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Патент USA US3076408

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Feb. 5, 1963
E. HAHN ETAL
3,076,398
CAMERA DIAPHRAGMS AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL MEANS THEREFOR
Filed Dec. 24, 1959
INVENTORS 1
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BY
3,076,398
United States Patent 0 ' "ice
l
2
for maintaining the leaves in a single plane. In addition,
whenever the diaphragm utilizes cord-like ?exible ele
ments for connecting its leaves to each other and/ or with
the counterweights, the danger that the ?exible elements
3,d76,398
CAMERA DZAPHRA‘GMS AND AUTQMATIC
CQNTRGL MEANS THEREFGR
Erich Hahn and Werner Hahn, Bresden, Germany, as
signors to VlEli» Kamera- and ltlinowerlre Dresden,
will expand is ever present, which leads to improper ex
posure of the photosensitive material owing to inaccurate
Dresden, (Germany
setting of the diaphragm leaves.
A satisfactory fully automatic control and regulating
Filed Dec. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 861,335
16 (Ziaims. (ill. 95-64‘)
The present invention relates to improvements in dia
phragms or stops for cameras and motion-picture
cameras in general, and more particularly to a two-piece
diaphragm combined with control means for automati
cally regulating the aperture through which the light is
admitted to the optical system of such apparatus, and in
which the automatic regulation of the light aperture is
brought about by electric current generated in a photo
electric cell.
Before proceeding with the detailed description of
idatented Feb. 5, 19%3
system for the diaphragms of cameras and motion-picture
cameras should operate in such a way that each change
in the intensity of illumination upon the photoelectric cell
by a factor 2 should bring about a change, equally by a
factor 2, in the area of the light aperture de?ned by the
diaphragm leaves. However, owing to certain current
15 characteristics of the photoelectric element and of the
moving-coil instrument means, which characteristics can
not always be calculated with sufficient accuracy, certain
corrective measures must be undertaken to compensate
for aberrations in all such types of diaphragm controls.
Man} presently known and utilized control systems for
the diaphragms in cameras and motion~picture cameras
various objects as well as of the exact construction and
mode of operation of our invention, we will now describe
certain known types of diaphragms and control means
neglect such corrections; therefore, their usefulness is
therefor by simultaneously pointing out such drawbacks
trol system for regulating the light apertures of dia
limited to such photographic equipment which is not ex
pected to operate with a high degree of accuracy. We
will now proceed to describe certain presently known
methods of and means for correcting such aberrations.
it was already suggested to correct the movements of
phragms or stops in many cameras and motion-picture
cameras of presently utilized design. According to one
leaf-shaped elements of which the diaphragm consists
by the provision of a plurality of correcting or rectifying
of the prior systems which are overcome by the improved
construction of our invention.
It is already known to provide a fully automatic con
prior proposal, the diaphragm consists of several leaves
cams mounted directly on the coil of the moving-coil in
and the automatic control or regulating system therefor
comprises a moving~coil meter for each leaf, each meter
having a coil connected with one of the leaves for moving
strument.
The cams cause controlled movements of
diaphragm leaves into a series of positions to vary the
light aperture of the diaphragm. One end of each leaf
carries a follower roller or pin which is permanently
the same with respect to the other leaves so as to vary
the light aperture of the composite multi-leaf diaphragm.
biased into engagement with the cam by a coil spring, a
leaf spring, or other resilient means. The very small
Each meter is supplied with electric current by a photo
electric cell which receives current impulses of various
angular momentum imparted to the coil by the current
magnitude depending upon the light admission to the
supplied through the output circuit of the photoelectric
cell.
cell not only must overcome the weight of the leaves and
Alternately, the leaves may be articulately connected 40 of the cam means but must also counteract the frictional
to each other by ?exible cord-like elements and their
forces generated by the permanently acting resilient means
movements controlled by the coil of a single moving-coil - between the followers of the individual leaves and the
instrument. In the just described types of diaphragms,
cam means since any movements performed by the leaves
also known as iris diaphragrns, the leaves are shaped in
must be brought about by the cam means whose cam
such a manner that, in each of their positions, they form 45 surfaces transmit movement to the leaves through the re
a light aperture of approximately circular, and more par
spective follower rollers. Consequently, the usefulness
ticularly of a regular polygonal contour, i.e. the light
passes through the lens within the con?nes outlined by,
of such diaphragm controlling systems is very limited
because they will react only when the photoelectric ele
ment is exposed to an illumination of very high intensity.
