energy is directed at the light re?ecting disc on ?ange
tension 2' within the con?nes of the aforementioned
4%. Infrared detector 52 is mounted in semi-spherical
area. Area 12 is of cylindrical shape. Infrared detector
closure plate 7' so that it received light energy re?ected
19 is so positioned by extending post 9 as to be concen
from the aforesaid disc. Electrical line 53 is provided
tric with unblackened, cylindrical, area 12.
from infrared detector 52 to jack 53'. A plug with a
Chopping reticle 13 is in the form of a drum with end
connecting electrical line‘may be inserted into jack 53'
wall 14 open. Reticle 13 is provided with hollow driven
shaft 15 which is integral therewith. Bearing 16 is affixed 45 thereby providing means for relaying the signal from
infrared detector 52 to an oscilloscope mounted in a
to extruded shell 6 by suitable bolts and serves to posi
towing plane. Light source 51 and infrared detector 52
tion the cylindrical portion of chopping reticle 13 so that
rotate at the speed of the towed target as they are integral
infrared detector 19 is mounted concentrically therein
therewith while the aforesaid reflecting disc remains sta
and also so that it is concentric with unblackened area
50 tionary. Therefore, for each revolution of the towed
12.
target, the energy from light source 51 is re?ected to
Motor 17 is concentrically positioned within extruded
infrared detector 52 by the light re?ecting disc on the
shell 6 by mounting base 18. Mounting base 18 is at
surface of ?ange 43, and consequently the number of
tached to shell 6 by any suitable means such as bolts.
revolutions of the towed target is counted by referencing
Driving shaft 1.9 is splined at its outer end and is at
tached to driven shaft 15 by coupler 20.
V 55 the output signal from infrared detector 52 to a time base
as provided by an oscilloscope in the towing plane.
Therefore the revolutions per second of the towed target
lite elements 21, 22 and 23. Element 22 is in the shape
of a cylinder having thereupon pressure ?tted copper
may be thus determined.
Again referring to FIGURE 2, ?eld of view 54 has the
plate 24. Element 23 is in the shape of a cylinder open
at one end to receive the splined end of driving shaft 19. 60 shape of a rotating cone whose central axis de?nes, as it
rotates; a plane normal to longitudinal axis 3’. The
Element 21 is in the form of a cylinder open at one end
aforesaid ?eld of view is provided by permitting infra
to receive shaft 25. Elements 21, 22 and 23 are clamped
red ‘energy to pass through uncoated area 12 of extruded
together by suitable bolts and nuts such as 26 and 27.
Shaft 25 is comprised of an electrical conductor such as
shell 6 and by concentrically mounting rotatable, chop
aluminum and is attached to infrared detector 16 both 65 ping reticle 13 within area 12.
physically and electrically so that it is integral there
As an aimed missile transmitting infrared energy passes
with. Bearing element 28 consists of nylon based Bake
through ?eld of view 54, chopping reticle 13 is being ro
lite and serves to hold shaft 25 concentrically within hol
tated at a constant rate of ‘speed by motor 17. Electrical
low driven shaft 15. Shaft 25 has attached thereto metal
pulses are generated when infrared energy from afore
spring and ball retainer 29. Spring 30 is enclosed in 70 said aimed missile is transmitted to infrared detector 1ft
retainer 29 and is ?tted into spring guide 31. Metal ball
through the aforementioned slots on the outer periphery
Coupler 20 is comprised of three nylon based Bake
32 is thereby pressed ?rmly against copper plate 24 to
of rotating, chopping reticle 13. The number of electri~
cal pulses generated is determined by the length of time
Brush retainer 33 is affixed to extruded shell 6 by suitable
the aimed missile is in ?eld of view 54%, ‘and since th?
75
bolts and screws and serves as a container for brushes 34
make electrical contact. Metal ball 32 is free to rotate.
3,076,726
0
?eld of view is conical around 360", the time the afore
said missile is in the ?eld of view and consequently the
number of electrical pulses generated is representative of
the distance from the missile to detector 10.
