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Патент USA US3076326

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Feb- 5» 1963
R. c. scHLlcHTIG
3,076,316
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July 15. 1960
'I Sheets-Sheet 1
ATTORNEY
Feb. 5, 1963
3,076,316
R. c. scHLlcHTlG
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July l5, 1960
7 Sheets-Sheet. 2
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Feb. 5, 1963
R. c. scHLlcHTIG
3,076,316
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
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Filed July 15, 1960
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Feb. 5, 1963
3,076,316
R. c. scHLlcHTlG
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July l5, 1960
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Feb. 5, 1963
3,076,316
R. C. SCHLICHTIG
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July l5. 1960
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3,076,313
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July l5, 1960
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Feb. 5, 1963
R. c. scHLlcHTIG
3,076,316
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
Filed July l5, 1960
7 Sheets-Sheet 7
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United Safe# Patent
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3,076,316
Pate-nied- Felf. y5f, lees
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from theY exhaust gas of a steam engine or internal com
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bustion engine. It may do this by functioning as a super
.
REVERSIBLE HEAT ENGINES
v
Ralph C. Schlichtig, 11212 3rd S., Seattle `88, Wash.
Filed July 15, 1960, Ser. No. 43,179
8 Claims. (Cl. 60-59)
'This invention relates to a lnew and improved heat
engine which utilizes gas as the main thermodynamic
charger.
,
Other objects of this invention will become apparentwhen taken in ’conjunction with the accompanying draw
ings in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a heat engine emb‘ody-.
ing teachings of this invention and in which means is`
provided for recovering mechanical power by the evapo-A
substance, and which is so devised that it will function
with low grade heat and with small temperature diifer-vv 10 ration of a liquid in the presence of enclosed Agas which.
entials.
may be at a temperature considerably below the boiling
v The subject application is a continuation-impart appli
pointoli the associated liquid;
cation of application Serial Number 829,905, now aban
FIG. 2 is an isometric view of the heat engine shown
doned, entitled Reversible Heat Engines, tiled July 27,
1959, by Ralph C. Schlichtig, the applicant in the subject 15
application.
,
As is well known, conventional steam engines utilize
saturated or superheated steam as the working substance.
in FIG. l;
,
t
FIG. 3 >is a cross section view of the heat engine shown‘
in FIG. 2 taken along the lines 3_3;
l
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an internal chemical.
reactant heat engineembodyin‘g still further teachingsy
However, this has certain disadvantages. For instance,
of this invention and in which meansis provided for ob
the temperature of the steam boiler must be above the 20 taining power by internal heat from chemical action such>
normal boiling point of water, thus requiring a relatively
as combustion or chemical absorption. It also represents
high grade of heat. In addition, conventional steam en
a supercharger engine combination in which the sealed
gines in order to obtain high eiiiciency must utilize a
enclosure is the combustion chamber of a conventional
condenser. In operation, this condenser must be evacu
heat engine.
j
_
p
f ,
ated of air at all times, a condition oftentimes diñicult 25
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a heat engine „em-~
to maintain. Further, the normal steam engine operates
abodying still Vother teachings of this invention and in
at relatively high pressures and temperatures, thus re
which means is provided for obtaining power by cooling
quiring high> strength components and good insulation.
or ,dehydrating air by use _of a heat exchanger.
This makes it extremely costly .to construct a steam engine
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a heat engine errr
which will operate from salt water.`
30 bodying other teachings of _this inventionv and in which
Heat engines using air as a working substance have
means is provided for developing power by _cooling >hot
been built with the usual disadvantage of being very
air by either evaporation and/or gas-to-liquid heat
bulky. Their eliiciency is usually so low that successful
operation requires that heat be supplied at high tempera#
FIGS. 7A and 7B are enlarged views of the venturi
tures. Such prior art heat engines usually have the ad-` 35 pressure inverter interconnecting member shown in FIGS.:
ditional problem of lubrieation because of sliding parts.
1, 3 and 4 in which ¿the flow of gas through th'e mern‘-`
Attempts have been made to build heat engines with
ber and the manner in which back ilow is prevented is
transfer.
large air handling capacity through employment of rotors
with fixed vanes and in which pressure recovery has
l
x
p,
,
illustrated;
__
_
A
FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating the> effectiveness of the
been attempted by means of a plurality of equalizer tubes 40 pressure recovery when using a venturi pressure Iinverter
interconnecting successive high pressure intervanes com
connector as illustratedin FIGS, ,7AM and` 7B when ap?
partments with successsive low pressures intervane com
plied to the apparatus shown in FIGS. l through 6, and
partments. However, an equalizer tube will not recover
FIGS. 9A and 9B are enlarged section views illustrata
in excess of iifty percent of the pressure energy if there
ing the venturi pressure inverter interconnecting member
are no leakage or friction losses. In practice, an in 45 shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, as seen from the interconnecting
crease in the numberl of these prior art equalizer tubes
pressure inverter side, and associated components which
requires a multiplication of time for rotation of the rotor
are similar to those of FIGS. 1 through 3, as well -as the
by the number of equalizer tubes used. This results in a
cycle of pressure inversion.
proportional increase in machine bulkiness and in vol-
Referring to FIGS. l through 3 thereisshown a heat
ume leakage, so that leakage becomes a predominate loss. 50 engine 10 in which means is provided for> recovering
In accordance with one of the teachings of this invention
the provision of a single pressure inverter tube eliminates
this difficulty.
mechanical power by thel evaporationY of a liquid 11 in
the presence of enclosed gas at moderate temperature.
As will be explained more> clearly hereinafter, ythe liquid
Therefore, an object of this invention is to provide in
11 may be heated water, liquid fuel, or liquid chemical
a gas type heat engine, operating with small differences 55
inthe tempertaure of the gas', means for handling large
In general, the heat engine 10 comprises a rotor housing
volumes of gas with a minimum of leakage and friction
12 having consecutively a closed first sector portion 14
losses, to thereby obtain a maximum of useful power.
which is the closed portion of the housing 12 shown at
Another object of this invention is to provide ina heat
the right in FIG. 1, `an open second sector portion 16
engine means tor recovering mechanical power by the 60 which is the open portionof the housing 12> shown at >the
evaporation of a liquid in the presence of an unsaturated
bottom in FIG. 1, a closed third sector portion 18 which is
enclosed gas which may beat a temperature considar
the closed portion of _the housing 12 at the left in'FIG. l4
ably below the normal boiling point of the associated
and which is oppositely disposed from the iirst closed „sec
liquid.
p
»
tor portion 14, and an open fourth sector portion 20 which
A further object of this invention is to provide a heat 65 is the open portion of the housing 12 shown at the 'to‘p
engine which can successfully operate by evaporating
in FIG. 1. `The rotor housing 12 is disposed a?onnd a
absorbent.
salt water.
l
_
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p
` rotor 22 having a hub 24 and a plurality of equally spaced-Á
Still another object of this invention is to provide an
vanes 26, which are fixed to the hub 24 and extended ra
internal heat engine which can utilize wet or otherwise
dially out therefrom so that there are at all times at:
70 least two of the vanes 26 in each of the four sector por;
poor quality solid fuel or a chemical heat source.