An additional drawback of such diaphragm controls is
say, eight or more leaves which form an eight- or more
sided light aperture. In a somewhat modi?ed construc
tion, two or more overlapping diaphragm leaves are
formed with arcuate slots or cutouts which, depending on
that they require a cam for each individual blade or leaf
of the diaphragm. Since the leaves pivot about axes
which do not coincide with the axis of the moving-coil
the angular position of the leaves with respect to each
other, overlap to a greater or lesser extent to in such man
ner de?ne a light aperture of requisite area. In this modi
?ed construction, the leaves are movable by the coil or
coils of one or more moving-coil instruments.
A serious disadvantage of all hcreinabove described
prior diaphragm controls is that the coils of the moving
55
instrument, the cams must be ?nished with utmost pre
cision and must be installed with an extremely high de
gree of accuracy if a satisfactory degree of correction is to
Y be attained. It will be readily understood that the manu
facture and mounting of such diaphragrns and of control
means therefor are time-consuming and greatly increase
coil instruments are subjected to very heavy stresses since 60 the cost of photographic equipment which embodies the
they must, either directly or at least indirectly, support
one or more leaves of which the diaphragm consists and
must also carry or move, by means of cords or like
?exible elements, the countenweights which are utilized
for balancing the leaves. Thus, the moving-coil instru
ments or meters must generate a force sufficient not only
for moving the leaves With respect to each other but also
an additional force which is necessary for carrying, or
overcoming the friction of, various counterweights and
of the ?exible elements which connect the counterweights
with the leaves. Such friction is even increased owing
to the provision of guide channels which are necessary
same.
In other types of diaphragm controls in which the
moving-coil instrument controls the movements of in~
dividual diaphragm leaves by means of cord-like ?exible
elements, the corrections of aforementioned aberrations
in the movements of diaphragm leaves are brought about
by the provision of eccentric guide means, such as rollers,
sheaves, shafts or the like, over which the ?exible ele
ments are led and which thus affect the movements of
the diaphragm leaves. However, the provision of guid—
‘ , ing and teosioning rollers or the like again generates addi
3,076,398
3
Al.
tional frictional forces which must be overcome by the
coil or coils of the moving-coil instrumentalities. In
addition, such cord guiding and tensioning means cannot
rately controlling the light aperture over the entire range
of illuminations to which the photoelectric cell may be
fully compensate for the aberrations, i.e. they will only
A concomitant object of the present invention is to
provide an improved diaphragm for cameras and motion
picture cameras which requires very small forces for mov
partially correct the disproportionation between the
changes in the light admission to the photoelectric cell
and the desired angular displacement of the coil or coils
which, through the aforementioned ?exible elements, con~
trol the movements of diaphragm leaves.
exposed.
ing its leaves into an in?nite number of positions with
respect to each other for varying the light aperture of
the diaphragm.
Another known fully automatic diaphragm control 10 With the above objects in view, the invention resides
comprises moving-coil instruments whose coils are con—
in the provision of a fully automatic control system which
nected with the diaphragm, leaves by means of suitable
regulates a diaphragm consisting of two crosswise an
motion transmitting gearing in, order to vary the light ap
ranged leaves, eaclrformed as a two-armed lever and
erture in conformity with the variations in light admission
each pivotally mounted in the housing of the camera at a
to the photoelectric cell. Such systems share the dis 15 point which coincides with its center of gravity but does
advantage of certain previously described controls in that
not coincide with the pivot axis of the moving-coil instru
the moving coil or coils must operate a series of addi
ment which latter forms part of the diaphragm control.
