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Патент USA US3076292

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Feb. 5, 1963
Filed Oct. 31, 1961
5 Sheets—Sheet 1
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Feb. 5, 1963
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Filed on. 31. 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Feb. 5, 1963
Filed Oct. 31. 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
FRANK 1/. Jun/£74
Feb. 5, 1963 '
Filed 001;’. 31, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
FRANK J 111K672
Feb. 5, 1963
Filed 001:. 51, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
FRANK J. ‘weer/1
United, States, Patent Q??cs
i’atented Feb.‘ 5,1963
4, showing a specifically dilferent form of spacer ele
ment and sleeve.
14 Claims. (Cl. 43-‘-‘—-9)
’ his invention ‘is related totwo companion applications
bearing the antenna as this application, Serial Nos. 154,
asa (Case A) and 146,537 (Case B), respeeuveiy, both
?led Qctober 20,1961. Those applications, and ‘this one,
concern the application of a‘ line to an edge of 'a net, such
largely in section, of the lower edge of a net, Showing a
‘runner Irii'odi?cat'io'n'aFlGURE 11 is an’ isometric view
or the same; FIGURE 12 is across-sectional view at the
line 12‘—12'of FIGURE 10; FIGURE 13 is anisonietric
view, of a ‘relaxed spacer element of this form; ‘and FIG
URE 14 is" an exploded isometric view of most parts of
15 the.) casino, omitting primarily the ‘sleeves.
_ , v
. 'FIGURE l5, is an ‘upper edge elevation-a1 view of astill
ponent, normally/‘include a (stranded steelcabrl'e core that
should he protected against wearby such hieahs as a
casinlg of rubber-like material or other wear-‘resistant ma
Case B shows a casing which closely embraces the
cable, and which, being of minimum frontal area, pro
FIGURE 10 is aneelvatjional view, with the casing
net, with no tendency to produce torsion in the line such
teria .
4, of a‘ further modi?ed form ‘or spacer element and
inanne'rlthat the line is aligned with the ‘edge bar of the
as would enwrap the netting about theline. Such lines,
whether a ground line which drags along the bottom, or
a ?oiatiline which ‘supports an upper edge of a net com,
FIGURE 8 is an exploded isometric view ‘of the as‘
serri-bly which in FIGURE 5 is shown fullyassernbled.
FIGURE 9 is an isometric‘view, similar to FIGURE
Frank J. Luketa, 5567 Greenwood Ave, Seattle‘, Wash.
Filed OCLBI‘, 1961, Set. Nth-149,007
further modi?cation, shown partly‘ in section; ‘FIGURE
16 is an isometric View of the same; FIGURE 17 is a
‘cross-section at Ith'eIliIneI 17_—'I1'7I of FIGURE 15; and
FIGURE 18 is an isometric view of the spacer element
Used in thisfdrm;
I A standard trawnet'is shown in FIGURE 1. It com
inklong lines, such as are employed
duces minimum of drag’. This is especially necessary
prises the codend 8 ‘closed at its after end and open at
added water drag of the lines is relatively‘ negligible.
wings apart at their forward ends by water reaction, ‘A
?oat line 99is secured along the upper edge of the wings
certain nets of
its‘ forward end to a funnelhll, from the forward edges
my invention._ In standard nets, on the contrary, the 25 of which extend wings 81. I The wings are connected by
corresponding lines are short, the twine size very heavy,
sweep lines to ‘the top and bottom of a door 7, towed
_by a towing‘ warp '70, and so oriented as tel-urge the
the net’s-me'shes
use, and toare
large to
be forcesphenceithe
It is advantageous, where such conditions prevail/to en~
large the diameter of the casing, and to thread it onto ‘the
cable by relative endwise movement. To facilitate this
the cable end is formed with‘a swaged-on terminal ?tting,
somewhat larger in diameter than the cable, and ‘certain
casing elements have enlarged bores to'pas's this teiminal
?tting‘. Other casing elements
be so related as the
cable, and to the elements of enlarged bore, that the lat;
ter are held properly spaced from the cable, and when
required, that the complemental elements, and the ele;
ments of enlarged bore also if need be, are heldIagairist
and across the upper bosom 80a, all of which is buoyed
up by ?oats 80b, and aground line 955 is secured along
the lower edge of the wings, and across the lower bosoni
800. It is with these lines 95 and 99'that thisinvention
is principally concerned, and with their protection and
their orientation relative to the wing panels and bosom
As has‘ been explained in the companion cases A and
B, lines such as the ground line 95, ‘or the ?oatsline 99,
must be attached to edge bars or points of netting panels,
81‘ for example, in such manner as to avoid torsional
rotation about the cable. Also, the‘ terminal element oh
force upon the line, such as would tend to enwrap the
the cable must be secured to a complemental ?tting to
line with the netting; and so would distort the ‘netting.