Still another object of >this invention is to recover power Y, tions 14, 16, 18 and 20. Thus, the sector portions 14,v
8,076,316
16, 18 and 20 combined represent the volume swept out
A
taneously enable adiabatic compression of the gas dis
by one of the vanes 26 upon one revolution of the rotor
posed Within the incoming intervane compartments 28,
22.
29 and 30, port 76 is provided in the rotor housing 12
at the oppositely disposed closed first sector portion 14.
In accordance with this invention, an interconnecting
pressure inverter member 72, constructed in the form of
3
In practice, the rotor 22 and the associated parts are
so constructed as to have a minimum of transfer of heat
between the rotor 22 and the associated gas. The housing
12 is so disposed around the rotor 22 as to be in close
proximity to all of the peripheral edges of the vanes 26
`a unidirectional venturi is interconnected between the
as they come into the ñrst and third sector portions 14
ports 68 and 70. As illustrated, the eccentric intake sec
and 18, respectively, of the rotor housing 12, to thus suc
tion 74, of the member 72, converges eccentrically with
cessively establish isolated incoming intervane compart 10 respect to the port 68 into a central section 79. In prac
ments 28, 29 and 30 and outgoing intervane compart
tice, the intake section 74, of the member 72, is suitably
sealed to the rotor housing 12 so as to prevent the leak
ments 34, 35 and 36. By close proximity to all of the
age of gas from the outgoing intervane compartments 34,
outer edges of the vanes 26 it is meant a very few thou
35 and 36 to ambient space.
sandths of an inch clearance.
The outgoing discharge section 80 of the member 72,
In order to discharge the changed gas contained with 15
is highly streamlined and is suitably sealed to the rotor
in the outgoing intervane compartments 34, 35 and 36
housing 12 so as to permit the recovery of kinetic energy
to ambient space and in order to obtain a new charge
of gas from the ambient space, an ambient manifold 38
of the gas ñowing throuugh the interconnecting member
is connected to the open fourth sector portion 20 of the
72 as pressure energy, to thus effect adiabatic compres
rotor housing 12. In particular, the ambient manifold 20 sion of gas within the incoming intervane compartments
28, 29 and 30.
More than one pressure inverter member, such as the
gas from the outgoing intervane compartments 34, 35
member 72, may be used in parallel if they interconnect
and 36, and a pair of intake ducts 42 for receiving a new
identical intervane compartments and function simul
charge of gas from the ambient space and directing it
into the intervane compartments 43, 44 and 45 of the 25 taneously as a single pressure inverter member.
38 comprises a scroll case 40 for deflecting the changed
rotor 22.
Port cover tabs or closing members 82 are suitably se
cured to an edge of each of the vanes 26 in order to si
For the purpose of precooling the ambient gas received
multaneously cover and effectively seal the ports 6€“, and
from the ambient space before it passes into the inter
70 and prevent direct passage of gas from adjacent inter
vane compartments 43, 44 and 45, a precooler 46 is dis
posed at the receiving end of each of the intake ducts 30 vane compartments during the time that vanes 26 are
passing over the ports 68 and 70.
42. As shown, the precooler 46 comprises a coil 47 for
The cycle of operation of the heat engine 10 as illus
receiving coolant and radiating fins 48 attached to the
trated in FIGS. 1 through 3 will now be described as
coil 47 for absorbing and transferring heat. However,
suming the liquid 11 is heated Water. Air from ambient
it is to be understood that other types of precooling de
vices (not shown) could be substituted for the precooler 35 space passes over the precooler 46 where its density is
increased by cooling. This air of increased density then
46.
passes through both of the intake ducts 42 and enters the
A sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50 is suitably con
intervane compartments 43, 44 and 45 through an open
nected to the rotor housing 12 at the open second sec
ing 88, thus replacing the air already present in the inter
tor portion 16 in order to provide a pressure isolated en
closure for receiving the gas from the incoming intervane 40 vane compartments 43, 44 and 45. The replaced air is
removed from the intervane compartments 43, 44 and 45
compartments 28, 29 and 30. For the purpose of provid
by virtue of the increasing radius of the deflecting scroll
ing evaporating surfaces 51 for the liquid 11 received from
case 4t) which compels the air to follow its expanding
a spray device 52, a heat exchanger 54 is disposed within
contour. Upon clockwise rotation of the rotor 22 by
and suitably secured to the enclosure 5G. In practice,
the heat exchanger 54 may be constructed from inert ma 45 means of the motor 66, the air of increased density is
carried by the rot-or 22 until it is discharged into the
terial such as stone. On the other hand, in order to
sealed heat exchanger enclosure 5t) by the action of the
deflect the gas received from the incoming intervane com
deñecting scroll case 56. The dellected gas of increased
partments 28, 29 and 30 onto the evaporating surfaces
density then impinges upon the evaporating surfaces 51
51, a deflecting scroll case 56 is suitably secured to the
rotor housing 12 and positioned as shown. A sump and 50 where its pressure-volume product is increased by receiv
ing water Vapor from the heated water 11 and its tempera
trap 57 is so connected to the enclosure 50 that it receives
ture is raised by the heat from the heated water 11. The
surplus liquid from within the enclosure 50 without per
evaporator surfaces 51 are kept supplied with heat and
mitting gas to escape or enter the enclosure 50. Heat is
moisture by means yof the spray device 52 which di
supplied to the gas within the enclosure 50 by latent heat
of the liquid from the spray device 52.
55 rects the heated water onto the evaporator surfaces 5l.
Excess water is allowed to escape through the sump and
As illustrated, an air motor 58 is suitably secured to
trap 57.
the enclosure 50 by means of an air duct 60 having a
A portion of the gas of increased pressure then ilows
passageway 62 which is in communication with the in
through the intake openings 96 into the intervane com
terior of the enclosure 50 so that the air motor 58 is
responsive to the pressure difference between ambient 60 partments 92, 94 and 96, to thus replace in equal vol
ume the gas of increased density that had been previously
space and the space within the enclosure 50. However,
discharged into the enclosure from the intervane com
it is to be understood that other suitable conventional air
partments. With the butterñy valve 63 open as shown
motors (not shown) could be substituted for the air mo
in FIG. l of the drawings, the remaining portion of ex
tor 58. As shown, a buttertly valve 63 is disposed with
in the passageway 62 and functions to control the flow 65 panded gas of increased pressure flows through the pas
sageway 62, to thus effect a rotation of the air motor 58,
of air or gas through the passageway 62. A dynamo-elec
which in turn may drive a dynamo-electric machine 64
tric machine or generator 64 may be mechanically con
nected to the air motor 58 as shown as a means of trans
or any other useful load.
The output power from the
dynamo-electric machine 64 can be utilized to energize
mitting power to a load (not shown). In practice, part
of the power output from the air motor 58 may be 70 the motor 66, the excess power being utilized to energize
utilized to drive the rotor 22.
other useful loads (not shown).