tional parts and must also overcome the friction between
Owing to such mounting of the lever-shaped leaves, very
such parts and the bearings- and pivot axles on which the
small forces are required to move the same with respect
moving parts are mounted. This reduces the e?iciency
to each other in order to vary the light aperture of the
and sensitivity of such diaphragm controls, and also in
diaphragm. The control system comprises a photo
creases the manufacturing cost. In addition, 21 dia
electric cell whose output circuit is connected with the
phragm control utilizing motion transmitting gears is un
aforementioned moving-coil meter. The moving coil of
reliable and cannot fully compensate for the aberrations.
the meter is operatively connected with one of the lever
In accordance with a still further prior proposal, the 25 shaped leaves by means of a cam slot and driving pin
diaphragm, comprises a pair of relatively movable leaves
assembly, and a similar operative connection is provided
the ?rst of. which is mounted directly on the pivot axle
between said one and the other leaf of the diaphragm.
of. the moving coil and drives the second leaf through a
It is preferred to connect the moving coil with one of
system of‘toothed gears, segments or the like. The sec
the leaves in such a way that the leaf is formed with a
ond leaf is pivotally mounted in the camera housing and 30 straight but preferably arcuate cam slot, and that the
carries toothed parts which are in mesh with the toothed
spindle of the coil carries a discoid member provided with
members of the ?rst leaf. The synchronization of move
an eccentric driving pin extending into the cam slot to
ments performed by the diaphragm leaves either to en
rotate the leaf when the photoelectric cell conveys a cur
large or to reduce the light aperture upon variations in
rent impulse to the moving-coil meter. The operative
the light, admission to the photoelectric cell is brought 35 connection between the two-armed levers or leaves of the
about by a light absorbing or dimming member which is
diaphragm constitutes a coupling which operates in such
mounted on the pivot axle of the moving coil. The light
a way that the leaves are simultaneously moved in op
absorbing member may consist of a segmental or sector
posing directions Whenever the movable coil responds to
shaped shield which screens or covers the photoelectric
changes in light conditions to which the photoelectric cell
is exposed.
cell to a larger orlesser extent, depending upon the in
tensity of light to‘ which the photoelectric cell is exposed.
Since no springs are required, and since the improved
A drawback of such diaphragm controls is that the photo
diaphragm comprises only two fully balanced leaves, very
electric cell must be mounted immediately adjacent to
small current impulses will cause the control system to
the moving-coil instrument because the latter must vary
react and to displace the leaves with respect to each other
the position of the lightabsorbing member which, as de
in response to extremely small variations in light intensity
scribed hereinabove, must in turn be located in front of 45 to which the photoelectric cell is exposed. Consequently,
the photoelectric cell. Consequently, such diaphragm
the novel system is one of very great accuracy and e?i
controls can be utilized only in certain types of cameras.
because they occupy a certain amount of space not avail-.
' ciency and, since it consists of a small number of com
ponent parts, may be readily installed in practically all
able in all cameras of presentlyutilized design.
cameras and motion-picture cameras of presently utilized
An important object of the present invention is to pro 50 design.
vide a diaphragm control which is capable of fully com
The novel features which are considered as character
pensating for the'current aberrations in the photoelectric
istic of. the invention are set forth in particular in the
cell and in the moving-coil instrumentalities utilized
appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as
toits construction and its method of operation, together
therein.
_
Another object of the invention is to provide a dia 55 with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be
phragm controlling and regulating system which is ca
best understood from the following detailed description
pable of operating with a very high degree of accuracy,
of, a speci?c embodiment when read in connection with
in which the energy losses owing to friction and weight
the accompanying drawing the single illustration of which
is a perspective view of the improved twoeleaf diaphragm
of parts are reduced to a minimum, and which consists
of a very small number of componentparts.
