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Патент USA US3076370

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Feb. 5, 1963
T. sENDzlMlR
3,076,360
CLAM SHELL COLD ROLLING MILL
Filed Aug. 22. 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
f2
4,5
l
1iMlì?ëEf
Feb. 5, 1963
T. sENljzlMlR
3,076,360
. CLAM SHELL COLD ROLLING MILL
l Filed Aug. 22. 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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. 3
Flgu
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INVENTOR
TAm-:Usz SENDziMiQ
'
l
BY
,
ATTORNEYS.
Feb. 5, 1963
T7 sENDzlMlR
3,076,360
CLAM SHELL COLD ROLLING MILL
Filed Aug. 22. 1958
2f ze'
4 sheets_sheet 3
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26'
26
ïäafàsz _Savez/Mae,
@flaw @flag
BY
ATToRNEYs.
Feb. 5, 1963
T. sENDzlMlR
3,0 76,360
CLAM SHELL COLD ROLLING MILL
Filed Aug. 22. 1958
`
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVEMTOR.
72050.52 âe'Naz/M/f,
BY
"
y
ATTQRNE'YS.
United_States Patent Oilice
3,076,360
Patented Feb. 5, 17963v
2
.
uF1620 is a partial end elevationof the-mill’taken from
3,076,360
the right side of FIG. l.
CLAM SHELL COLD ROLLING MILL
'
manufacture of the housing members `of the `mill Aof the
present invention.
FIG. ‘5 is a longitudinal section :of the mill proper.
The Linvention relatessto niillsffor cold rolling strip ma
terials,~ihe mills being of _thelgen‘eral type disclosed in U.S.
FIG. 6 is a transverse sectiontaken through'the ’mill
proper along the section line 6-6 of FIG. 5.
'
Patent 2,776,586. Such mills are `beam-type mills, char
acterized‘by' great‘rigidity coupled with the ability to use
VIt has hitherto been suggested that the housingv of `a‘mill,
such as is shown in Patent 2,776,586, could `be made in
small working rolls, ‘which are evenly and rigidly backed
upper and lower sections, the sections being vhingedto
getheriat one side, and held together by adjustable means
allacross the width of the strip being rolled. Thus heavy
reductionscan be `made on work-hardening materials, and
attain in other `types of equipment.
i
’Such mills’arequite expensive to build. `For one thing,
the mill housing '(as can be seen in FIG. 8 of the above
noted patent) is a solid casting, pierced in one horizontal
direction by a >passageway for the strip, and ‘having an
opening in the otherhorizontal direction, which contains
i
View of the table of a machine‘tool illustrating a mode 'of
` 'tsfclaims _’(CL‘so-,stn
alsofstrips may be rolled to an accuracy impossible to
s
FIG. 3 is a partial end View, and FIG.-4, a partial plan
:Tadeusz Sendzimir, %; SendzimirfCogQxford Circle,
‘
Waterbury »12, Conn.
.FiledAug 22, 1958, Ser. N0. 756,574
at the other side, which means could serve as a screwdown.
However, a beambacked mill of this character _is not .the
full equivalent of a-mill having a -solid or one-‘piece hous
ing. One reason for this is that the >four vertical columns
at the `sides of a mill having a one-piece housing, being
integral with the beams themselves, have a substantial
20 eiîect in resisting deflection, and exert -a controlling effect
on the manner in which deilection takes place. As a con
the operating instrumentalities of `the mill. ‘This opening
sequence, while it will be obvious that Yif ¿the upper `half
has ‘to be very accurately machined all over its inside sur
of a mill housing «could be swung back with respect to the
faces, the machining consisting for the most part in the
lower half, or even removed entirely therefrom, the in
precision ‘boring of eight semi-circular ‘trough-‘like con 25 terior components of the mill would >be more accessible,
ñguratioris which, aside from being accurate "in diameter,
a satisfactory construction embodying separable housing
must ‘jbe parallel with each other with lextreme accuracy.
parts has not hitherto been provided.
IThe manner in which these and other problems have
been `solved in the present invention »will be made vclear
` :Such Vhousings maybe _made on spo-called precisionhori
z_ontal boring mills, requiring weeks of work on an‘ expen
siveA machine tool, followed by weeks of ‘laborious hand-`
scraping to attain the minimum limits `of accuracy. Spe
cially designed inside boring tools, where the >parallelism
of _the `individual troughs `is insured by the accuracy of the
tool itself, could be used, and the necessity of `hand-‘scrap
30 after `a brief description `of the organization of the mill.
'
Referring lto FIGS. V1 and 2, the mill of this invention
comprises an upper housing part 1 and a lower-housing
part 2. The lower half of the mill housing rests upon and
is bolted to Va suitable foundation, which is preferably in
ing avoided. But the ¿c_ost of such tools lis high, and a 35 the form of a box of hollow construction 3, since vcertain
separate boring machine would be required for each type
elements of the mill, as will hereinafter appear, vextend
and size of mill, so that vamortization costs are excessive.
below the lower housing element 2.
For another thing, the interior construction of the mill
The upper mill housing element 1 rests upon the lower
is `‘complicated by the fact that `eccentric mountings for
the so-called casters have to be provided _for screwdown
housing element at one end by means of a hinge construe
40 tion indicated generally at 4. This construction is termed
a hinge because the upper mill housing element pivots on
it for screwdown purposes; but it need not be such ahinge
ofthe general type of that shown in Patent 2,776,586,
as would enable the top portion of the mill housing to be
which will V"have a housing substantially as accurate and
swung out of the way,'or through an angle of 90° or 180°
rigid as the housing ofthe patented mill, and which will 45 on the hinge. Furthermore, the hinge has an important
permit the use _of working rolls of as small a diameter and
function in maintaining the alignment of the upper hous
purposes.