-In order to enable adiabatic expansion of the gas dis
Upon further rotation of the rotor 22 in the clockwise
posed within the outgoing intervane compartments 34, 35
direction, the gas of increased pressure disposed within
and 36, a port 68 is disposed in the closed third sector
the intervane compartments 92, 94 and 96, is carried
portion 1S of the rotor housing 12. In order to simul 75 upwards until said gas within the intervane compartment
n
5
¿eresie
92 comes into the space corresponding to the outgoing
intervane compartment 35 and in communication with
the port 68, at which time a portion of this gas of in
creased pressure ‘enters the port 68 and is accelerated as
it enters the central section 79. Thus the pressure en
ergy of gas leaving the port 68 is converted into kinetic
.
.
6
.
Y
partment is bounded bythe hub 24, the rotor housing
12 'and vanes 26C and 26D which carry closing members
82C and 82D, respectively. It is to be noted that since
FIGS. 9A .and 9B illustrate the apparatus when viewed
from` the interconnecting mem-ber side, the ¿direction of
rotation -of Vthe hub 24 and associated vanes 26A, 26B,
energy in the central section 79, of the interconnecting
26C and 26D is ‘opopsite to that shown in FIG. l in
member 72. As this portion of gas passing through the
which the apparatus is viewed from the side opposite the
central section 79 enters the diverging outgoing discharge
interconnecting member 72.
:section 80 (as shown in FIG. 7A), the kinetic energy 10
Referring to FIG. 9A, the íirs't half of the pressure in
is .again converted into pressure energy to raise the pres
sure of air in the incoming intervane compartment 29.
Therefore, the gas within the outgoing intervane com
ru
ver-sion cycle begins as closing members 82A and 82C
uncover ports.68 and 70, respectively, thus placingrthe
outgoing intervane compartment defined by vanes 26A
partrnent 35 undergoes adiabatic expansion to produce
and 26B in communication with the incoming intervane
.adiabatic compression of the gas in the incoming inter 15 compartment defined by vanes 26C and 26D by way of
vane compartment 29. In practice, the pressure inverter
the interconnecting member 72. The close spacing of
member 72 is designed large enough so that the adiabatic
circular dots m at the outgoing intervane compartment
inversion of pressure between the gas inthe outgoing
end of the interconnecting member 72 illustrates that the
intervane compartment 35 and the gas in the incoming
air is more compressed here 4than at the incoming inter;
intervane compartment 29 will take place completely 20 vane compartment end where the circular dots m are
within the time that the incoming intervane compart
farther spaced. Each circular d-ot m represents a unit
nient 29 is in communication with the port 70. Dur
mass of air. As the air pressure as illustrated is greater
ing the first half of this pressure-inversion cycle the pres
at port 68 than lat port 70, there is a force acting on each
sure of the gas in the outgoing intervane compartment
mass m of air in the interconnecting member 72. These
35 is greater than the gas disposed within the incoming 25 forces are shown as acting on each mass m of airu by
intervane compartment 29. The pressure difference
respective arrows directed toward the circular dots. The
causes the kinetic energy of the gas flowing in the cen
air ‘masses m are thus accelerated in the direction of the
tral section 79 to increase. Thus, at the middle of the
forces until a maximum velocity is reached at the ymiddlel
.pressure-inversion cycle the pressure of the gas disposed
of the pressure-inversion cycle. The time of a‘half-cycle
within the incoming intervane compartment 29 becomes 30 is short so that Ionly a limited amount of air leaves the
'substantially equal to the pressure of the gas disposed
interconnecting member 72 at port 70. But any mass
within the outgoing intervane compartment 35. Then
before so leaving the interconnecting member 72 must
during the second half of the pressure-inversion cycle
transfer its kinetic energy to the remaining air in the
the inertia of the gas Within the central section 79 of
central section 79 of the interconnecting member 72 by
ythe pressure inverter member 72 causes gas to continue 35 being decelerated by the divergence of the outgoing di
to iiow from the outgoing intervane compartment 3S
vergent discharge section 80. This is the well known
to the incoming intervane compartment 29 even though
venturi action. By the middle of the pressure inversion
the pressure of the gas disposed ‘within the outgoing in
cycle the air pressure of the interconnected intervane
tervane compartment 35 becomes lower »than the pressure
compartments has reached equilibrium and the forces on
of the gas disposed within the incoming intervane com 40 the air masses within the central section 79 have decreased
partment 29 due to overshooting. After. the completion
to zero. But by this time the masses m in the central
of the pressure-inversion cycle, the tlow of any substan
section 79 of the interconnecting member 72 have reached
tial gas in the reverse direction through the pressure in
maximum velocity and thus maximum kinetic energy. p
verter member 72 toward the port 68 is prevented by the
FIG. 9B illustrates the second half of the .pressure in
Cyclonic eiîect in the eccentric intake 74 of the pressure 45 version cycle. Here the ,air masses `m in the central
inverter member 72. This blocking action can be seen
section 79 of the interconnecting member are being decel
form FIG. 7B. If it is assumed that a small amount of
erated. Their inertia then cause them, to Ñ.exert forces'
gas after the completion of the pressure-inversion cycle
against the air between them and port 70. These forces
does go backwards in the> direction from right to left,
_that the air masses m exert are shown by arrows lead
as shown, then gas in the eccentric intake section 74 ro 50 ing from each circular dot m. The total force due' to the
tatescyclonically las shown in FIG. 7B. Asv gas moves
from the periphery of the rotating mass into the center
to enter the port 68, conservation of angular momentum
demands a rotation of much higher speed as in the case
inertia and kinetic energy of the air masses m in the in
terconnecting member results in compressing the air in
the. incoming intervane compartment defined by vanes
26C `and 26D while the -air pressure is reduced in the
of cyclones. The high angular :speed of rotation sets up
outgoing intervane compartment defined by vanes 26A
a centrifugal reaction which prevents gas from tiowing
into the center and out through the port 68.
The gas which was increased in density by the pre
and ,26B until all the stored energy of the air mass in the
interconnecting member 72 is expended at the close of
the cycle. ` At the close of the cycle the ports 68 and
70 are closed by the closing members `82B and 82D, r`e-'
cooler 46 is thus further increased in density and in’pres
sure by action of the pressure inverter member 72 and 60
this gas of further increased density within the incoming
intervane compartment 29 is carried down, upon fur
spectively.
As the gas of further increased density is carrieddown
and discharged into the sealed heat exchanger enclosure
ther rotation of the rotor 22, and discharged into the
50,_ and gas of increased pressure is carried by the rotor
Sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50. VThe pressure-vol
2_2 until it comes into communication with the port 68,
-time product of the gas within the sealed heat exchanger 65 the above described action is repeated. The remaining
enclosure 50 is thus conserved.
i
gas which does not pass into the port 68 is carried up#
FIGS. 9A and 9B, relative to apparatus similar to that
ward and is discharged out through the radially diverg
‘Shown in FIGS. l through 3, fur-ther illustrate the cycle
ing scroll case 40 toambient space,
L
of pressure inversion hereinbefore described when the in
In practice, the heat engine »10 is so constructed and
terconnecting member 72 is in communication with `one 70 the rotor 22 .is driven at such `a speed that the hereinbe
pair of intervane compartments. As can be seen from
fore described pressure~inversion cycle can be completed
FIGS. 9AV and 9B the outgoing intervane compartment
in the time of passage of one' intervane compartment, of
is bounded by the hub 24, the rotor housing 12 and
the rotor 22, from one position to the adjacent position.
vanes 26A and 26Br which carry closing members 82A
The precooling heat exchange 46 may be omitted with`
an'd 82B, respectively, while the incoming intervane com 75 some loss of power.