A further object of the invention is to provide a fully
automaticdiaphragm control of. the above outlined char
acteristic which operates without. springs and which does
60 and of the novel control and regulating system therefor.
' Referring now in greater detail to the drawing, there is.
shown a diaphragm consisting of two crossing leaves 6, 7,.
each formed as a twoarmed lever and each having an
armi6a, 7a, respectively, constituting the means for de?noperatively connecting the diaphragm leaves to each 65 ing the variablerlight aperture 2. The lever or leaf 6 is
not not require ?exible elements or tensioning rollers for
other.
'
pivotable about a shaft or pivot axle 19 which is held in
suitable bearings 19a, 19b forming part of or connected
A still further object ofthe instant invention is to pro
to the ‘camera housing H in which the diaphragm is in
vide a diaphragm control which is of lightweight con;
The axis of the shaft 19 coincides with the center
struction, which occupies very little space, and which may 70 stalled.
of gravity 13 of the lever 6. The other lever or leaf 7
be readily installed in nearly all cameras or motion~pic~
is mounted in similar fashion on a second shaft or pivot
ture cameras of presently utilized design,
axle 20 which is parallel with the shaft 19 and is carried
Still another. object of theinvention is to provideafullyr
by bearings Zita, Ztib mounted in the camera housing H.
automatic. diaphragm control which “operates witha .very
high‘degree‘of: accuracy and which» is capable; of, accua
Again, the center of gravity 16 of the lever ‘7 coincides
75 withtheaxis of itspivot axle 2%. Owing to such mount
3,076,398
5
ing of the levers 6 and 7, a comparatively small force is
required for moving the same with respect to each other
slot 12 is formed as a straight recess or cutout. The pro
vision of an arcuate slot 12) is intended to control with
very great accuracy the pivoting movements of the levers
6, 7', i.e. the curved slot 12 will adapt the movements of
these levers to the current characteristics of the meter 1
and of the photoelectric cell P.
In order to take into consideration the illumination fac
tors, the adjustable wedge 24 in front of the cell P is
brought into desired position which renders it possible to
fully utilize the entire area of the photoelectric cell during
each measurement, i.e. during measurements under vary
in order to vary the area of the light aperture 2. The
optical system of the camera comprises an objective 5 in~
eluding a combination of lenses 3-, 4- at the opposing sides
‘of the arms 6a, 7a.
The control or regulating system for the diaphragm
leaves 6, 7 comprises a photoelectric cell P which is built
into the camera housing and whose output circuit is elec
trically connected with a magnetic core meter 1.
The
latter comp-rises a moving coil 8 which is rigidly fixed to
a spindle 9; this spindle is parallel with the shafts 19, 2t}
ing illuminating conditions.
and supports a concentric disc it} formed with or con
As stated hereinbefore, the points about which the
levers 6, 7 pivot coincide with their centers of gravity 13,
16, respectively; therefore, the levers are in perfect bal
nected to an eccentric driving pin Iii which extends into
an arcuate slot 12 formed in the second arm 6b of the
diaphragm leaf 6. The operative connection between the
ance and comparatively small forces are required to pivot
the levers with respect to each other. The balance of the
leaves 6, 7 comprises a straight carn slot 15 formed in the
lever 7 and a sliding pin 14 connected to the lever 6 and
levers 6, 7 is further improved by the provision of pro
jectious 17, 21, respectively. In addition, since the com
extending into the slot 15. The coupling consisting of
the cam slot 15 and pin 14 is provided at a point between 20 posite or two-piece diaphragm 6, 7 and its connection with
the parallel shafts 19, 20. The lever or leaf 6 is formed
the coil 8 of the control means comprises a very small
with a laterally extending protuberance 17 which serves
number of component parts (that is, the spindle 9, the
as a balancing means, and a similar balancing means 21
disc 19, the pin 11 and the pin 14), the frictional forces
is provided on the other lever 7. The balancing means 21
are also very small which adds to the sensitivity, effi
may be replaced by a counterweight connectable to the 25 ciency and accuracy of the improved diaphragm. The
broken-off free end 18 of the lever 7. The lever s is fur
operation of the control system is fully automatic and,
ther provided with a cutout 22 which loosely receives the
due to the simplicity of the diaphragm and of the con
shaft 19, and a similar cutout 23 in the lever 7 surrounds
trol means therefor, the entire system occupies very little
with ample play the shaft 28'. The recesses or cutouts 22,
space and may be readily installed in practically all types
23 permit unobstructed pivotal movements of the levers 30 of cameras and motion picture cameras of presently uti
6, 7 with respect to each ‘other but always in opposing
directions.