'
` A Vprimary.object of the invention is to provide a mill
as well supported, but which can be built at a substantially
ing portion of the mill with the lower housing portion.
The hinge as illustrated in FIG. 1 comprises two adjust#
` It is an object of the‘invention to provide a mill in which
able block members 4a and 4b with approaching surfaces
the interior mechanism is more readily accessible for re 50 bearing cylindrical hollows indicated at 4c and 4d, `and a
placement or repair. It is ‘an object vrof the invention to
cylindrical member 4e engaged in these hollows. In de
provide va -mill in which a much wider rollçopening can be
scribing the mill of this invention, the term “ends” willbe
attained.
‘y
used to designate those portions which lie inthe direction
It is an ‘object of the invention to provide a mill of the
of rolling, the face portionsof the mill which lie at 96°
lesser‘cost'.
‘
`
type designated which has a` ‘simpler’interior construction.
thereto being referred to as the ‘.‘sidesf’
At the other end of the mill housing elements 1 and 2,
a screwdown mechanism 5 <is provided (see FIGS. 1
"It is an'obje'c't of the yinvention to provide a ’mill charac#
teriZed by new ways of compensating ‘for deñection.
It is an object of theinvention to provide a mill‘having
a simpler screwdown.
These Yand other obje‘cts‘lof the invention, which will' be
and 2b).
60
set forth hereinafter `or will be apparent to one skilled in
lower platen 9Ato which it is Vpreferably swiveled as:indicated at 10 in FIG. l. The lower platen is connected by
four tie rods indicated at 11, 12 and 13 tothe upper'hous
the art upon reading these specifications, are accomplished
by`th’at certain constructionv and arrangement of parts of
which an exemplary embodiment will now be described.
Reference ism’ade to the accompanying `drawings wherein:
FIG. lis a side elevational view ofthe mill of this
invention.
` FIG..2a is an elevational view showing another »mode of
connecting ‘the’- hydraulic cylinder to the‘lower housing
member.
d
'
'
"
ïFIG. '2b `is` a partial end elevation of‘the Vm'ill‘taken .from
theïleft side of FIG. 11.
`
A fluid pressure cylinder 7 engages the under side of the
lower housingelement 2, its piston rod 8 acting against a
65
ing element 1. The fourth tie rod is not shown in the draw
ings, but itsposition will be understood from the position
of the others.
The tie rods may be held to the lower
platen by~nuts or in any other suitable fashion; but the
upper ends of the tie rods will be provided with enlarged
heads 14 pivoted to ear portions of the upperhousing
70 member by pintles 15. This construction, together with
the swivel connection 10, will permit 4a tilting of the upperv
housing element 1 such as may be requiredfor` screwdown>
3,076,360
3
purposes. The pintles 15 may be removable, so that the
entire upper portion of the mill, including the housing
member 1, may be lifted off the lower portion and carried
4
would be caused by such a beam deflection. Such rota
tion will be opposed by the action of the elements 4 and
away, as by means of a crane.
It will be understood from the figures that the tie rods,
the hinge constructions, and the interengaging portions of
the screwdown are located toward the sides of the mill, so
5 because these elements are under pressure, and the pres
sures would be concentrated toward the outer portions of
these elements. The total pressures do not change, and
therefore the elements 4 and S tend to prevent deflection
across the mill, which deflections are further minimized
as to permit passage of the strip 16 which is to be rolled.
by the action of the tie rods 11, 12 and 13 which, it will be
The fluid pressure cylinder 7 is connected through suit
able valve controls to an hydraulic system (not shown).
So long as the force exerted by the cylinder 7 is greater
than the roll separating force encountered during the roll
ing operation, pressure will be exerted on the hinge con
in creating torques which are opposed to the type of mill
deflection under consideration.
The construction of the mill in accordance with the
present invention makes it possible to create an elasticity
structions 4 and on the screwdown constructions 5. Under
these circumstances, the mill housing portions 1 and 2 will
be accurately positioned because the preload eliminates all
chances of play and of misalignment. Also, they will act
noted, are so located as to coact with the elements 4 and 5
factor to counteract or offset beam deflection in a direction
across the mill. This can be explained as follows:
In a beambacked mill having a one-piece housing, the
roll separating forces are transmitted to the four vertical
columns of the mill housing in the form of tensional
in a more rigid manner, as hereinafter explained.
stresses. In contradistinction, in the mill of this inven
If, on the other hand, the roll separating forces should
at any time exceed the hold-down force of the hydraulic 20 tion, where the two halves of the housing come together,
i.e. at the hinge elements 4 and the screwdown elements
cylinder 7 (as for example when a piece of metal too
5, the condition is one of compression. As has been in~
thick for a given pass is fed into the mill through error),
dicated, the tie rods 11 to 13 exert a downward pull on
the two housing portions 1 and 2 will part slightly either
the upper housing element 1 which is greater than the
at the hinge construction 4 or at the screwdown device 5,
or both, thereby relieving the working and supporting rolls 25 normal roll separating force. The tie rods can all be
elements of high tensile strength material and rather
as well as the bearing elements of the mill from overload,
and preventing damage to the mill.