3,076,316
8
In operation, if the liquid 11 is a liquid fuel, the same
cycle of operation takes place as hereinbefore described
ical absorbent, enters the reaction chamber 98 by means
of the air lock 101 and flows past the valves 103 and 105
with reference to FIGS. 1 through 3 when the> liquid was
which are opened only one at a time. Unconsumed solids
are disposed of through the lower air lock 105 housing
heated water, except that in the case of liquid fuel, heat
the two valves 107 and 111 which are opened only one
of combustion of the liquid fuel 11 is the source of heat
at a time.
'
for increasing the temperature of the gas, specifically air,
The volume of modified gas in excess of the volume of
received into the enclosure 50 from the rotor 22. In the
case of the liquid 11 being liquid fuel, the heat exchanger
incoming gas received from the intervane compartments
92, 94- and 96 is transmitted outward through the passage
54 may be eliminate-d provided the liquid fuel 11 is suf
ficiently volatile. The greater part of the combustion l0 way 60 to their air motor 58 where power is developed
to drive the useful load 64.
products can be directed to leave the enclosure S0 by way
Upon further rotation of the rotor 22 in a clockwise
of the air motor 58.
In operation, if the liquid 11 is a liquid chemical ab
direction, the modified gas from within the sealed en
closure 98 enters the intervane compartments 92, 94 and
sorbent such as calcium-chloride solution which liberates
96, through the openings 90, to replace the compressed
heat when absorbing water vapor from the air passing
ambient gas being discharged into the sealed enclosure 98.
through the enclos-ure 50, the same cycle of operation
takes place as hereinbefore described with reference to
The modified gas within the intervane compartments 92,
FIGURES 1 through 3 when the liquid 11 was heated
94 and 96 is then carried upward, as shown, until it comes
into communication with the port 68 at which time the
water, except that in the case of liquid chemical absorbent
gas that comes into the enclosure 50 from the rotor 22 20 modified gas is adiabatically expanded.
Beginning at the instant port cover tab 82 passes from
contains a gaseous or vapor component soluble in the
liquid absorbent 11 and such that heat is liberated in the
over port 68, a portion of the modified gas Within in
tervane compartment 35 moves at high velocity through
process of absorption. The resulting liquid containing the
the central section 79 of the interconnecting member 72.
absorbed gas is removed through the trap 57. Here as
The inertia of the gas carries it onward past the stage at
in the previous case', the precooler 46 may be omitted
which the pressure within the intervane compartments 35
and 29 are equal. Thus the gas within the intervane com
FIGURE 4 illustrates another embodiment of the teach
partment 29 is adiabatically compressed.
ings of this invention in which power is derived by ex
Referring to FIG. 5 there is illustrated still another
pansion of gas within a confined space Where expansion
is caused by combustion of a solid reactant 97 within the 30 embodiment of this invention in which like components
of FIGS. 1 through 3 and FIG. 5 have been given the
`same confined space, and from which surplus heat can
same reference characters. The main distinction between
be withdrawn for other useful purposes. A heat exchanger
99 illustrates a typical means of removing surplus heat
the apparatus of FIGS. 1 through 3 and FIG. 5 is that in
the apparatus of FIG. 5 vacuum is maintained in the en
to generate steam within the exchanger. However, other
means (not shown) could be substituted for the heat eX 35 closure 50 by a heat exchanger 112 having cold water
running therethrough to cool the air within the enclosure
changer 99 in order to remove surplus heat from within
the confined space. An entire sealed reaction chamber
50. Also the pressure inverter member 72 is reversed
from that shown in FIG. l
and heat exchanger enclosure 98 may be the combustion
Specifically, in operation heated and/or vapor laden
chamber of a conventional heat engine (not shown). The
air passes into the intervane compartments 43, 44 and 45
reactant 97 may be either a solid fuel or a chemical ab
through intake ducts 42 to replace outgoing cool dehy
sorbent which liberates heat while absorbing a component
of the gas circulated by rotor 22. Like components of
drated air previously disposed within the intervane com
FIGURES l through 4 have been given the same refer
partments 43, 44 and 45. Upon rotation of the rotor 22
in the clockwise direction the vapor laden air within the
ence characters.
Specifically in operation gas from ambient space passes 45 intervane compartments 43, 44 and 45 is successively adi
into intake ducts 42 and intervane compartments 43, 44
abatically expanded as it comes into communication with
and 45 through opening 88. This gas replaces the heated
the port 70 and a portion of this vapor laden air flows
and modified gases previously disposed within the in
through the pressure inverter member 72 to successively
produce adiabatic compression of the outgoing dry air
tervane compartments 43, 44 and 45. The modified gases
are subsequently discharged to ambient space by the ac 50 disposed within the outgoing intervane compartments 34,
tion of the rotor 22 and the influence of the radially ex
35 and 36 as hereinbefore explained.
panding deflecting scroll case 40. The fresh ambient gas
The adiabatically expanded heated and/ or vapor laden
disposed within the intervane compartments 43, 44 and
air is carried by the rotor 22 and is discharged into the
45, upon rotation of the rotor 22 in a clockwise direction,
sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50, where it is deflected
is carried downward until the gas within the intervane 55 over the heat exchanger 112, to thus condense water va
compartment 45 comes into the position of the incoming
por from the air if the air is vapor laden and decrease the
intervane compartment 29 and into communication with
volume of air by cooling it. The condensed water is
the port 70, at which time it is adiabatically compressed.
drained off through the sump and trap 57. The reduc
As the gas carried downward by action of rotor 22 is
tion in pressure-volume product maintains a reduced pres
removed from the intervane compartments 92, 94 and 96 60 sure within the sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50 and
it is deñe'cted into the sealed reaction chamber and heat
produces a. condition in which power is derived by the
exchanger enclosure 98 by the diverging scroll case 56.
flow of ambient air into the sealed heat exchanger en
Here reaction between the reactant 97 and the gas within
closure 50 through the air motor 58. Of course, if the
the enclosure 98 takes place with resulting heating and
air discharged into the enclosure by the rotor 22 is only
expansion of the modified gas under increased pressure. 65 heated air and not vapor laden the decrease in pressure
This latter reaction may be an absorption process such
volume product is due to primarily the cooling of the
as silica-gel absorbing water vapor or a normal combus
heated air within the enclosure ‘50.
tion process, depending upon whether the reactant 97 is
The cooled and dehydrated air within the sealed heat
a chemical absorbant or a combustible fuel. Excess heat,
exchanger enclosure 50 is then carried by the rotor 22
due to the reaction, that is more than necessary to heat 70 until it comes into communication with the port 68 where
the air is removed by means of the heat exchanger 99,
its pressure is restored adiabatically. The air of restored
which can be a water boiler tube having therein water
pressure upon further rotation of the rotor 22 by the
that in operation of the heat engine of FIG. 4 is converted
motor 66, is discharged to ambient space through the
to steam.
deñecting scroll case 40.