The output of infrared detector 10 is comprised of
electrical pulses which are transmitted along shaft 25
through spring and ball retainer 29 to metal rotating ball
32. From ball 32, the electrical pulses are fed to rotat
ing copper plate 24 and thence to lugs 36 and 37 by way
of brushes 34 and 35 respectively. Electrical line 38
interconnects lugs 36 and 37 and then feeds ampli?er 39
with aforesaid electrical pulses originating from infrared
detector 10. The ampli?ed pulses are fed to jack 41 by
6
rotation; in a target rotation measuring system wherein
said target is being towed and is also undergoing con~
tinuous rotation in space, pulse recording means com
prising swiveling means attached to the the nose of said
towed target, a towing cable with an associated ?ange
connected to said swiveling means, a segment of a light
re?ecting disc applied to the surface of said ?ange, said
segment of said disc positioned to face said nose of said
target, a light source mounted in said nose so that its
light energy is directed towards said segment of said light
re?ecting disc, infrared detector means also mounted in
said nose and being positioned to receive the energy re
?ected from said segment of said light re?ecting disc and
way of line 40. A plug with a connecting electrical line
thus operating to emit a pulse on each revolution of said
may be inserted into jack 41 and then fed to aforemen 15 target, indicating means for establishing a time base indi
tioned oscilloscope which is mounted in the towing plane.
Referring now to FIGURE 6, there is shown towed
target 1" having boom extension 2" integral therewith.
Boom extension 2" and its included apparatus is identi
cal to the boom extension and apparatus described for
FIGURE 2. Field of view 54" is shown being cut by
aimed missile 56 at points 57 and 58. A time base line
is provided, as by an oscilloscope in a towing plane, and
the number of electrical pulses generated during the
period of transmission of infrared energy from missile
56 during the period it is in ?eld of view 54" between
points 57 and 53 is recorded on time base line 59. The
number of electrical pulses supply the requisite data for
cator to serve as reference means for measuring the pulse
output of said infrared means, and means to record on
said indicating means the pulse output from said infra
red means.
2. Means for recording pulses representative of target
rotation in a target rotation measuring system wherein said
target is undergoing continuous rotation in space, said
rotation recording means comprising a segment of a
stationary light re?ecting disc facing the nose of said
target, a light source mounted in the nose of said target,
said light source having its light energy directed at said
segment of said light re?ecting disc, infrared detector
means also mounted in said nose, said infrared means
determining the proximity of missile 56 from towed tar
being positioned to receive the light energy re?ected from
get 1".
30 said segment of said light re?ecting disc and thus operat
Because the towed target rotates at a rate determined
ing to emit a pulse on each revolution of said target, in
by towing speed and angle of its ?ns, it is necessary to
dicating
means for establishing a time base indication to
account for this rotational velocity and apply it as a
serve as reference means for measuring the pulse output
correction to the number of electrical pulses recorded on
of said infrared means and means to record on said in
time base line 59.
35 dicating means the pulse output from said infrared means.
An electrical pulse is supplied for each revolution of
3. Means for recording pulses representative of target
towed target 1" since light source 51" and infrared de
rotation in a target rotation measuring system wherein
tector 52" rotate at the speed of towed target 1" while
said target is being towed and is also undergoing con
the light re?ecting disc on ?ange 48" remains stationary.
Therefore, for each revolution of towed target 1", the 40 tinuous rotation in space, said pulse recording means com
prising means to generate electrical pulses representative
energy from light source 51” is re?ected to detector 52"
by the aforesaid light re?ecting disc, and consequently the
of the rate of rotation of said target, means to record said
oscilloscope mounted in the towing plane. The revolu
of swiveling means attached to the nose of said tow
pulses representative of said rotation rate on a time base
number of revolutions of towed target 1" is counted by
line wherein said means to generate electrical pulses repre
referencing the output of infrared detector 52" to time
baseline 60, which may also be supplied by the aforesaid 45 sentative of the rate of rotation of said target is comprised
tions per second of towed tar-get 1" may be determined
as shown in FIGURE 6 for a rotational speed of 300
r.p.m.
target, a towing cable with an associated ?ange connected
to said swiveling means, a segment of a light re?ecting
disc applied to the surface of said ?ange, said segment of
said disc positioned to face said nose of said target, a light
It is to be noted that the slots in the chopping reticle,
source mounted in said nose so that its light energy is
previously described, are governed by the time constant
directed towards said segment of said light re?ecting disc,
of their associated infrared detector. The shorter the
and infrared means also mounted in said disc and being
time constant, the greater the number of slots that may
positioned to receive the energy re?ected from said light
be utilized; and consequently the greater the accuracy.
The speed of the constant speed motor rotating the chop 55 re?ecting disc.
ping reticle must be compatible with the number of slots
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
selected. The slots may be either etched or punched, and
the accuracy of the system is determined primarily by
UNITED STATES PATENTS
the accuracy of the slots themselves.
2,405,597
Miller _______________ __ Aug. 13, 1946
What is claimed is:
1. Means for recording pulses representative of target
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