lized design.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully
reveal the gist of the present invention that others can,
If it is desired to take into consideration the illumina
tion or light intensity factor, a manually adjustable wedge
of increasing density may be provided in front of the
photoelectric cell P or, alternately, the wedge 24 may be
replaced by a non-represented variable resistance which
is then connected in parallel with the photoelectric cell.
The improved diaphragm 6, '7 and the novel control
means therefor operate as follows:
by applying current knowledge, readily adapt it for vari
ous applications without omitting features that, from the
standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential char
acteristics of the generic and speci?c aspects of this
invention and, therefore, such adaptations should and
lit)
The photoelectric current which is generated in the
photoelectric cell P by the light reflected from an image
are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and
range of equivalence of the appended claims.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by
Letters Patent is:
brings about a rotary movement of the coil 8 and hence
also of the spindle 9 and discoid member if}. The eccen
tric driving pin ll of the disc 16 engages with the walls
1. In a camera housing, in combination: a diaphragm
comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped leaves, said
leaves defining a light aperture and each mounted in the
of the open slot 1?; and pivots the lever-shaped diaphragm 45 housing for pivotal movements about its center of gravity;
leaf 6 about the latter’s
l9. During such movement
means comprising a pin-and-slot connection for coupling
of the lever a, the pin 14 slides along the walls of the
said levers for simultaneous movements in opposing di
closed slot 15 and pivots the second lever-shaped leaf '7'
rections to vary the area of said light aperture; and a con
about the shaft
but in a direction oppose to that in
trol system for said diaphragm comprising a photoelectric
.
1
,.
-
.
.
.
.
which the rear 6 pivots. Thus, if the disc id is rotated in
clockwise direction to reduce the light aperture 2, the
leaf 6 will pivot anticlockwise about the shaft 19 and will
simultaneously swing the second leaf in clockwise direc
tion. Accordingly, the extent to which the light aperture
2 will be enlarged or reduced depends upon the extent to
which the coil 8 turns the disc id and the latter’s eccentric
driving pin 11. in other words, the intensity of illumina
tion to which the photoelectric cell P is exposed, the
strength of the current generated in the photoelectric cell,
and the angular displacement of the coil 3 will determine
the exact area of the light aperture.
I The shape of the curved or substantially sinusoidal open
slot 12 in the arm 6b of the lever-shaped diaphragm leaf
6 is selected in such a Way that the momentary area of
the light aperture 2 de?ned by the lever arms 6a, 7a cor
responds exactly to the momentary intensity of light to
which the photoelectric cell P is exposed. Thus, any
changes in illumination upon the cell P by a factor 2 will
bring about a change in the area of light aperture 2 by a
F1
cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter electri
cally connected in the output circuit of said cell and
comprising a moving coil which is angularly movable in
response to current impulses conveyed by said cell to
said meter, and an operative connection between one of
said leaves and said coil, said last mentioned connection
comprising an eccentric driving pin operatively connected
to and movable by said coil, and a cam slot formed in
said one leaf for slidably receiving the drivingpin.