As has been indicated above, the characteristics of
highly loaded, because their own elongation under tension
through their rigid connection with the upper and lower
beam elements. They act effectively to reduce deflections
due to bending of the beam elements both in a direction
perpendicular to the rolling direction, and in the direction
deflect the lower housing element 2 in directions opposite
to those in which the roll separating forces tend to de
flect it. Thus, a deflection of the upper housing mem«
ber produced by the roll separating forces can be ac
complished for by a deliberately produced deflection of
the lower housing element 2 produced in the way just
is of no consequence, so far as the accuracy of the mill
is concerned.
rigidity in a mill having a two-piece housing are not identi
The cylinder 7, which exerts the pressure on the lower
cal with those of a mill having a one-piece housing. The 30
platen 9 by which the tensional forces are transmitted
four integral, short, vertical columns of a one-piece hous
to the tie rods 11 to 13 inclusive, is affixed to the center
ing have a relatively heavy section, and help to rigidify
of the lower housing element 2. Thus, it will tend to
the mill through their own resistance to bending as Well as
of the strip being rolled.
Deflection of the beam members in the direction of
movement of the strip is of little consequence, both in 40 described. There are various Ways in which this com
pensation can be controlled. In the first place, the forces
magnitude, and in influence on the accuracy of the mill and
exerted by the fluid pressure cylinder 7 can be increased
the accuracy of the product being rolled therein. This is
or diminished, so long as their value continues to be
chiefly because such deflection is uniform all across the
greater than that of the roll separating forces. The ability
width of the strip, is largely compensated for by the action
of the lower housing portion 2 to deflect under any given
of the screwdown, and is practically negligible in magni
stresses can be controlled in the design of the mill by
tude when compared to other deflections in the mill such
increasing or diminishing the cross section of the lower
as the flattening of rolls under pressure.
housing. It will be noted in the drawings hereto appended
. Deflection in the mill at right angles to the length of
that the upper mill housing element 1 has been given a
the strip is, however, a matter of substantial concern, be
large cross sectional area so as to minimize transverse
cause such deflection has as its ultimate consequence the 50
deflection, while the lower mill housing element 2 has a
bending or deflection of the working rolls. Such a deflec
lesser cross sectional area to permit a compensating de
tion will cause the distance between the working rolls to be
llection produced by the cylinder 7.
greater in an area corresponding to the center of the strip,
In most cases, the general relationship between the
and smaller near the edges of the strip. The rolled prod
effective area of the cylinder 7 and the relative rigidity of
uct will, therefore, be variable in gauge across its width. 55 the lower housing element 2 will be such that counter
The mill of this invention, having as has been described
separable housing elements 1 and 2, has certain inherent
characteristics of rigidity in the side-to-side direction. The
deflection of the lower mill housing element will suffice
zontal plane through the end portion 17 of FIG. 2b. If the
is done, the bolts 19, which aflix the cylinder to the
as a corrective measure, making the mill much easier
to operate, particularly in the selection and development
hinge elements 4 and the screwdown elements 5, as will be
of appropriate profiles in the strip material being rolled.
most apparent from FIGS. 2b and 2c, have a substantial 60
The deflection of the lower mill housing element 2 can
width. lf the upper housing element 1, as a result of roll
be increased under any given pressure exerted by the fluid
separating forces in the mill, should tend to deflect as a
cylinder 7 by slightly crowning that base of the cylinder
beam, its side portions 17 and 18 (as indicated in those
assembly which is aflixed to the flatly machined bottom
figures) would tend to rotate counterclockwise and clock
wise through minute angles corresponding to the deflection 65 of the housing element 2. This will concentrate the pres
sure in the center of the housing element; and when this
of the beam. The line indicated at a represents a hori
housing element 2, may be loosened so that the deflection
upper housing element 1 deflects as a result of roll sepa
of the housing element will depend upon the force exerted
rating forces in the mill, the center portion would bow
upwardly tending to rotate the side portion 17 downwardly 70 by the cylinder 7 rather than on the tightening force of
in a counterclockwise direction as shown in exaggerated
fashion by the dotted line a'. A similar line b in FIG. 2c
represents a horizontal plane through the side portion 1S.
the bolts.
For very wide mills, i.e. those designed to roll strips
from 50 inches to 100 inches and wider, measures such
as those just described for minimizing total mill deflection
The dotted line b’ illustrates in an exaggerated fashion
the counterclockwise rotation of the side portion 18 that 75 by introducing other deflections which, when opposed to
5
3,076,360
the inevitable natural deflection ofthe upper housing,
even out the deflection across the strip, are of great im
portance.
In very wide mills it is `often preferable, instead of
using a single point of reaction of the cylinder 7 against
"the lower mill housing, to employ two or more points of
6
tions 22' to 25 `discussed hereinabove. Thus, complete
parallelism is attained here also, together with avery
substantial saving in cost.
As best shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, each hinge element
comprises an upper block 28 and a lower block 29, these
blocks having on their «rear surfacesa vseries of machined
application of the force that urges the two mill parts to
serrations mating with the serrations 26 hereinabove de,
gether. One way of doing this is illustrated in FIGURE
scribed. The blocks are held to the housing members 1
2a. Here the hydraulic cylinder 7 does not bear directly
and 2 by a series of bolts 30 and 31 which pass through
against the lower mill housing 2, but upon the‘central por» l0 slots in the blocks. The approaching ends of the blocks
Vtion' of a beam 79 extending parallel with the work rolls,
are somewhat reduced as shown, and are recessed to
the beam having near each end` abut-,ment screws 80 and
receive the actual hinging element or pintle 4. The ser.