connect the line to other components of the trawl‘ner,
Cha?ng of any netting enwrapped about the ground line
and thev junction so effected must be protected against
would soon wear out the netting, requiring repair or
wear. Thereby allpa‘rts of the core are protected, and 45 replacement. Enwrapment of the netting about'the ?oat
if the complemental ?tting should become'worn, it can be
line is also to be avoided, for this will distort the netting,
readily replaced at small cost as can ‘casing elements,
and may foul the same with the ?oats. Means to align
and the cable core with its swaged terminals is continued
the lines along the edge of the netting are shown in case
in use inde?nitely. This produces large economies.
B, but it pertains primarily to long lines of nets'which
It is believed the above will indicate the general obi 50 employ
curtains of considerable length, free at their lower
jeets of this invention, and other and detailed objects will
than to standard nets which have relatively
be understood as this speci?catioii progresses.
short wings, and in such long lines the casing 'of the cable
Iii the accompanying drawings:
must“ be of minimum frontal area, and closely hugs the
FIGURE 1 is an isometric view of a standard trawl
net, of the type with which the present invention is‘ inl 55 cable. Here the short wings themselves are the principal
source of drag, and the casing about the cable‘need not
tended for use.
be as much reduced in diameter. The casing herein being
FIGURE/2 is an elevational view of the lower edge
of greater external diameter, permits the use of construc
of a net panel, showing part of a casing element and the
tions which are preferable from the standpoint of ease
terminal element in axial section.
I ‘
of assembly and disassembly, and from that of centraliza
FIGURE 3 is an isometric View of a resilient spacer 60 tion
of the cable within casing elements from which it is
element, suitable for use in this assembly, in relaxed con-'
spaced. This form of the invention also assures that the
edge bar will not be shortened where it is engaged by
FIGURE‘ 4 is an isometric exploded view of a'_ nart of a
hence that all meshes‘will be of equal extent, and
sleeve, and a spacer element in the closed position.
FIGURE 5 is an isometric view of the‘c‘omplete as-. 65 that the edge bar will be of equal length to all parallel
sembly, including in particular a terminal‘ele'ment, all
in positions of use.
The speci?c aligning means shown herein differs in
. .
I‘ FIGURE 6 ‘is an isometric View, somewhat as in FIG:
detail and constructionfrom that disclosed in case A
URE 4, but showing a modi?ed form of spacer‘- element
(which is also primarily/‘intended forstandard trawl nets),
for non-rotative engagement between the latter and the 70 and will be claimed ‘herein; It includes spacer elements
generally indicated by the numeral 3, each having a cable"
FIGURE 7 is an isometric View similar to FIGURE
encircling portion 30 and a radially directed arm 31
formed with a bore 32‘ parallel to the cable~receiving bore,
to encircle the edge bar of the netting, and to be aligned
with the corresponding bores of successive spacer ele
ments at intervals along the line 95. Sleeves 1 are inter
spersed between the spacer elements 3, each of a length
to locate the latter at multiples of the breadth of mesh
shown herein, over those shown in case A is that the edge
bar of the netting extends in a straight line, and need not
be drawn from the straight line to engage within aligning
notches, however short, which extend lengthwise of the
sleeves and spacer elements. Rather, the edge bar is
straight throughout its length, and there is no difference
in length between any net bars, such as would tend to
distort the net. Also, and differing from the forms of
case A, the ties 14a are located, in one version (see FIG
stranded wire cable 95a from the ends of the latter.