The reactant 97, which may be -a solid fuel or a chem
FÍGURE 6 illustrates a heat engine 114 which func
with some resulting loss of power.
3,016,316
10
tions yto deliver power by virtue of vacuum produced by
ing at small temperature differences between the source
chilling air within the sealed enclosure 50 by a heat cx
and the sink. In addition, it is possible to recover the
change liquid 116. The main distinction between the heat
free energy of dry air by evaporation of water. The
engines illustrated by FIGURES 5 and 6 is in the arrange
free energy can be defined as
ment for cooling the air within the enclosure 50. Like
components of FIG. 6 and FIGS. 1 through 3 have been
LIU
7
given the same reference characters.
In operation, hot or vapor laden air is drawn through
Whelre
the intake ducts 42 into the intervane compartments 43,
R is the gas constant
44 and 45, thus replacing the cooled air. Upon rotation 10 Hv is :the heat of vaporization of water, and
of the rotor 22 in the clockwise direction, the ambient air
R is the relative humidity of air before vapor is added
is carried downward past port 70 where adiabatic expan
to it.
sion takes place as previously described.
Further, since the vanes 26, of the rotor 22, are iixed
As the adiabatically expanded air is delivered into the
relative to the rotor hub 24 and do not touch the rotor
sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50, it is cooled by the 15 housing 12, no lubrication is required except for bear
heat exchange liquid 116 which is directed onto the evapo
ings. Also, considering -the size of the apparatus, a
rating surfaces 51. In the case the ambient air is heated
large volume of air or gas can be handled. Another
and dry, cooling and resulting volume and pressure de
:advantage is that apparatus constructed in accordance
crease takes place partly by evaporation. In the case
with this invention can operate at low pressure differ
the ambient air is vapor laden, volume and pressure re 20 entials between the atmosphere and the gas within the
-duction takes place 4by cooling the air and condensing
sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50 or 98.
vapor from it by heat removed by the specific heat ca
Since certain changes may be made in the a-bove de
pacity of the liquid 116. In either case the air motor 58
scribed apparatus and different embodiments of the in
is driven by ambient air flowing through the air motor
vention may be made without departing from the spirit
58 and the passageway 62 and into the reduced pressure 25 and scope thereof, it is lintended that all matter contained
space of enclosure 50 as in the previously described
in the above description or shown in the accompanying
operation for the apparatus of FIG. 5.
drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in
FIG. 8 illustrates test data taken from a heat engine
a limiting sense.
operating in accordance with the general features of this
I claim as my invention:
invention using a modestly streamlined, ten-inch-long by 30
one and one-quarter-inch diameter, pressure inverter ven
turi tube, (curve A) as compared with operation that
could theoretically have been possible with a cross pas~
1. In a heat engine using a mixture of gases as the
working substance, the combination comprising, a rotor
having a hub and a plurality of Vsubstantially equally
spaced vane-s fixed to said hub and extending radially out
therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive order
sage tube that would achieve perfect pressure equaliza
tion, (curve B). Curve C shows the cubic feet of gas 35 a closed first sector portion, an open second sector por
that would be lost per minute due to unreccvered com
tion, a closed third sector portion, and an open fourth
pression in the rotor of the same device illustrated by
sector portion which is disposed to receive gas from
curve A if there were no pressure inverter venturi tube
ambient space and discharge gas to ambient space, said
connected between outgoing and incoming intervane corn
rotor housing" being so disposed around said rotor as to
partments. Pressure tests were taken on a sealed heat 40 be in close proximity to all of the peripheral edges of
exchanger enclosure 50 when used with a ten vane rotor
said plurality of vanes as they in operation rotate into
having a displacement of 1.35 cubic feet per revolution.
The pressure in the sealed heat exchanger enclosure 50
said closed first sector portion and into said closed third
as an evacuating pump. It is seen by -the dip in the curve
A that the pressure inverter tube 72 functions to the best
advantage at a given speed range. -In practice, a pressure
ments in said closed third sector portion; a iirst port in
sector portion -to thus successively enclose incoming in
was maintained at 55 centimeters of Water on the meas
tervane compartments in said closed ñrst sector portion
uring manometer, by means of the air motor 58 acting 45 and successively enclose outgoing intervane compart
t»
said closed first sector portion of said rotor housing in
successive communication with said incoming intervane
equalizing tube (not shown) would show volume loss ap
compartments; a second port in said closed third sector
proaching curve C at higher rotor speeds, instead of 50 portion of said rotor housing in successive communica
lfollowing the straight ideal curve B. Thus, the practical
tion with said outgoing intervane compartments; an in
necessity of the pressure inverter tube 72 becomes ap
terconnecting member having a streamlined constriction
parent.
in the midsection so formed to define a `venturi pressure
The Iabove mentioned tests were taken on a heat engine
inverter passageway, one end of said interconnecting
similar to the heat engine 114 of FIG. 6 except that no 55 member being connected to said housing so as to be in
water was applied by the spray device 52. Thus, the
communication with said first port and the other end of
test data illustrates losses obtained when there is no
said interconnecting member being connected to said
volume change due to evaporation or condensation. The
housing so as to be in communication with said second
curves B and C were computed on the same basis.
port, to thus effect a rapid pulsating transfer of gas
The most favorable speed of rotation of the rotor 22 60 through said interconnecting member and between said
is inversely proportional to the number of vanes 26
incoming and said outgoing intervane compartments, to
provided the ratio of the volume of gas within the pres
thereby eiîect the desired adiabatic compression and adi
sure inverter tube 72 as compared to the volume of gas
abatic expansion in said incoming and outgoing intervane
within the intervane compartments, such as the compart
compartments; means for preventing the direct passage
ment 29, remains constant. This ratio was ñve percent 65 of gas between adjacent incoming intervane compart
in the case of the test data shown by curve A. If a
ments and between adjacent outgoing intervane compart
greater pressure in the sealed heat exchanger enclosure
ments during «that period when the vane, of said plurality
50 is used, the volume ratio should be increased in pro
of vanes, which separates said adjacent incoming inter
portion. >If thermost favorable design speed is to be
vane compartments is in the position of said ñrst port
changed, the diameter ofthe pressure inverter tube 72 70 and during that period when the vane, of said plurality
should be changed in proportion.
The :apparatus embodying the teachings of this inven
tion has several advantages. For instance, volumetric
of vanes, which separates said adjacent outgoing intervane
compartments is in the position of said second port; a
sealed heat exchanger enclosure so enclosing said rotor
and friction losses -are maintained at a very low value.
housing at said open second sector portion that said en
This is extremely important in such heat engines operat 75 closure can receive -gas from said incoming Vintervane
3,076,316
11
compartments; means for changing the heat content and
density of said enclosed gas to thus effect such a pres
sure-volume product change in said gas within said en
closure that the amount of gas leaving said enclosure
within said enclosure; means for converting the energy
of the excess pressure-volume product of said gas within
said enclosure into mechanical power, and means for
e?’ecting rotation of said vaned rotor.