81 which contact the lower mill housing at spaced‘points
rated structure which has been described permits the
`and transmit the pressure of thev cylinder thereto. The
blocks 23 and 29 to be fastened to the housing members
distance between these abutment screws is preferably less 15 1 and 2 in adjusted positions. Thisis to say that‘for the
than one-third of maximum width of strip accommodated
tolti-ng of thicker materials a greater separation between
by the mill; and of course they should be symmetrically
the housing elements 1 and 2 may be ldesired at the right
. disposed.
lt will be seen from the above` explanation that this
hand end of the mill in FIG. 1 and vice versa. The con
struction is also of value in compensatingfor Iwear; and
`invention provides for the first time a controlled rigidity 20 for changes in diameter of rolls, as where rolls are dressed
in a beambacked mill having a housing made in separable
parts. It also provides means for compensating for de
ñection in such a mill. With these provisions, it becomes
feasible to construct the mill housing in two parts, and
hence to take advantage of a mode of machining the in
terior surfaces of themill which involves a great lowering
of cost. This mode of manufacture is illustrated in
FIGS. 3 and 4. In this mode of manufacture, both por
tions of the mill housing 1 and 2 are clamped on the
table 20 of a precision machine tool. If the two housing 30
portions are of the same eiîective thickness, their machined
backs may rest directly on the table. If one housing
element is thinner than the other, it will rest on the table
or exchanged. The screwdown hereinafter described takes
care of the actual roll separation during the operation
of the mill; but the mill is conveniently adjusted for over
all thicknesses by means of the hinging construction. The
hinge ldesign permits the use of blocks and pins, both of
which are made of relatively hard materials; and the di
ameter of the pintle 4 may be relatively small so'that
its pivoting action, when opening and closing the roll bite
of the mill, can be relatively frictionless. The hinge con
struction preserves the alignment of the'mill housings in
the direction of rolling so long as there is pressure be
tween the'two housing elements. Lateral alignment of
the two parts of the housingY can be accomplished in
through the intermediary of a suitable machined block
various ways. The tie `rods 11 to 13, passing through
`for the purpose of equalizing the heights. The clamping 35 A-perforations in the lower housing element 2, ten-d to pre
`will be done in such a way that the positions of the four
servea general lateral alignment even though they are
trough-shaped configurations of each mill housing section
`freely movable in the perforations. A more precise align
will be disposed in alignment as continuations of each
ment may be attained by providing the housings with pins
other. As is usual in machining operations, a template
engaging in grooves in the pintles 4.
may be positioned on the table to guide the cutting. The 40
It will be noted that the mill of this` invention uses a
four trough-shaped configurations are indicated in FIG. 3
“negative” screwdown 5. Shafts 32 and 33 are journaled
at 22, 23, 24 and 25.
Vin ‘bearings ‘located in the troughs 27 hereinabove de
The machine tool may be any suitably accurate ltype
scribed, ,and held- in place by means of bolted retainers
of planer-miller, a milling machine, or even a precision
36 and 37. These shafts are each provided with eccentric
planing machine having an accurately guided table. A
portions 3S and»39, located near the sides ofthe mill, and
tool is used which is centered at the end of each stroke 45 out of theopath of the strip »16 whichris being rolled. The
on the surface of the template 21, and metal may be re
eccentrics are preferably made in one piece with the
moved from both housing sections 1 and 2 in a concur
shafts 32 and~`33.
In FIG. 3 there is shown alever arm splined to the
the trough-shaped configurations.
Shaft 33. This lever arm is pivoted to the piston rod 4d
A machine tool operator of even moderate experience 50 of anthydraulic cylinder 42, the opposite end of which is
rent operation with perfect assurance of parallelism of
can readily follow the outline of the template 21, for ex
ample, with a half-round nose milling or other cutter,
thus producing perfectly machined inner surfaces. Meth
ods have now been developed to do this completely auto
matically, so that the only discrepancy or deviation from
parallelism which is encountered in the ñnished‘product
connected to the mill housing as at 43. It will be under
stood that actuation ofthe cylinder 42 lwill. rock the, Yshaft
33, actuating the eccentric portion thereof, and forcibly
separating the shafts 32 and 33. The shaft 33 is prefer
ably provided with an hydraulic actuator at each side of
the
mill.
y
f'
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l
`
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`
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arises from the wear of the tool itself during any one
The treatment of the upper shaft 32 may be similar,
pass. This is negligible since the attempted accuracy is
in` that it may be provided with its own lever arms and
ofthe order of from something less than `0.0001 to 0.0002
60 hydraulic actuators attached tothe upper half of the mill
in., depending upon the size of the mill.
housing. However, there lare otherfway's of treating the
While stress has been laid above on the semi-circular
upper shaft. In FIG. 2 the left half. of the drawing has
trough~like configurations in the interior of the mill,
been reversed, for the purposeof showing the eccentric
which contain the saddles for the casters, there are other
screwdown means instead of the hinge. Here the eccenelements which must be accurately aligned in order to
tries are again indicated` at 3S and 39; but the shafts 32
65
assure a parallel registration of the mill housings 1 and
and 33 are indicated as geared together by gear elements
2. This applies to the serrations which serve to locate
44 and 45. When this is done, and when the hydraulic
the hinge blocks, hereinafter more fully described, and
cylinders 42 are actuated, the shafts 32 and 33 are forced
the troughs which serve to locate the shafts or bearings
to rotate in opposite directions. Obviously, the largest
¿forthe shafts which are involved in the screwdown mech 70 displacement will be secured when the two eccentrics are
anism 5. The serrations are indicated in FIGS. -3 and 4
in symmetrical relationship to each other, but other com
at 26, and the last mentioned troughs in FIG. >3 at 27,.
binations are possible to suit the operator.
