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Патент USA US3076059

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Jan- 29» 1953
'
J. o. HINKLE ETAL
31,076,049
APPARATUS FOR ZONE REFINING ELONGATED BODIES OF' METAL
Filed April 4. 1961
5 SheetS-Shee'b 1
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Jan. 29, 1963
J. o. HINKLE ETAL
3,076,049
APPARATUS FOR ZONE REFINING ELONGATED BODIES OF METAL
Filed April 4'. 1961
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Filed April 4, 1961
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J.o.H1NKLE ETAL
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APPARATUS FOR ZONE REFINING ELOÑGATED BODIES OF METAL
Filed April 4, 1961
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United States Patent O " ice
Patented dan. 29, lêtëîi
2
22 and removed during unloading and loading of the
3,676,049
APPARATUS FOR ZÜNE RENNEN@
ELONGATED BÜDHES @F METAL
.l ames Ü. Hinkle, Emmaus, and Robert K. Miller and .lack
J. Monahan, Allentown, Pa., assignors to Western Elec
trie Company, Incorporated, New York, NY., a corpo
ration of New York
Filed Apr. 4, 1961, Ser. No. H0577
17 Ciaìms. (Cl. 13-11)
work. A heat induction or radio frequency coil 23 is
mounted centrally of the vacuum chamber and is of a
contour to receive an elongated body of metal 24.
in the present instance, this is a silicon body 1/2"
in diameter iand l’ in length. Hollow chucks 2S and 26
are adapted to receive the ends of the body 24 and are
provided with suitable means such as set screws 27 and
2S to secure the ends of the work in the chucks. The
10 chucks 25 and 26 are provided with identical moving
means indicated generally at 29 and 30. Any descrip
tion of the movin-g means 3i) will apply to both units.
elongated »bodies of metal, particularly elongated silicon
In the HG. 3 portion of the apparatus, the chuck 26
bodies.
is íixedly mounted on the upper end of a spindle 31 which
Silicon wafers used in the manufacture off semi-conduc
extends freely through a hollow threaded shaft 32 and
tor devices lare produced from silicon rods, but in order 15 through an outer sleeve 33 where its outer end is con
lt-hat the semi-'conductor devices may function most ef
nected to ya motor 34 of a type adapted to rotate its
iriciently, the rods from which the silicon wafers are pro
spindle at a definite slow speed simultaneously with the
duced, must be of sufficient purity.
motor 34 of the moving means 29 so that both spindles
An object of the present invention is an apparatus
31 of the moving ymeans 29 and 30 will be rot-ated simul
which is highly efficient in zone refining elongated bodies 20 taneously at the same speeds and in the same direction.
of metal.
The purpose of the motor 34 is to rotate the Work or
>In accordance with fthe object, the .apparatus comprises
the elongated Ibody of metal in the coil 23 to assure uni
a vacuum chamber in which fan induction heating coil is
form -heat-ing of the successive floating zones of the body
mounted and a chuck for supporting lan elongated body
of metal moving through the coil 23.
of metal is mounted on a spindle disposed in axial align 25
The outer sleeve 33 has `a nut or internally threaded
>ment with the coil, While means is provided to impart
element 3o mounted in the end thereof opposite the end
movement to the spindle to move the body of metal at
supporting the motor 34 ’for operative engagement with
a lpredetermined speed through the coil.
the threaded shaft 32. Furthermore, the outer sleeve
This invention relates to apparatus for zone refining
More specifically, the apparatus includes spaced chucks 30 33 is positioned to move in a hollow portion 37 of a
for connection with both ends of the elongated body of
housing 38 which is fixed to a casing 39, the latter being
metal, that is, -chucks having individual moving means in
secured to la bracket 4G which supports the vacuum charn
cluding spindles for supporting the chucks, motors for
rotating the spindles simultaneously, a main drive con
nected to lboth moving means, to move the elongated body
of metal at a predetermined speed relative to the heating
coil with »associate drives for the moving means interposed
between the main drive and the moving means, to cause
ber and both moving means 29 and Sil. The sleeve 33
supports a projection 33’ positioned to ride in an elon
gated slot 38’ of the housing 3S to hold the sleeve against
rotation.