The spacer elements 3 are split along a plane common 10 URES 10 and 11), where there is no probability of their
dragging the bottom, and the spacers need not be reduced
to the axes of the cable 95a and the bore 32, and are made
diameter to protect ties that encircle the lower part
of somewhat flexible and wear-resistant material, such
of the spacer elements. The ties in this version encircle
as molded rubber, nylon or polypropylene, whereby when
only the upper part, the arm 31, and pass through trans
the cable 95a is entered within its cable-encircling bore
35 the two halves of the arm 31 can be drawn together 15 verse apertures 33 located intermediate the bores 32
and 35.
to engage the cable closely, and to close the bore 32 about
The form shown in FIGURES 10 to 14 is not greatly
the edge bar of the net 81. Ties 14a, encircling at least
different from those of the preceding ?gures, except in
the outer end of the arm 31 and the edge bar gripped
the sleeve elements of the casing. Here the external wear
squares-four or ?ve squares, for example, as shown.
They are threaded or otherwise mounted upon the
thereby, and in one version (see FIGURES l2 and 13)
resisting portion of each sleeve 1 may be circumferentially
passing through apertures 33 in the arm 31, transverse
continuous, but any space between its bore, which is large
to the spacer’s parallel bores, retain the spacer elements
enough to pass the terminal ?tting 95c, and the cable 95a
3 closed. The spacer elements preferably (in most cases)
is occupied by longitudinally split and ?exible ?llers 17
may be sufficiently free about the cable 95a and/or of
and by ?anged split ?llers 17a, which enter the bore of
material such as molded nylon, sufficiently low in friction
the sleeve 1 instead of the extensions 34. The spacers 3
to permit free rotation about the cable, but elements in
have no such extensions. If the ?anged ?llers 17a are
this version such as the inwardly directed points 13f
of molded nylon, and perhaps also the ?llers 17, the
(FIGURES 7 and 9) within the bore 35 are urged by
external sleeves 1 can rotate freely about them, and
the closing of the bore into engagement with the lays of
equalize wear round about sleeve 1. The spacers 3 may
the cable 95a, to prevent relative rotation.
also be rotatable about the cable 95a, in which case align
The spacer elements 3, in the forms of FIGURES 2 30 ment of the line is a result of its ability to rotate into
to 9, are formed with axially directed extensions 34 along
correct alignment as it hangs from the netting, or in a
the cable 95a, of an external diameter to ?t within the
?oat line, as the netting hangs from the same.
bore 15 of the sleeves 1. The sleeves may be permitted
The forms shown in FIGURES 15 to 18 resemble that
to rotate relative to the extensions 34, for the sleeves are
35 of FIGURES 10 to 14, except that the ?anged ?llers 17a
not connected to the netting, or rotation may be prevented
are not used, and a single long split ?ller 17b ?lls the
by axially interengaged splines 35a and grooves 16 (FIG
bore of the non-split external sleeve 1. The outstanding
URE 6). The cable 95a is of a diameter less than that
arms 31 of the longitudinally split spacer elements are re
of the bores 15, and the construction described insures
placed in spacers 3a by two pairs of cars 33a, one pair at
that the sleeves and the spacer elements remain in align 40 each side of a tie, spaced to straddle the net’s edge bar,
ment and are coaxial with the cable 95a, with the sleeves
and separated by a circumferential groove 34a wherein
spaced radially about the cable.
the ties 14a are received. The ties hold the spacer ele
The cable 95a is made of a length quite exactly corre
ments 3a closed about the cable, and hold the edge bar
sponding to the assembled length of the sleeves and
within the slots between paired ears 33a.
spacer elements, plus a sui?cient excess at the ends to
In most instances, the forms shown in FIGURES 10
allow the cable ends 97 to be removably anchored. Since
to 18 are preferred for use with conventional trawl nets.