3. In a heat engine, the combination comprising, a
rotor having a hub and a plurality of substantially
equally spaced vanes ñxed to said hub and extending
radially out therefrom; a rotor housing having in con
by way of said outgoing intervane compartments will be
diiïerent from the amount of gas entering said enclosure
by way of said incoming intervane compartments; means
for converting the energy of said difference in pressure
secutive order a closed first sector portion, an open second
volume product into mechanical power; and means for
eiîecting rotation of said vaned rotor10 sector portion, a closed third sector portion and an open
fourth sector portion, said rotor housing being so dis
2. In a heat engine, the combination comprising, a
posed around said rotor as to be in close proximity to
rotor having a hub and a plurality of substantially equally
the peripheral edges of said vanes as they in operation
spaced vanes fixed to said hub and extending radially
rotate into said closed first sector portion and into said
out therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive
closed third sector portion to thus successively and out
order a closed first sector portion, an open second sector
going enclose incoming and outgoing enclosed intervane
portion, a closed third sector portion and an open fourth
compartments in said closed first sector portion and
sector portion, said rotor housing being so disposed
successively enclose outgoing intervane compartments in
around said rotor as to be in close proximity to the
said closed third sector portion; a first port in said closed
peripheral edges of said vanes as they in operation rotate
into said closed íirst sector portion and into said closed 20 first sector portion of said rotor housing in successive
communication with said incoming intervane compart
third sector portion to thus successively enclose and
ients; a second port in said closed third sector portion
outgoing enclosed incoming and outgoing enclosed in
of said rotor housing in successive communication with
tervane compartments in said closed iìrst sector portion
said outgoing intervane compartments; an interconnect
and successively enclose outgoing intervane compart
ing member so constructed as to define a venturi, having
ments in said closed third sector portion; a first port in
said closed ñrst sector portion of said rotor housing in
a central section, which functions as a pressure inverter,
with the intake section of said interconnecting member
successive communication with said incoming inten/ane
connected to said rotor housing so as to be in coni
compartments; a second port in said closed third sector
munication with said second port and with said intake
portion of said rotor housing in successive communica
tion with said outgoing intervane compartments; an in 30 section converging eccentrically with respect to said
second port into said central section and with the out
terconnecting member so constructed as to define a
going section of said interconnecting member highly
venturi, having a central section, which functions as a
streamlined and divergent and connected to said rotor
pressure inverter, with the intake section of said inter
housing so as to be in communication with said ñrst port,
connecting member connected to said rotor housing so
to thus effect a rapid pulsating transfer of gas from said
as to be in communication with said second port and
with said intake section converging eccentrically With
outgoing intervane compartments to said incoming in
respect to said second port into said central section and
with the outgoing section of said interconnecting niem
ber highly streamlined and divergent and connected to
tervane compartments with a minimum of flow of gas
in the reverse direction through said interconnecting
member, so that gas within said outgoing intervane
said rotor housing so as to be in communication with 40 compartments is adiabatically expanded and gas within
said first port, to thus effect a rapid pulsating transfer of
gas from said outgoing intervane compartments to said
incoming intervane compartments with a minimum of
ñow of gas in the reverse direction through said inter
connecting member, so that gas Within said outgoing
said incoming intervane compartments is adiabatically
compressed; closing members on each of said vanes
and carried thereby so as to prevent the direct passage
intervane compartments is adiabatically expanded and
gas within said incoming intervane compartments is
of gas between adjacent incoming intervane compart
ments and between adjacent outgoing intervane compart
ments during that period when the vane, of said plurality
of vanes, which separates said adjacent incoming inter
adiabatically compressed; a closing member on each of
vane compartments is in the position of said ñrst port
and during that period when the vane, of said plurality
passage of gas between adjacent incoming intervane 50 of vanes, which separates said adjacent outgoing inter
vane compartments is in the position of said second port;
compartments and between adjacent outgoing intervane
an ambient manifold,y including a discharge portion and
compartments during that period when the vane, of said
an intake portion, open to ambient space and connected
plurality of vanes, which separates said adjacent incom
to said rotor housing at said open fourth sector portion
ing intervane compartments is in the position of said
first port and during that period when the vane, of said 55 so that gas from said outgoing intervane compartments
is discharged through said discharge portion to said am
plurality of vanes, which separates said adjacent out
going intervane compartments is in the position of said
bient space and a new charge of gas is delivered to said
incoming intervane compartments through said intake
second port; an ambient manifold, including a separate
portion; a sealed heat exchanger enclosure having evap
discharge portion and intake portion having a precooler,
said vanes and carried thereby so as to prevent the direct
open to ambient space and connected to said rotor hous 60 orating surfaces and being so connected to said rotor
ing at said open fourth sector portion so that gas from
said outgoing intervane compartments is discharged
through said separate discharge portion to said ambient
housing at said open second sector portion that said en
closure can receive said adiabatically compressed gas
from said incoming intervane compartments so that said
space and a new charge of precooled gas is delivered
adiabatically compressed gas impinges on said evaporat
through said separate intake portion to said incoming 65 ing surfaces; means for directing liquid chemical absorb
intervane compartments; a sealed heat exchanger en
ent onto said evaporating surfaces and into contact with
closure having evaporating surfaces and being so con
said gas received into said enclosure from said incoming
nected to -said rotor housing at said open second sector
intervane compartments to thereby heat the gas within
portion that said enclosure can receive said adiabatically
said enclosure by chemical action and thus effect a pres
compressed gas from said incoming intervane compart 70 -sure and volume increase in the gas within said enclosure;
ments so that said adiabatically compressed gas im~
means for converting the energy of the excess pressure
pinges »on said evaporating surfaces; means for directing
volume product of the gas within said enclosure into
heated liquid onto said evaporating surfaces to effect
mechanical power; and means for effecting rotation of
an increase in the heat and vapor content of the gas to
said vaned rotor.