A vcam ¿il mounted on each outer sleeve 33
is positioned to engage series of switches 42, 43, 44, 45,
d6, 47, 43, and 49 which serve in the operation of the
apparatus, mainly to control movements of the chucks
variation in the driving speed of each moving means, to
result in uniform thinning or broadening the elongated 40 25 and 26 and to assure stopping of the movements
body of metal. AThe associate drives are connected to the
thereof prior to interference with the coil 23 or the
main 4drive through >differenti-al units adapted to condi
supporting structures `at the opposite ends of the vacuum
tion the main drive, to move the spindles at like known
chamber.
speeds when‘the associate drives are cle-energized and to
Each moving means 29 and 3d has a worm gear Si.
condition the main drive through either or both differen
iixedly mounted on its threaded shaft 32 and supported
tial units to drive the spindles at greater or slower speeds
by bearings SZ in the casing 39, and 53 in the housing
selectively to control the movement of the elongated body
38. A wor-m :3d 4is rotatably `mounted in each casing 39
of metal through the coil to create controlled variations
in the size of the-body of metal.
and interengages its respective worm gear 5l.
the following detailed description when considered in
conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
be connected to either a main drive or motor SS or a
Each
worm 5d is provided with a shaft 5S coupled at S6 to a
- Other objects and advantages will be apparent from 50
shaft 57. in the present illustration, the shafts 57 may
PÍG. l is `a side elevational view of a portion of the
apparatus including the main and associate drives;
FÍG. 2 is fa front elevational view of an upper portion
rapid return drive or motor '59 through their respective
clutches oli and 6i. Helical gears 62 mounted on the
shafts 57 are connected to helical gears 63 mounted on
shafts o4 of the output portions of clutches 6i. The
shafts 57 extend to and constitute the output shafts of
' FIG. 3 is a `front elevational view shown partially in
clutches
titi.
section of a lower portion of the apparatus;
At this point, it should be understood that suitable
FIG. 4 is a front elevation-al view of the structure
shown in 4_4 of FIG. 1 with theV associate drives 60 electrical circuits may be provided for the main and
return `drives 53 and 59 and that these circuits may have
removed;
the conventional electrical controls for the clutches 6%
FIG. 5 illustrates the necessary positioning of FIGS.
and 6l, which may be suitable magnetic clutches, so that
2, 3, and 4 to show the complete apparatus;
only one of the motors S8 and 59 may -be energized at
FIG. 6 is a schematic isometric lview of one of the dif
one time, that v/hen that motor is energized, its respec
ferential units; tan-d
65 tive clutch will be engaged and when that motor is de
FIGS. 7, 8, 9, and l0 are schematic illustrations of the
energized, its respective clutch will be dis-engaged. The
actions of «the apparatus for movement o-f »the elongated
rapid speed return drive or motor 59 has shafts o3 and
body of metal relative to the heating coil.
69 extending from opposite ends thereof -to the input
After FIGS. 2, 3, and 4 have been positioned to illus
trate Vthe complete apparatus, it will be noted that a cen 70 portions of their clutches 6l.
Attention is now directedto FlGS. l and 3 illustrating
tral portion of the apparatus includes a vacuum cham
ber Ztl» provided with a door 21 secured in place by clamps
the main drive or motor 58 having shafts 7o extending
of the apparatus;
M..
3,076,049
...7.
3
4
fromv opposite ends thereof, these shafts being connected
at 7G’ to input shafts 67 of differential units 71. The
differential units are identical With the exception that
move the chucks 25 and 26 in unison so that they will
carry out their separate functions of,l supporting the up
per and lower ends of the work with the ñoating Zone of
they extend in yopposite directions. The differential unit,
Shownlín» FIG. 6, illustrates the input shaft 67 extending
the work continuing as the work moves through the heat
ing coil 23.
As another example, ifeither or both associate drives
94 and 95 should rotate its cage of its respective differ
cage of the differential is composed of head portions 74
ential 71 in the opposite direction of the input shaft one
secured «together and' supported in their relative positions
revolution per minute, there will. be. 12 revolutions perk
by a plurality of rods or spindles 75. An output shaft 10 minute of thev output shaft 77 to every l() revolutions per
77 of-` the differential has a gear 7S, similar in size to
minute of the input shaft 67. In following this. example,
the gear 73, mounted on its inner end. A pair of gearsl
it is apparent that thede-energizatiou yof one of the associ
'79-` and Sil, mounted on Ia hollow shaft d1, is rotatably
ate power units 9d or 95 will causait to hold its differential
supported on one of the 4rods 75 >while another pair of
cage stationary while the other is rotating its differential
gears 82 and 83, mounted on a ho1low‘shaft84,’is rotat 15 cage one revolution per minute in the opposite direction
ably supported on another of the rods 7S.. The pairs of.>
ofits input shaft, to cause aY constant knowny variation in
throughv a hollow shaft 72' and into a cage of the dif
ferential where it has a gear 73’ mounted thereon. The
gears are positioned and maintained in these respective
the speeds ofl the‘moving'means 29 and'v 3h' to bringgabout
positions- so that gear 79 will interengage gear 73, gears:
a thinning,A result to the work.