the bore 15 is oversize with relation to the cable, a termi
It is desirable with such nets to provide casing elements
nal ?tting 950 is swagecl upon the ends of the cable,
which are rotatable or slidable relative to the cable. In
and is made su?iciently small to push or thread it through
this way it is possible to assure that wear about the an
successive sleeves. This ?tting 95c is squared or other 50 nular cross section of the sleeves will be uniform, and that
wise ?attened or formed at 95d for engagement by a
the overall resistance of the arrangement to the forward
wrench, and its tip is threaded at 95a to thread within the
movement of the ground line over the bottom during
bore of a complementally threaded anchor ?tting 97k
trawling will be kept to a minimum. Most signi?cantly,
by means of which the cable 95a is anchored to a sweep
where the casing elements are free to rotate and slide
line 96, for example, through a shackle 97a. A shackle 55 along the cable, it is possible to hang the net panels on
97b may also anchor a breast line 970 to the ?tting 97k.
the line without regard for netting alignment longitudinal
Inasmuch as the terminal ?tting 95c, and its ?ats 95d,
ly of the line, for the netting will align itself automatical
must be accessible to engage the line 95 with the anchor
1y under water stress during the trawling operation.
?tting 97k or to disengage it therefrom, it is clear that
Therefore, in these forms the present invention pro
some portion of the terminal ?tting 95c, and some part 00 vides for mounting the casing elements on the cable so as
of the length of the cable 95a will be exposed, and if
to be freely rotatable thereon. The split spacers 3 and 3a
wear occurs there the entire cable would have to be re
are sized to be freely rotatable on the cable and the sleeves
moved and discmded. This would be expensive in time,
labor and parts. To avoid any such possibility of wear,
?llers 17 and 17a. Moreover, by sizing the split ?llers
1 are similarly sized to be freely rotatable about the split
a split but ?exible sleeve 98 of wear-resistant material is 65 so that they will be longer than the sleeves and will ex
‘formed with a bore of a size to receive the ?tting 95c,
tend outside the ends of the bores therein to abut the
the extension 34, and of course the smaller cable 95a,
spacers and retain them in normally spaced relation to
and of a length to ?t snugly between the end of the last
the sleeves, the arrangement precludes the possibility that
spacer element 3 and the anchor ?tting 97k. After as
tension transmitted to the spacers by net under tow will
sembly of the line and anchor ?ttings the split sleeve 98 70 bind the sleeves and prevent their rotation. Instead, the
split ?llers bear any compressive forces transferred
through the spacers, while the sleeves remain free to
is ?tted as shown in ‘FIGURES 2 and 5 and tied together
at 93a. Now the cable and the ?tting 950 are wholly
enclosed and protected. The anchor ?tting 97k will wear,
rotate on them without enwrapping the spacers and net
but it is relatively inexpensive, and is easily replaced.
ting about the line. Furthermore, in these forms there
One advantage of the form of the spacer elements 76 are no extensions on the spacers, and they therefore may
be easily and rapidly replaced, in case of damage to
spacer element in engagement with the net wing, and
with the cable.
7. The combination of claim 1, further comprising
longitudinally-split ?ller sleeves engaged in each cover
sleeve bore between the cable and the respective sleeve.
8. The combination of claim 7, wherein the spacer
one or more of them, without the necessity for remov
ing other undamaged spacers from the cable at the same
time, such as by cutting their ties and Sliding them along
the cable with the other casing elements. If a sleeve is
damaged, it can be replaced with one of the split type,
which is then cemented along the split or secured with ties
elements and the cover sleeves are spaced from one an
depressed into circumferential grooves in the sleeve to
other longitudinally of the cable and each ?ller sleeve
engage it within the arrangement.
extends outside the ends of its respective cover sleeve
Reference has been made above to edge bars of the 10 bore into abutment with the adjacent spacer elements.
net’s wings and their engagement with elements of the
9. The combination of claim 8, wherein the end por
line. Instead of the netting edges being barecut, they
tions of each ?ller sleeve have ?anges thereon engaged
may be point-cut, or taper-cut. The present invention is
in the space between the respective cover sleeve and
still highly useful in either such case, for the spacers are
said adjacent spacer elements.
located at equal distances along the line, and it is easy 15 ‘10. The combination of claim '1, wherein the protective
to count the required number of points between spacers.
casing is rotatively mounted on the cable.