2. In a camera housing, in combination: a diaphragm
comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped leaves, said
leaves de?ning a light aperture and each mounted in the
housing for pivotal movements about its center of gravity;
means comprising a pin-and-slot connection for coupling
said levers for simultaneous movements in opposing direc
tions to vary the area of said light aperture; and a con
trol system for said diaphragm comprising a photoelec
tric cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter
electrically connected in the output circuit of said cell
70 and comprising a moving coil which is angularly movable
factor \/§. This is attained by positioning the pin 11 and
in response to current impulses conveyed by said cell to
by shaping the slot 12 in such a manner that successive
said meter, and an operative connection between one of
angular movements of equal magnitude performed by the
said leaves and said coil, said last mentioned connection
pin ll will cause progressively decreasing pivotal move
comprising an eccentric driving pin operatively connected
ments of the lever or leaf 6. This is attainable even if the
to and movable by said coil, and a straight cam slot
3,076,898
8
formed in said one leaf for slidably receiving the driving
pin.
3. In a camera housing, in combination: a diaphragm
comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped leaves, said
leaves de?ning a light aperture and each mounted in the
housing for pivotal movements about its center of gravity;
means comprising a pin-and-slot connection for coupling
said levers for simultaneous movements in opposing di
a pin slidably received in said cam slot and connected
to the other leaf; and a control system for said diaphragm
comprising a photoelectric cell mounted in the housing,
a moving-coil meter electrically connected in the output
circuit of said cell and comprising a moving coil which
is angularly movable in response to current impulses con
veyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative con~
nection between one of said leaves and said coil, said
connection comprising an eccentric driving pin operatively
rections to vary the area of said light aperture; and a con
trol system for said diaphragm comprising a photoelec 10 connected to and movable by said coil and a second cam
slot formed in the other arm of said one leaf for slid
tric cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter elec
ably receiving the driving pin.
trically connected in the output circuit of said cell and
7. In a camera having a housing, in combination: two
comprising a moving coil which is angularly movable in
parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a diaphragm
response to current impulses conveyed by said cell to said
meter, and an operative connection between one of said 15 comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves compris
ing a two-armed lever and each connected to one of said
leaves and said coil, said last mentioned connection com
shafts in such a manner that its center of' gravity co
prising an eccentric driving pin operatively connected to
incides with the point about which it isrotatable on the
and movable by said coil, and a curved cam slot formed
respective shaft with respect to said'housing, one arm of
in said one leaf for slidably receiving the driving pin.
4. In a camera having a housing, in combination: a 20. one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
diaphragm comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped
leaves, said leaves de?ning a light aperture and each
leaf a variable light aperture; means coupling said leaves
for simultaneous movements in opposing directions to
vary'the area of said light aperture, said coupling means
mounted in the housing for pivotal movements about its
comprising a cam slot formed in one of said leaves and
center of gravity; means comprising a pin-and-slot con
nection for coupling said levers for simultaneous move 25 a pin slidably received in said cam slot and connected to
ments, in opposing directions to vary the area of said
i the other leaf; and a control system for said diaphragm
tion between one of‘ said‘ leaves and said coil, said last,
connection comprising a spindle parallel with said shafts,
comprising a photoelectric cell mounted in the housing,
light aperture; and a control system for said diaphragm
a moving-coil meter electrically connected in the output
comprising a photoelectric cell mounted in the housing, a
circuit of said cell and comprising a moving coil which
moving-coil meter electrically connected in the output
circuit of said celland comprising a moving coil which is 30 is angularly movable in response to current impulses con
veyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative con
angularly movable in response to current impulses con
nection between one of said leaves and said coil, said
veyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative connec
said spindle coaxially connected to and rotatable by said
mentioned connection comprising a spindle coaxially con
nected to and angularly movable. with said coil, a disc 35 coil, a disc concentrically connected to said spindle, a
driving pin eccentrically connected to said disc, and a
connected to said‘ spindle, a driving pin eccentrically con.
nected to said disc, and a cam slot formed in one of said,
leaves» and slidably receiving said driving pin for pivoting
second cam slot formed in the other arm of said one
leaf for slidably receiving said driving pin.