86' and? 82 will «interengage‘ each'- other, and gear 83 will4
As> a further example; if either associate drive 94’01‘95
interengage the gear '78;` The- cage ñxedy to the hollowf 20 should cause rotation of- its- differential cage one revolu
shaft> 72 is under the control. of a beveled gear S5 which
is fixed' to the hollow shaft and interengagesu a beveled`
gear 8o. The output shafts 77 are> connected> through
shaft 77 would be only‘ßY revolutions percminute- as: com
'couplingsA 8Std-input shafts 90 of speed reducing units; 91.
pared to the l()- revolutions perminute,of~`itsinputr‘shaft'67.
tion per minute in thesan'xe’direction as the direction of
rotation of the input shaft,y the; rotationy o_f’the output
The beveledï gears S6. are mounted on output shafts 92- 25 This illustrates the possibility" of moving the4A> work at- a
of' speedy reducing units 93 of auxiliary drives'or motors
controlled slower rate when both associate drives-94 Vand
95 are moving their'differential'A cages at like speeds to
94;-and 95. The motors 94 and 95v are included inv cir
produce varied speeds of' longitudinal’movementr of the
eui'ts from line 916,Y through their individual switches< 97
'and 93. The switches, schematically illustrated in_FIG.
work throughthe‘ heatingîcoil, and if'one of the associate
l, are adapted to de-energ-ize either associate drive 94. or 30 drives should> be held de-energized to holdl its differential'
'95, to drive these motors simultaneously in like or reverse
cage stationary, while thel other associate'drive bringsl
directions andthrough the aid of additional controls,> such
about a slower drive for the output shaft 77, then there
as potentiometers 99' and 100, thespeeds of the associate
will result a broadening of the workl through thesucces
drives may bev identical or variable;`
'
sive iifoating zonesr moving through> the coil 33. Also,
Operation
35
these varying> speeds may bel accentuated by- the driving
of the motors in directionsl to cause faster results inv the
Through the controls of the associate drives 94 `and 95,
thinning and broadening actions. Regardless-of how the
lthe chucks 25. and 26 may be located relative to each
thinningv and broadening' actions are produced andE the
other irl the vacuum chamber so that after the cover 2,1 has
extremity of their variations, these changes occur gradu
been removed and the holding means or set screws- 27 and 40 ally during the slow advancementY ofthe ñoating-»zone-and
Èii have been loosened,the chucks may be moved relative
during anyone, any'number’ or all the repeated move
to each other to permit removal of areñned body ofmetal
ments of the body of metal through >the coil to prod-uce- a
241 and the insertion of another to be refined as illustrated,
refined body of metalv of a predeterminedl cross-sectional
for example, in FIG. l0. Through this or other suitable
contour throughout its length.
control means, the chucks 25 and 26 may bev moved to~- 45
It is to be understoodthat the above described arrange
ward each other during the mounting of a new work
ments' are, simply illustrative of they application of the
piece in the chucks and after the ends thereof in the
principlesv of the invention; Numerous other arrange
chucks, the chucks with the workpiece may be located at
ments may be readily devisedf by those> skilled in the art
the starting position shown in FIGS. 2 and 7.
which will embody the principles of the invention and
lf desired, during the first series of movements ofthe 50 fall’ within the spirit and scope thereof.
work through the coil in the feeding direction which,- in
What is claimed is:
Y 1. An apparatus> for zone refining an elongated body
the present instance, is upwardly, the control means may
be set at the speed desired. The upward or treating
of metal comprising an elongated vacuum chamber,
movement ofV the apparatus> through. the main. drive is
aligned chucks disposed in the vacuum chamber for
variable between .0001 and .0015 of an inch perV second 55 receiving opposing ends of -a body- of metal, means to
but is set at the selected speed. As the work moves rela
secure »the ends of the bodyof metal in the chucks, an
tive 'to the coil, there is produced a floating zone in the
induction heating coil mounted> in the vacuum chamber
work in the area of the coil where the metal in this area is
concentric with the body of metal, axially aligned spin
molten. and. is supported by surface tension. Therefore,
dles for the chucks extendingy through opposing ends of
if it is desirable4 to bring about thinning or broadening of 60 the vacuum and fixed to their respective chucks, separate
means to move the spindles with their chucks axially to
the contour of `the work or the bar of metal,l it is neces
sary that this be done in such a manner that the thinning
move the body of’ metal in one direction from a starting
or 4broadening effects may be produced by the minute con
position through the coil lat a predetermined speed, a for
trolling of varying speeds extending from the main drive
ward drive adapted forY connection with the separate
moving` means, and an energizable auxiliary drive opera
or motor 5,8 through to the worms 54, the worm gears 51,
tively connected intermediate the forward drive- and one
the threaded shafts 32, the internally threaded ele
of the moving means to vary the speed'of axial movement
ments 36„ the external sleeves 33, and back through the
of its spindle and chuck relative to the other spindle and
spindles 31 to the chucks 25 and 26. As an exam
ple, with the associate drives 94 and 95 de-energized,
chuck.