The machining method hereinabove described permits the
formation of these configurations at thel same time and in
The screwdown arrangement which has been described
is negative in the sense that when actuated it `forces the
Substantially the Same Way as the trough-like @Misura
l
housing members 1 and 2 apart at one end, these parts
ao'faseo
7
pivoting on the pintles 4 at the other end. This type of
screwdown is possible so long as the mill housings are
under pressure from the hydraulic cylinder 7. The screw
doiwn effect is attained with great accuracy and simplicity;
and cost is saved in the interior of the mill because it is
not necessary to provide eccentricity in connection with
the saddles for screwdown purposes.
The screwdown mechanism has been described above
For other details of construction of beambacked cold
rolling mills, and ways in which they can be adequately
lubricated and cooled, reference may be made not only
to Patent 2,776,586, noted above, but also to such United
States Patents as 2,566,679 and 2,479,974.
In a simple mill of the type herein being described, an
adjusting means may be provided as indicated in FIG. 5.
This adjusting means comprises screws such as the screw
as though the shafts 32 and 33 extended across the entire
52, threaded in the housing, and bearing against a saddle
mill. Such a construction is not necessary, and separate
short shafts may be provided at each side of the mill hous
member 53.
Each such screw may be fitted with a slid
ing head 54 which has precision marks to show its angular
position. Means are provided whereby each such screw
can be engaged by a wrench or other turning device; and
ing members, the short shafts being controlled as herein
above described. When such a construction is adopted,
the screws are preferably provided with locking means
the screw-down arrangements at each side of the mill will
(not shown) to inhibit accidental changes of rotative po
not be mechanically interconnected; and another ad
sition. One such screw is provided for each saddle in
vantage is secured, namely, the use of a slightly asym
an outer saddle assembly of at least one housing assem
metric setting, where desired, within the limits of the
bly ofthe mill. The screws 52 are disposed approxi
elastic deflection of the housing elements 1 and 2. In this
mately in the line of greatest pressure of the saddles
case each cylinder should have its own independent hy
20 against the trough surface of the beam in which they are
draulic valve (servo valve).
Within the accuracy limits that are realized in rolling
housed, which line of pressure in the outer saddle as
semblies of the exemplary mill herein illustrated, lies very
fiat strip on the type of mill hereinabove described, there
nearly in the horizontal plane. The screws 52 are em
is never any need for large variation in the setting of the
ployed to adjust or control the crown or shape of the
right side in relation to the left side of the mill. A differ
ence of, say, 0.0001 in. is quite noticeable. But it does 25 mill. In operation, the screws are not intended to lift
happen in practice that a slight differentiation in pres
the respective saddles entirely off their seats, but only
sure and setting of the mill is desirable; and it can be ob
slightly to relieve the pressure of the saddles against the
tained on the mill herein described, whereas it cannot be
seats, within the elastic limits of the parts. Turning any
obtained in a solid housing mill such as is described in
of the screws 52 inwardly will result in putting more
30 pressure on the saddle contacted by that screw than on
Patent 2,776,586 referred to above.
An exemplary internal arrangement for a mill of the
neighboring saddles, which is the way in which the crown
present invention is indicated in FIGS. 5 and 6. The two
or shape of the mill is adjusted, whenever such adjust
halves of the mill are the same, so that they can be de
scribed in common. The working rolls 46 are of very
ment is necessary. In more elaborate and expensive beam
backed mills, more elaborate means have been devised
small diameter, and they rest each against a pair of inter 35 for mill adjustment; but in the relatively inexpensive mill
mediate rolls 47. -For convenience herein, these rolls
of this invention, the adjustment means above described
are called the “first intermediate rolls.” They rest against
has been found adequate.
a series of three larger second intermediate rolls 48. The
Another desirable simplification has been found practi
second intermediate rolls in each half of the mill are
cal in the mill of this invention, namely, the application
40
backed by a set of four casters. The supporting portions
of the main mill drive to the center roll only of the second
of these casters may be in the form of very heavy outer
intermediate backing roll series. Hitherto it has been
races 49 of roller bearings mounted on shafts 50. The
casters on each shaft are spaced lengthwise of the shaft,
as most clearly shown in FIG. 6. Between the casters,
found necessary or advisable to drive all or a plurality
of the backing rolls of the second series, as in Patent'
2,776,586. Surprisingly, it has been found that a mill
the shafts 50 are supported by saddle members 51, which
drive applied only to the center roll of the second inter
saddles in turn bear -on the surfaces of the semi-circular
mediates series is satisfactory in the mill of this inven
machined troughs of the housing members heretofore de
tion; disadvantageous slippage does not occur. It will be
scribed and designated by the index numerals 22 to 25.
evident from FIG. 5 that a driving force applied to the
On the shafts the casters are grouped in assembly, each
center roll of the second intermediate series, not only
caster being disposed between two of the saddle mem 50 transmits its torque by friction to the first intermediate
bers 51. All of the saddle members and the inner races
rolls, and thence to the working rolls, but also transmits
of the caster bearings are held axially compressed on the
torque to the casters, and through the casters to the
shafts 50, as by nuts threaded on the ends of the shafts.
outer ones of the intermediate rolls of the second series.