Thereby it is unlikely that the netting will be stretched
11. In combination with a trawl net wing and a line
in one part of its length, or crowded together in another
secured ‘along an edge thereof, said line including a cable
part; all parts will be connected at proper intervals.
of a given diameter, and a protective casing including a
Wherever reference is made herein to the edge bar of a 20 plurality of spacer elements located at regular intervals
net, the point-cut or taper-cut edge of the net is intended
along the cable, and a plurality of sleeves disposed about
to be included in that term.
the cable intermediate the spacer elements, each spacer
I claim as my invention:
element being formed with two parallel bores, one of a
1. In combination with a trawl net wing or the like, a
size to receive the cable, and the other of a size to receive
line for securement along the edge of said trawl net 25 the edge bar of the net’s wing, and the spacer element
wing, said line including a cable of given diameter, spacer
being split part-way from one end along a plane common
elements split longitudinally to ?t upon said cable at
to the two parallel bores, and a tie embracing at least
given intervals in its length, and having means spaced
part of the spacer element’s split end, to retain the spacer
radially of the cable to engage an- edge bar of the wing,
element in engagement with the cable and with the wing’s
cover sleeves of continuous annular form in cross section,
edge bar.
each with a bore larger than the given diameter of the
12. The combination of claim 1d, wherein the spacer
cable, ?tted thereon intermediate the spacer elements, to
de?ne collectively a protective casing which stops short
element is split inwardly from its edge-bar engaging
end, and is also formed with a bore transverse to its
of the cable’s end, a terminal ?tting secured on such end
parallel bores, and intermediate the same, the tie passing
of the cable, and of a diameter to thread through the 35 through said transverse bore and encircling the split end.
sleeves’ bores, an anchor ?tting for securement of said
.13. ‘In combination with a trawl net wing or the like
terminal ?tting, a split sleeve enclosing the terminal ?tting
and a line secured along an edge thereof, said line in
and the end of the line, and abutting the terminal ?tting,
cluding a cable of a given diameter, and a protective
to ?ll the gap between the last casing element and the
casing including a plurality of spacer elements distributed
anchor ?tting, and ties enwrapping said split sleeve and
the edge~bar-engaging means of the spacer elements.
2. The combination of claim 1, wherein the spacer
elements are formed with extensions longitudinally of
the cable, of a size to ?t within the ends of the bores of
the intermediate sleeves, and to retain the latter equi
distantly spaced from the cable.
3. The combination of claim 2, wherein the spacer
elements each have means on the wall of the bore therein
at regular intervals along the cable, and a plurality of
sleeves disposed about the cable intermediate the spacer
elements, each spacer element being split longitudinally
along one side to ?t ‘about the cable, and being formed
with means cngageable at opposite sides of the net’s edge
to align the line with such edge, and a tie encircling at
least part of each spacer element and the net’s edge, to
retain the split spacer element closed and tied to the
to interengage with the ‘cable and prevent rotation of
14. The combination of claim 13, wherein each spacer
the respective spacer element relative to the cable.
50 element is formed with two pairs of cars spaced at op
4. The combination of claim 3, wherein the spacer
posite sides of the net to receive the edge thereof between
elements and the intermediate sleeves are complemen
and a circumferential groove spacing the pairs
tally formed for interengagement to prevent their relative
apart in the longitudinal direction, and the tie lying in
such circumferential groove, to retain the spacer element
5. The combination of claim 2, wherein the extensions 55 closed about the cable and tied to the edge bar of the
are of a low-friction material, whereby the intermediate
sleeves may rotate thereab-out.
6. The combination of claim 1, wherein each spacer
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
element is formed with two substantially parallel bores,
and is split along a plane common to said bores, one 60
bore being of a size to enclose the cable, and the other
Shigaki ______________ __ June 19, 1951
to receive the edge bar of the net wing, each spacer ele
Leckie _______________ __ July 14, 1959‘
ment having also a bore transversely of and intermediate
its parallel bores, and a tie received in said transverse
bore and encircling the net’s edge bar, to retain the 66
Sweden ______________ .._ Jan. 24, 1956
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