thus effect a pressure and volume increase in said gas 75
4. In a heat engine, the combination comprising, a
3,076,315
1Í'4î
rotor having- a hub and- a‘plurality of‘substantially equally
therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive order
tion' to thus successively enclose incoming intervane
compartments in said closed first sector portion and suc
cessively enclose outgoing intervane compartments in said
a closed first sector portion, an open second `sector por
tion, a closed third sector portion and an` open fourth
closed third sector portion; a first port in said closed'first
sector portion` of said rotor housing in successive com
sector: portion, said rotor housing being so disposed
munication with said incoming intervane compartments;
around said rotor as to be in close proximity tothe
peripheraledges of said vanes as they in Operationrotate
into said closed first sector portion and into said closed
a second port in said closed vthird sector portion ofsaid
rotor housing in successive communication with said out
going -intervane compartments; an interconnecting mem
spaced -vanes fixed to said hub and extending radially out ,t
third sector portion to thus Asuccessively enclose outgoing 10/ ber so constructed as to defineïa venturi, having a central
enclosed incoming and outgoing enclosed intervane com
section, which functions as a pressure inverter, with the
partments in said closed first sector portion and suc
intake section of said interconnecting `member‘connectedcessivelyr enclose outgoing intervaneÍ compartments in`
to said rotor housingtso as to be in communication with
said closed third sector portion; a first port' in said closed
said second port andtwith said intake section converging
first sector portion of‘ said rotorA housing inr successive 15 eccentrically with respect to said second port into- said
communication with said incoming intervane compart
central section Iand with the outgoing section of said inter
connecting member highly streamlined and divergent and
ments; a second port in saidclosed third sector portion
connected to said rotor housing so as to be in communi
of said rotor housing in successive communication with
said> outgoing intervane compartments; an interconnect
cation- with said first port, to thus effect a rapid pulsating
ing member so constructed Las to define afventuri, having 20T-1 transfer of gas from said outgoing intervane compart
ments to said incoming intervane compartments with a4
minimum of flow of gasin the reverse direction through
said interconnecting member, so that gas within said out
a-central section, which functions as >a pressure inverter,
with the` intake section of said interconnecting member
connected to said rotor housing so' as to be in com
going intervane compartments Vis adiabatically expanded
munication with said second port and with said intake
section. converging eccentrically with respect to said
secondport into said central section and with the out
and gas> within said incoming intervane compartmentsÍ
is adiabatically compressed; a closing member on each of
said >vanes .and carried thereby so as to prevent the direct
going section of said interconnecting member highly
passage of gas between adjacent incoming intervane oom'
streamlined and divergent and connected to said rotor‘
partments and between' adjacent outgoing intervane com
housing so as tol be in communication with said first
port, to thus effect a rapid pulsating transfer 0f gas from 30 1 partments during that period `when the vane, `«of said plu
rality of vanes, which separates. said adjacent incoming
intervane` compartments isin the position of said first
port and during that period whenrthe vane, of said plu
rality of vanes, which separates said adjacent outgoing
intervane compartments is in the position of said second
said outgoing intervane compartments to said incoming
intervane compartments with a minimum of ñow of gas
in the reverse direction through said interconnecting
member; so that‘gas within said ’outgoing intervane com
partments is-adiabatically expanded and gas within said
incoming' intervane» compartments is adiabatically com
port;-.an ambient manifold, including a discharge portion
andan intaketportion, openV to ambient-space and con
nected to said rotor housing at said open fourth sector,
pressed; a* closing member on each of said varies and
carried thereby-so as to prevent the direct passage-ofi
gas» between» adjacent incoming intervane compartments
and-between adjacent outgoing intervane compartments'
during that period when the vane, of said plurality of
vanes; which separates said adjacent incoming intervanev
compartments’is in the position of said first port and
dù-rin’g‘that period when the vane, of said plurality‘of
vanes, whichseparates said adjacent outgoing intervanev
portionïso that gas Afrom said outgoing intervane com»
partments is discharged through said discharge portieril
to said-ambientispaceand‘a new charge of gas is deliv-4
ered to said incoming intervane compartments through.
saidvintake portion; a sealed heat exchanger enclosure
having disposed therewithin a reaction chamber for re-ceiving’awsolid reactant and being so connected to said-
rotor -housing at said opensecond sector portion that said
enclosure can'receivesaid adiabatically compressed gas
from said incoming intervane compartments whereby re
compartmentsis in the position-of said-second port; an
ambient manifold, including a‘ discharge portion andA
an intake portion, open to ambient space and connected'
action between saidsolid’reactant and said received gas,
to'said rotor‘housing at-said `open'fourthsector portion
so‘that gastfrom said. outgoing intervane compartments 50A takes place withresulting heating and'expansion of said`
received gas within said enclosure- under increased pres»
isldischarged through said-discharge portion-to saidlam»
bient'space and> a newy charge of gas'is’- delivered to-said
t sure; meansfor admitting said solid-reactant to said en
incoming# intervanev compartments through said intake
portion; alsealedheat exchanger enclosure being so con-l
closure and into said reaction chamber; means for con~
verting the energy of the excess pressure-volume product
of the modifiedgas within said enclosure into mechanical
nected to said rotor housingV at said open=second sector'
portion that'said enclosure Acan receive saidadia-batically‘
power;..and«means for effecting rotation of saidvaned
compressed gas» from said incoming intervanecompart
ments; means »for‘directingtliquid'fuel into saidenclosutre
rotor.
6. -In a heat: engine, the combination comprising, a
rotor’havinga hub anda plurality of substantially equally
spaced‘vanes fixed to said hub and extending radially out.
so -‘ that in operation the gaswithin said enclosure is»
heated by‘combustionV to thus effect a pressure and volume
increase in the gas within said enclosure; means forl
therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive order‘
productief the gasïwithin said; enclosure into mechanicalv
a closed’first sector portion, an'open second sector por
tion, a closed'third sector portion and an openfourth
power; and means for effecting rotation of- said vaned1
sector portion', said rotor housing being so disposed around .
converting' the- energy of' the `excess` pressure-volume
saidvrotorf as to be in close proximity to the peripheral
edges of said Vanes as'they in operation rotate‘into said
closed iirst‘sectorl portion and into said closed third sec»
tor portion to thus successively enclose and outgoing en
closed incoming intervane compartments in said closed
5.4 Inl a heat engine, the combination comprising, af
rotor t having «al lhub and"a»plura1ity of ' substantially ’equallyï
spacedtvanes fixed to said Íhub and lextending radially out
therefrom; arotor housing- having in‘ consecutive-order a’
closed first sector portion; an -open second sector‘portion,
a~closedethird sector portion and-an lopen fourth sector
portion, »said rotor housing being -so disposed around said
rotor as to‘be` in close proximity to the peripheral edges
o'f`said'vanes a'sfthey in operation rotate into :said closed
iirst'ìsecto'r portionßand’into said closed' third. sector por
first' sector portion' and successively enclose outgoing in
tervane compartments- in said closed third sector portion;
a first portrin said closed first sectoriportion of said rotor>
housing‘in" successive communication with `said incoming
intervane compartments; a second- port in, said closed
75 'i
thirdsector portionlof said rotor housing in successivev
3,076,316
15
communication with said outgoing intervane compart
member connected to said rotor housing so as to be in
ments; an interconnecting member so constructed as to
communication with said first port and with said intake
section converging eccentrically with respect to said first
port into said central section and with the outgoing sec
tion of said interconnecting member highly streamlined
define a venturi, having a central section, which functions
as a pressure inverter, with the intake section of said in
terconnecting member connected to said rotor housing so
and divergent and connected to said rotor housing so as
as to be in communication with said second port and
with said intake section converging eccentrically with re
to be in communication with said second port, to thus
effect a rapid pulsating transfer of gas from said incorn
spect to said second port into said central section and
with the outgoing section of said interconnecting mem