From FlG. 5 it can be seen that the saddle members
But the success of the simplified drive taught herein is
have portions shaped to fit the semi-circular troughs,
believed to be more directly due to the following consid
and other portions shaped to abut against or to clear sad
eration: If two rolls of each second intermediate series
dle members in adjacent troughs. In this manner all of the
are driven, it becomes necessary to grind each pin of the
saddles 51 can be oriented in the same manner, and so
driven rolls with great accuracy to the same diameters.
located that they do not interfere with neighboring as
If this is not done, all of the drive will be concentrated
semblies. The nuts on the ends of the shafts 50 compress 60 on the roll which has the larger diameter; and the smaller
the inner races of the casters 49 so that they will not ro
roll in the same series may actually drag or resist the
tate by themselves; but during the course of the use of
drive. Such a situation does not occur when only the
any mill, these inner races may be rotated from time to
center rolls of the two second intermediate series are
time, usually by about one-third of a revolution so as to
driven. These rolls do not have to have exactly the
get the full life out of the structures. It will be under 65 same diameter as other intermediate rolls in the same
stood that the shaft-holding portions of the saddles are
series, and while the one driven roll in the second inter
all ground to the same inside diameters, and that the
mediate series should have substantially the same diam
saddles themselves have the same outside diameters.
eter as the one driven roll in the other second intermedi
Hence, they provide a spaced backing (with accurately
ate series (the other half of the mill), a small discrepancy
machined casters) for the second intermediate rolls, and 70 in diameter only slightly alters the position of the so
ultimately for the working rolls. Since screwdown is not
called “non-slip point” of the metal being reduced in the
accomplished in this mill by means of eccentric saddles
roll bite, which is not a serious disadvantage. Despite
or eccentric saddle shafts, the construction of the saddle
a small discrepancy in their diameters, each directly
and caster assemblies is substantially simplified and
75 driven roll has substantially the same share in the trans
cheapened.
apre-,36o
`9
mission of driving force to the mill; and the rolls do not
-In the new arrangement, it is possible to use working
»In FlG. 6 the two middlejintermediate rolls of the
»rolls devoid of any crown, along with taper-relieved inter.
mediate rolls, since the mill is in a measure self-compen
sating, since adjustment may be effected by the screws 52
ywork against each other.
`second series (marked 48,) -are'shown ,as provided with
thrust bearings 55 and 56 lat one of their ends, and elon
gated at the other of their ends (as at 57 and 5S) so that
connections may be made therewith .by means of driving
'and `thrust~sustaining spindles 59 and 60 with Va pinion
stand (not shown) which will be powered in any suitable
way, as by an electric motor.
`»At eachl side of .each of- themilhhous-ing members, there
:may tbe, provided removable plates illustrated in FIG. 6
.at :61, -62_, >-63a `and 6,4, The plates 6,1 and 62 carry vthe
thrust bearings 55 and 56 for the rolls in each second
intermediate series.
AS. was taught >in îFatent 2.776.586., more perfect roll
ing is accomplished `in rigid »bsambacked mills by pro
v-iding one -or ¿botho‘f the rolls `of the ‘first intermediate
yseries `with slight taper-reliefs, soç located that they start
`inside the edges of the material being rolled and Vextend
`outwardly therebeyond. In that patent also. there was
`discl-osed the expedient of providing taper reliefs near or
at the ends of atleast a pair of intermediate rolls, `but at
~-hereinabove described, and since adjustment may also> be
effected by the use of independent screwdowns at each
side of the mill. Crowned working rolls may, however,
`be used if desired.
Those portions of the drawers which extend across the
10 mill and are generally indicated at 65, 66, 67 and 68 in
FIG. 5 may be shaped or enlarged in such fashion as to
be disposed in a floating position on the first intermediate
rolls 47 and the outer ones of the second intermediate
rolls 48. These >portions of the drawers are preferably
lined with `an anti-friction, usually plastic, material.
They may be urgedslightly against the rolls aforesaid by
any suitable spring elements. The longitudinally extend
ing drawer portions, or members attached to them, may be
`Pârforated or made hollow for the delivery of lubricant
to the mill. They lare provided with suitable perfora
»tions to form jets of the lubricant, which is also a coolant.
Lubricant may be directed against the working rolls as
they- contact the piece being rolled, and it may alsorbe
`-opposite ends of the respective rolls, and then adjusting
»injected between the casters into the space between the
`the rolls by relative longitudinal movement until these 2.5 vari-ous supporting rolls so as to work -t-oward the work~
`taper reliefs were brought into the relationship with the
ingrolls.
edges of the material -being rolled which has been de
scribed above. In this way the mill could `readily be
adjusted for the rolling of materials of different widths,
`without changing the rolls of the first intermediate series
A.each time the width of rolling material was changed.
The same effect is accomplished in .the mill of this
invention in a much simplified manner. The simplifi
cation is based on the discovery, after long experimentation, that it was not detrimental to the rolling opera
_tion to shift the `working rolls 46 along with the ñrs-t
series intermediate rolls 47 in an axial or longitudinal
direction.
»
The locationV of the jets 4and the introduction of lubri
cant is important since this constitutes »a means for main
taining the wheat balance of the mill, and of avoiding
undue cXpansion of any of the mill elements from an
_unequal rise of temperature. As a rule the discharge of
cooling lubricant should be greater toward the cen-ter of
`»the rolls than near the edges of the strip being rolled; but
the exact number of jet-forming holes and their positions
will depend on the type of mill, its size, the material being
rolled, and other factors. The lubricant normally issues
from the mill at the level of the strip being rolled, .and
may be filtered `and recirculated in any suitable fashion’.