8. In a camera having a housing, in combination: two
5. In a camera having a housing, in combination: a 4:0 parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a diaphragm
said one leaf when the coil is angularly displaced.
diaphragm comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped
leaves, said leaves de?ning a light aperture and each
mounted in the housing for pivotal movements about its
center of gravity; means, comprising a pin-and-slot con
comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves compris
ing a two-armed lever and each connected to one of said
shafts in such a manner that its center of gravity co
incides with the point about which it is rotatable on the
respective shaft with respect to said housing, one arm of
one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
nectionfor' coupling said levers for simultaneous move-.
mentsin opposing directions to vary the area of said light
leaf a variable light aperture; means for balancing each
aperture; and a, control system for‘said diaphragm com
of said leaves; means coupling said leaves for simultaneous
prising a photoelectric cell mounted in the, housing, a
movements in opposing directions to vary the area of
moving-coil, meter electrically connected in the output
said light aperture, said coupling means comprising a cam
circuit of said cell and comprising a moving coil which is
angularly, movable in response to current impulses con 50 slot formed‘in one of said leaves and a pin slidably re
ceived in said cam slot and connected to the other leaf;
veyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative con
and a control system for said diaphragm comprising a
nection between one of said leavesand said coil, said last
photoelectric cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil
mentioned connection comprising a spindle coaxially con
meter electrically connected in the output circuit of said
nected to and angularly movable with said coil, a disc
concentrically connected to said spindle, a driving pin 55 cell and comprising a moving coil which is angularly
movable in response to current impulses conveyed by said
eccentricallyconnected to said disc, and a cam slot-formed
cell to said meter, and an operative connection between
in one of said leaves and slidably, receiving said driving
one of said leaves and said coil, said connection compris
pin for pivoting said one leaf when the coil is angularly
ing an eccentric driving pin operatively connected to and
displaced, saidlast mentioned connection being such that
said oneleaf performs progressively decreasing angular
movements in response. to successive movements of said
coil through angles of constant magnitude.
6. In a camera having a housing, in combination: two
movable by said coil, and a second cam slot formed in
the other arm of said one leaf for slidably receiving the
driving pin.
9. In a camera having a housing, in combination:
two parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a di
parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a diaphragm 65 aphragm comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves
comprising a pair of leaves, eachof said leaves com
comprising a two-armed lever and each connected to one
prising a two-armed lever and each connected to one of
of said shafts in such a manner that its center of gravity
said shafts in such a manner that its center of gravity
coincides with the point about which it is rotatable on
coincides with the point about which it is rotatable on the
the respective shaft with respect to said housing, one arm
respective shaft with respect'to said housing, one arm of 70 of one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
leaf a variable light aperture; means coupling said leaves
leaf a variable light aperture; meanscoupling said leaves
for simultaneous movements in opposing directions to
vary the area of said light aperture, said coupling means
for, simultaneous movements in opposing directions to
comprising a cam slot formed in one of said leaves inter-,
vary the area ofsaid light aperture, said coupling means
mediate said shafts and a pin slidably received in said cam
comprising, a; cam. slotfsl'raed; iagsne, Of . Said, leaves and
3,076,898
10
slot and connected to the other leaf; and a control system
for said diaphragm comprising a photoelectric cell
mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter electrically
connected in the output circuit of said cell and comprising
trol system for said diaphragm comprising a photoelectric
cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter elec~
a moving coil which is angularly movable in response to
trically connected in the output circuit of said coil and
comprising a moving coil which is angularly movable in
response to current impulses conveyed by said cell to
current impulses conveyed by said cell to said meter, and
said meter, and an operative connection between one of
an operative connection between one of said leaves and
said leaves and said coil, said connect-ion comprising a
spindle coaxial-1y connected with the coil for rotation
said coil, said connection comprising an eccentric driv
ing pin operatively connected to and movable by said coil,
therewith and parallel with said shafts, a disc con
and a second cam slot for-med in the other arm of said 10 centrically connected with said spindle, a driving pin ec
one leaf for slidably receiving the driving pin.