ing intervane compartments to said outgoing intervane
ber highly streamlined and divergent and connected to 10 compartments with a minimum flow of gas in the reverse
said rotor housing so as to be in communication with
direction through said interconnecting member, so that
said first port, to thus effect a rapid pulsating transfer of
gas within said incoming intervane compartments is adi
abatically expanded and gas within said outgoing inter
gas from said outgoing intervane compartments to said
incoming intervane compartments with a minimum of
vane compartments is adiabatically compressed; a enclos
fiow of gas in the reverse direction through said inter 15 ing member on each of said vanes and carried thereby
connecting member, so that gas within said outgoing in
so as to prevent the direct passage of gas between adja
tervane compartments is adiabatically expanded and gas
cent incoming intervane compartments and between ad
within said incoming intervane compartments is adiabati
jacent outgoing intervane compartments during that peri
cally compressed; a closing member on each of said vanes
od when the vane, of said plurality of vanes, which sepa
and carried thereby so as to prevent the direct passage of 20 rates said adjacent incoming intervane compartments is
gas between adjacent incoming intervane compartments
in the position of said first port and during that period
and between adjacent outgoing intervane compartments
when the vane, of said plurality of vanes, which separates
during that period when the vane, of said plurality of
said adiacent outgoing intervane compartments is in the
vanes, which separates said adjacent incoming intervane
position of said second port; an ambient manifold, in
compartments is in the position of said first port and dur 25 cluding a discharge portion and an intake portion, open
ing that period when the vane, of said plurality of vanes,
to -ambient space and connected to said rotor housing at
which separates said adjacent outgoing intervane com
said open fourth sector portion so that gas from said out
partments is in the position of said second port; an am
going intervane compartments -is discharged through said
bient manifold, including a discharge portion and an in
discharge portion to said ambient space and a new charge
take portion, open to ambient space and connected to 30 of gas is deiivered to said incoming intervane compart
said rotor housing at said open fourth sector portion so
ments through said intake portion; a sealed heat exchanger
that gas from said outgoing intervane compartments is
enclosure having a heat exchanger disposed thercwithin
discharged through said discharge portion to said ambient
for cooling of gas and being so connected to said rotor
housing at said open second sector portion that said en
closure can receive said adiabatically expanded gas from
space and a new charge of gas is delivered to said incom
ing intervane compartments through said intake portion;
a sealed heat exchanger enclosure having disposed there
within a reaction chamber for receiving a solid fuel and
being so connected to said rotor housing at said open
second sector portion that said enclosure can receive
said incoming intervane compartments so that said adi
abatically expanded gas impinges on said heat exchanger
thus cooling said adiabatically expanded gas and thereby
reducing the pressure-volume product of thegas within
said adiabatically compressed gas from said incoming in 40 said enclosure so as to maintain a partially vacuum with
tervane compartments whereby combustion of said solid
in said enclosure; means for admitting ambient air into
fuel takes place with resulting heating and expansion
said enclosure to thereby develop mechanical power; and
of the gas within said enclosure under increased pressure;
means for admitting said solid fuel to said enclosure and
means for effecting rotation of said varied rotor.
8. In a heat engine, the combination comprising, a
into said reaction chamber and for rejecting waste-prod 45 rotor having a hub anda plurality of substantially equally
spaced vanes fixed to said hub and extending radially out
ucts from said enclosure, heat exchanger means disposed
within said enclosure for removing the excess heat due to
therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive order
said combustion that is more than necessary to heat the
a closed first sector portion, an open second sector por
gas within said enclosure; means for converting the ener
tion, a closed third sector portion and an open fourth
gy of the excess pressure-volume producttof the gas and 50 sector portion, said rotor housing being so disposed
combustion products within said enclosure into mechani
around said rotor as to be in close proximity to the pe
cal power; and means for effecting rotation of said vaned
ripheral edges of said vanes as they in operation rotate
rotor.
into said closed first sector portion and into said closed
7. in a heat engine, the combination comprising `a
third sector portion to thus successively enclose and
rotor having a hub and a plurality of substantially equal 55 loutgoing enclosed incoming and outgoing enclosed inter
ly spaced vanes fixed to said hub and extending radially
vane compartments in said closed first sector portion and
out therefrom; a rotor housing having in consecutive or
successively enclose outgoing intervane compartments in
der a closed first sector portion, an open second sector
said closed third sector portion; a first port in said closed
portion, a closed third sector portion and an open fourth
first sector portion of said rotor housing iu successive
sector portion, said rotor housing being so disposed
around said rotor as to be in close proximity to the pe
ripheral edges of said vanes as they in operation rotate
into said closed first sector portion and into said closed
third sector portion to thus successively enclose incom
ing intervane compartments in said closed first sector
portion and successively enclose outgoing intervane com
partments in said closed third sector portion; a first port
in said closed first sector portion of said rotor housing in
successive communication with said incoming intervane
communication with said incoming intervane compart
ments; a `second port in said closed third sector portion
of said rotor housing in successive communication with
said outgoing intervane compartments; an interconnecting
member so constructed as to define a venturi, having a
central section, which functions as a pressure inverter,
with the intake section of said interconnecting member
connected to said rotor housing so as to bein communica
tion with said first port Iand with said intake section con
verging eccentrically with respect Áto said first port into said
compartments; a second port in said closed third sector 70 central section and with the outgoing section of said inter
portion of said rotor housing in successive communication
with said outgoing intervane compartments; an intercon
connecting member highly streamlined and divergent
and connected to said rotor housing so as to be in com
munication with said second port, to thus effect a rapid
pulsating transfer of gas from said incoming intervane
inverter, with the intake section of said interconnecting 75 compartments to said outgoing intervane compartments
necting member so constructed as to define a venturi,
having a central section, which functions as a pressure
3,076,316
17
with a minimum flow 'of gas in the reverse direction
of gas is delivered to said incoming intervene compart
through said interconnecting member, so that gas within
said outgoing intervene compartments is adiab-atically
compressed and gas within said incoming intervene corn~
pertinents is adiabatical-ly expanded; a closing member
changer enclosure having thercwithin heat exchanger sur
on each of said vanes and carried 'thereby so as to prevent
the direct passage or" gas between adjacent incoming in
tervane compartments and between adjacent outgoing
intervane compartments during that period when the
ments `tiiroirgh 'seid intake portion; a sealed heat ex
faces and being so connected to said roto-r housing at
said. open second sector portion that Isaid enclosure can
receive said adia‘oatieally expanded gas from said in
coming intervane compartments; means for directing
heat exchange liquid onto said heat exchanger surfaces
so that said received gas is cooled with `a resultant de
vane, of said plurality of V-anes, which separates said l 0 crease in pressure-Volume product -to thus establish a par
‘adjacent incoming inter-vane compartments -is in the posi
tial vacuum within said enclosure; means for admitting
tion of said ñrst port and during that period when the
ambient gas into said enclosure to thereby develop me
Vane, of said plurality of Vanes, which separates said
chanical power; and means for effecting rot-ation of said
:adjacent outgoing intervane compartments is in the posi
vaned rotor.
tion of said second port; an 4arn‘oient manifold, including
Reter‘enees @Cited in the tile of this patent
'a discharge portion and an intake portion, open to am
bient space and connected to said rotor housing at said
UNÍTED STATES PATENTS
open fourth sector portion so that gas from said outgoing
interi/ane compartmentsis discharged through said dis
1,073,717
charge portion to said `ambient space and a new charge 20
2,653,448
Stachel ______________ __ Sept. 23, 1913
iánplca ______________ __ Sept. 29, 1953
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