Oil issuing from themill may be arranged -to be caught
roll and its adjacent supporting rolls of the first inter 40 in the foundation box 3.
mediate series in each half >of the mill in a common
lt will be observed that the mill of this invention is not
“drawen” The drawer elements are indicated at 65, 66,
provided with doors ateither side. This gives greater
67 `and 68 in FIG. 5. They comprise not only theillus
space for the passage of lubricant and coolant.
ltrated elements extending across the mill in spaces be~
The interior portions of the mill of this invention are
tween the supporting rolls and the work piece, but also
unusually accessible. The hydraulic cylinder 7 may be
end elements indicated in FIG. 6 `at 69, 70, 71 -and 72. 45 so constructed and operated that it will lift the upper half
The intermediate rolls of the first series and the work
of the mill to any desired height. The hinge construc
rolls -are either journaled in or have a thrust bearing
tion and the screwdown construction, as will be evident,
against these end elements, the drawers thus constituting
are separable vertically since they are required to sustain
frames which are capable of being moved transversely of
only compressive forces. Means for retaining the work
`the mill. Bracket elements 73 and 74 are lattached re 50 ing roll and the intermediate rolls of both sets, together
spectively to the end mill plate 61 `and 62; and these
with the casters and saddles, `are easily provided in a mill
`brackets bear threaded shafts 75 and 76,. The end ele
lof this type so that if the upper half of the mill is raised
ments 71 and 72 of the respective drawers are provided
for access to its interior, the positions of these elements
with `fittings 77 and 78 (FIG. 6), each including »a nut
will not change. A lifting 'of the upper half of the mill
portion which is threaded -on one of the shafts 75 or 55 by means of the hydraulic cylinder 7, the lower platen 9
`’,76. By turning either of these threaded shafts, its en~
and the tie rods 11 to 13 is suñicient for all ordinary jobs
tire drawer‘including the working roll and the two inter
of replacement and repair; but as indicated above, by dis
mediate rolls of the first series may be moved laterally
connecting the tie rods, the entire upper housing member
of the mill. It will be understood that at least one of
‘together with its appurtenances may be removed from
lThe simplification is effected by placing the working
the supporting rolls` of the first series in the upper half 60 the mill `and transported elsewhere.
of the mill will have a taper relief near one of Vits ends,
`and that at least one of the supporting rolls of the ñrst
Modifications may be made in the invention without
`departing from -the spirit of it. Having thus described
the invention in an exemplary embodiment, what is
intermediateseries in the lower half of the mill will `have
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Pa
a taper `relief adjacent its other end.I The positions of
`these tapered reliefs can be adjusted by turning the 65 tent is:
l. A gbeambacked mill for rolling flat products,` com
threaded `shafts 75 and 76 so as to bring the tapered reliefs
prising two separable beams, each having rotatable inner
into coincidence with the edges of material being rolled,
elements adapted to back a working roll throughout its
`when the width of these materials is changed. The
working length, said beams having corner portions ex
“threaded shafts arein a position of convenient access on
`.the -operator’s side of the mill which makes it possible to 70 tending beyond the working length of the said working
rolls, means interposed between the corner portions of the
observe the exact axial position of each drawer. The
two beams at one side of said working rolls for maintain
-ñttings `"I7 and 78 may conveniently carry pointers mov
ing said corner portions apart by a desired distance, said
`ing over `scales to indicate -the exact positions in the mill
means
acting as hinges for said beams, adjustable >sepa
of the taper reliefs.
.
75 rators interposed between the corner portions of the two
smesso
11
beams at the opposite side of said working rolls, and pres
sure means for urging the two beams toward each other
with a force in excess of the roll-separating force encoun
tered in reducing a work piece between said working rolls,
whereby the means interposed between the respective cor
ners of said beams may be maintained under compression
during a rolling operation.
2. The structure claimed in claim 1 wherein said pres
sure means are of yielding character so as to permit sepa
ration of said beams under excessive roll-separating force.
3. A beambacked mill comprising two symmetrically
disposed and substantially identical backing structures,
each comprising a one-piece beam with parallel cavities in
which cavities casters are supported for transferring roll
12
adjustably attached respectively to the `corner portions of
said beams, said abutment means having approaching sur
faces bearing cylindrical hollows, and a cylindrical mem
ber engaged in the hollows of approaching ones of said
abutment members to provide a hinging action.
10. The structure claimed in claim 8 including lever
arms non-rotatably affixed to said eccentrically mounted
shafts and hydraulic cylinder and piston means connected
to said lever arms and to a support whereby said lever
arms may be rocked and held in adjusted position.
11. The structure claimed in claim 10 wherein said
abutment members have a toothed engagement with cor
ner portions of said beams whereby to provide for step
wise adjustment.
i2. The structure claimed in claim 11 wherein said ec
separating forces encountered by working rolls to said
centrically mounted shafts and said abutment means in
beams, said beams having corner portions located later
cluding said cylindrical members have substantial length
ally of the path of travel of a strip of metal to be rolled
in the side-to-side direction of said beams, and in which
between said working rolls, means interposed between
said rods are pivoted to corner portions of the beam of
the respective corner portions of the two beams for main
taining said beams in separated position, and means urg 20 the said other of said mill parts at a position intermediate
the ends of said eccentrically mounted shafts and abut
ing said beams together with a force greater than the roll
ment means, whereby said negative screwdown means and
separating force encountered by said working rolls in re
said abutment means tend, under the stresses exerted by
ducing said strip, whereby to maintain the means inter
said hydraulic cylinder and piston means, to maintain the
posed between said corner portions under compression.