2. An apparatus according to claim l in which the
they will function to hold the cages of their differentials 70
operative connection between the` forward 4drive and the
71 stationary and, as a result, a setting of a control for
the main drive to bring about 10 revolutions per minute
one of the moving means is a differential through which
the speed of the moving means «dependson the energiza
of" the input shafts 67, will result in l0` revolutions of the
output shafts 77 and through. the speedr reducing units 9i,
theclutchesójtì `and onto the ,moving means 29 and 3i), to
tion and de-energization> of the auxiliary drive.
A3. An apparatusfor refining an elongated body of
3,076,049
5
6
metal comprising a vacuum chamber, an induction heat
9. An apparatus according to claim 8 in which a rapid
return drive is operable through clutch connections with
ing coil mounted at a starting position in the chamber,
a spindle extending into the chamber in axial alignment
the separate moving means when the clutch connections
with the coil, a chuck mounted on an inner end of the
for the main drive are rendered ineffective to rapidly re
spindle to receive one end of the body of metal, moving
turn the chucks to their starting positions.
10. An apparatus according to claim 8 in which the
main drive is a main motor having two shafts, differentials
having input shafts connected respectively to the shafts of
the main motor, output shafts operatively connected to
their respective separate moving means and cages having
means for the spindle to cause axial movement of the
body of metal relative to the coil, a main drive for the
moving means, a differential having an input shaft opera
tively connected to the main drive, an output shaft op
eratively connected to the moving means, a cage rotatable
axially of the shafts and intermediate gears movable
with the cage and operatively connecting the shafts, and
gears operatively connecting their input and output shafts,
and auxiliary motors operatively connected respectively to
an auxiliary drive operatively connected to -the cage of
the differential to control the effect of the main drive to
cause the moving means to move the spindle at variable
the cages of the differentials.
1l. An apparatus according to claim 10 in which means
is operable to cause de-energization ofthe auxiliary motors
speeds.
to cause them to hold the differential cages stationary so
that the speeds of the output shafts will equal the speeds
4. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which means
of the input shafts.
is adapted to cause the auxiliary drive to be inactive
12. An apparatus according to claim 10 in which means
to thereby hold the cradle against rotation so that the
output shaft will be driven at the same speed as the input 20 are operable to cause energization of the auxiliary motors
shaft.
to cause rotation of the cages to cause the output shafts
to be driven at faster speeds than the input shafts.
5. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which means
13. An apparatus according to claim l0 in which means
is adapted to cause the auxiliary drive to rotate the cage
are operable to cause energization of the auxiliary motors
in one direction so that the output shaft will be driven
ata faster speed than the speed of the input shaft.
to canse rotation of the cages to cause the output shafts
6. An apparatus according to claim 3 in which means
is adapted to cause the auxiliary drive to rotate 4the cage
in one direction so that the output shaft will be driven
at a slower speed than the speed of the input shaft.
7. An apparatus according to claim l in which a reverse 30
to be driven at slower speeds than the input shafts.
14. An apparatus according to claim 10 in which means
are operable to cause energization of one of the auxiliary
motors in a given direction to cause movement of its chuck
relative to the other chuck to cause variation in the thick
means when the forward is disconnected therefrom to
cause the spindles and chucks to return to their starting
positions with the body of metal at a more rapid rate of
ness of the body of metal.
15. An apparatus according to claim 1G in which means
are operable to cause energization of either auxiliary
motor in either reversible directions to cause advancement
35 of the chucks at predetermined variable speeds to control
8. An apparatus for zone reiining an elongated body of
predetermined variations in the thickness of the bar of
drive is adapted for connection with the separate moving
speed.
metal.
16. An apparatus according to claim 10 in which means
are actuable to energize the auxiliary motors at like and
chamber, aligned chucks for gripping opposing ends of the
body of metal aligned with the coil on opposing sides 4.0 variable speds to drive the output shafts at like and vari
able speeds to control the speeds of movement of the
thereof in the chamber, axially aligned spindles extending
metal comprising an elongated vacuum chamber, an in
duction heating coil mounted at a refining position in the
through opposing ends of the chamber land having their
chucks.
inner ends íixed .to their respective chucks, separate
means operable to move the spindles :axially with their
chucks from starting positions to move the body of metal
through the coil, a main drive adapted through clutch
connections with the sperate moving means to move the
17. An apparatus according to claim 10 in which each
auxiliary motor is provided with switch means to de
encrgize or energize in either direction, and means to vary
the speed of rotation of each auxiliary motor to vary the
speed of the differential cage and the output shaft thereof.
spindles axially simultaneously to keep the chucks spaced
the same distances apart during reñning of the body by
melting successive portions thereof during the intervals
they are located in the reñning position.
50
References Cited in the iile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,992,311
Keller _______________ __ July 11, 1961
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