4. The structure claimed in claim 3 in which the means 25 corner portions of said beams in parallelism with each
other to minimize beam deflection in the side-to-side di
interposed between the corner portions 0f said beams at
rection.
one side of said working rolls are adjustable whereby to
13. The structure claimed in claim 12 wherein each
provide screwdown.
mill part has a first set of two intermediate rolls and a
5. A beambacked mill having two separable parts, each
part comprising a beam generally rectangular in plan and 30 second set of three intermediate rolls, and wherein the
mill drive is applied to the central roll of the second set
having corner portions, a working roll, at least one set of
of intermediate rolls in each mill part.
intermediate rolls backing said working rolls, casters jour
14. The structure claimed in claim 13 wherein one at
naled in saddles and backing said intermediate rolls, said
least of the intermediate rolls of each first set is provided
saddles being mounted in hollows extending from side to
with a taper relief adjacent one of its ends at a position
side in said beams, said mill parts being disposed in oppo
such that the said taper relief can be brought into coinci
sition to each other with said work rolls in alignment, an
idence with an edge of a piece being rolled in the mill.
hydraulic cylinder and piston means engaging the outer
15. The structure claimed in claim 13 wherein the first
central portion of the beam of one of said mill parts and
intermediate rolls together with a working roll in each of
the central portion of a platen, said platen having corner
portions connected respectively by rods with corner por 40 the mill parts are provided with thrust bearings in a mem
ber slidable transversely of the mill, at least one of the
tions of the beam of the other of said mill parts, said hy
first intermediate rolls of one mill pa-rt having a taper
draulic cylinder and piston means Ábeing capable of exert
relief near its end and at least one of the first intermediate
ing a force urging said mill parts together and greater
rolls of the other mill part having a taper relief near its
than the roll separating forces exerted on said Working
rolls during a rolling operation, separable abutment means 45 opposite end, and means for moving said sliding members
adjustably, whereby to bring said taper reliefs into coinci
interposed between the corner portions of said beams at
dence with opposite side edges of varying widths of pieces
one end of the mill and negative, continuously adjustable
being rolled.
screwdown means interposed between the corner portions
16. The structure claimed in claim 15 including mem
of said beams at the other end of said mill.
6. The structure claimed in claim 5 wherein said hy 50 bers threaded into at least one of the said beams so as
draulic cylinder and piston means are swiveled to the cen
to bear on the saddles contained at least in one of the
hollows thereof whereby to effect a mill adjustment.
tral portion of said platen, and in which said rods are piv
17. In a beambacked mill of the type having working
otally connected to the corner portions of the beam of the
rolls, intermediate rolls, casters, and saddles mounted in
said other of said mill parts.
7. The structure claimed in claim 6 in which the beam 55 hollows extending from side to side of beam members
extending across the mill, beam members which are sep
of the said other of said mill parts is of greater thickness
arable from each other and which have corner portions,
than the beam of the mill part to which the hydraulic
means at the respective corners 0f said beams for holding
cylinder and piston means are attached, whereby a deflec
them apart by a desired distance determinative of screw
tion of the beam of the said other of said parts due to
working roll separation forces will be compensated at least 60 down, and means for urging said beams toward each other
with a force greater than the roll separating force during
in part by the deñection of the beam of the opposite mill
a rolling operation, said last mentioned means compris
part due to the pressure exerted on the central portion of
ing
force exerting means for a reaction against the central
the last mentioned beam by the said hydraulic cylinder
portion of one of' the said beams and against the corner
and piston means.
portions of the other of said beams whereby defiection in
8. The structure claimed in claim 7 wherein the said
one vof said beams is compensated for at least in part by
negative screwdown means comprises at least one eccen
trically mounted shaft on each corner portion of an end
of at least one of said beams and bearing on members
a ideiiection of the other of said beams in the same direc
ment means connecting the corners of said beams at the
ner portions, one of said beams being mounted on said
tion.
18. in a mill of the type having working rolls, inter
attached to the corresponding corner portions of the other
mediate
rolls, casters, and saddles respectively located in
of said beams and means for adjusting and fixing the ro 70
hollows in a pair of beams extending in the direction of
tative portions of said shafts whereby to effect a negative
the length of said working rolls, an elevated platform, said
screwdown.
beams being generally rectangular in plan and having cor
9. The structure claimed in claim 8 wherein the abut
opposite end of said mill each comprise abutment means 75 platform by means of its corner portions, an hydraulic
13
3,076,360
cylinder and piston means attached to the center portion
1,824,211
2,027,283
2,085,449
of said beam and extending below said platform through
a perforation therein, a platen engaging the lower end of
said hydraulic cyílinder and piston means and rods con~
2,169,711
nesting corner portions of said platen with corner portions
of the other of said beams, said last mentioned beam be
ing located above the beam which is attached to said plat
iiorm, and abutment means located between the respective
corners of said beams, the abutment means between the
said corner portions at one end of said mill being adjust 10
able for screwdown purposes.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
2,170,732
2,237,794
2,368,030
2,479,974
2,566,679
2,680,881
2,688,891
2,776,586
UNITED STATES PATENTS
385,437
Baldwin _____ ___. _______ __ July 3, 1888
1,636,057
1,787,558
.Tones ________________ __ July 19, 1927
Tinsman ______________ _... Ian. 6, 1931
14
Ifobke _______________ _- Sept. 22, 1931
McFadden ______________ __. Jan. 7, 1936
Rohn ________________ __ June 29, 1937
Sendzimir ____________ __ Aug. 15, 1939
Sendzirnir ____________ __ Aug. 22, 1939
Sendzimir _____________ __ Apr. 8, 1941
Larsson ______________ __ Jau. 23, 1945
Sendzimir et al ________ __ Aug. 23, 1949
Sendzimir et al _________ __ Sept. 4, 1951
Mock ________________ _.. June 15, 1954
Bai-lard ______________ __. Sept. 14, 1954
Sendzimir _____________ .__ Ian. 8, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
15
456,721
634,346
832,393
Great Britain _________ __ Nov. 11, ’1936
Germany ____________ _.. Aug. 25, 1936
France ______________ __ June 27, 1938
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