10. In a camera having a housing, in combination:
centrical-ly connected with said disc, and a second cam
slot formed in the other arm of said one leaf for slidably
two parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a di
receiving the driving pin, said coil adapted to pivot said
aphragm comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves
one leaf through said driving pin so that said coupling
comprising a two-armed lever and each connected to one 15 means may turn the other leaf whereby the ?rst mentioned
of said shafts in such a manner that its center of gravity
arms of said leaves vary the area of said light aperture.
coincides with the point about which it is rotatable on
13. Ina camera housing, in combination: a diaphragm
the respective shaft with respect to said housing, one arm
comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped leaves, said
of one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
leaves de?ning a light aperture and each mounted in the
leaf a variable light aperture; means coupling said leaves 20 housing for pivotal movements about its center of
for simultaneous movements in opposing directions to
gravity; means comprising a pinwand-slot connection for
vary the area of said light aperture, said coupling means
coupling said levers for simultaneous movements in op
comprising a straight cam slot formed in one of said
posing directions to vary the area of said light aperture;
leaves and a pin slidably received in said cam slot and
a control system for said diaphragm comprising a photo
connected to the other leaf; and a control system for N Or electric cell mounted in the housing, a moving-coil meter
said diaphragm comprising a photoelectric cell mounted
electrically connected in the output circuit of said cell and
in the housing, a moving-coil meter electrically con
comprising a moving coil which is angularly movable in
nected in the output circuit of said cell and comprising
response to current impulses conveyed by said cell to said
a moving coil which is angularly movable in response to
meter, and an operative connection between one of said
current impulses conveyed by said cell to said meter, and 30 leaves and said coil, said last mentioned connection com
an openative connection between one of said leaves and
prising an eccentric driving pin operatively connected to
said coil, said connection comprising an eccentric driv
‘and movable by said coil, and a cam slo-t formed in said
ing pin operatively connected to and movable by said coil,
one leaf for slidably receiving the driving pin; and a
and a second cam slot formed in the other arm of said
manually adjustable wedge of varying density movably
one leaf for slidably receiving the driving pin.
mounted in front of said photoelectric cell.
11. In a camera having a housing, in combination:
two parallel shafts each mounted in said housing; a di
comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped leaves, said
aphragm comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves
comprising a two-armed lever and each connected to one
of said shafts in such a manner that its center of gravity
coincides with the point about which it is rotatable on
the respective shaft with respect to said housing, one arm
of one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
leaf a variable light aperture; means coupling said leaves
for simultaneous movements in opposing directions to
vary the area of said light aperture, said coupling means
comprising a cam slot formed in one of said leaves and
a pin slidably received in said cam slot and connected
‘to the other leaf; and a control system for said diaphragm
comprising a photoelectric cell mounted in the housing, a
moving-coil meter electrically connected in the output
circuit of said cell and comprising a moving coil which
is angularly movable in response to current impulses con
veyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative con
nection between one of said leaves and said coil, said
14. In a camera housing, in combination: a diaphragm
ileaves de?ning a light aperture and each mounted in the
housing for pivotal movements about its center of
gravity; means comprising a slot-and-pin connection for
coupling said levers for simultaneous movements in op
posing directions to vary the area of said light aperture;
a control system for said diaphragm comprising a photo
electric cell mounted in the housing, a moving~coil meter
electrically connected in the output circuit of said cell
and comprising a moving coil which is angularly mov
able in response to current impulses conveyed by said cell
to said meter, and an operative connection between one
of said leaves and said coil, said last mentioned connec
tion comprising an eccentric driving pin operatively con
nected to and movable by said coil, and a cam slot
formed in said one leaf for slidably receiving the driving
pin; and 1a variable resistance connected in parallel with
said photoelectric cell.
15. In a camera having a housing, in combination: a
connection comprising an eccentric driving pin operatively
diaphragm comprising a pair of crossing lever-shaped
connected to and movable by said coil, and an open
second cam slot formed in the other arm of said one leaf
leaves, said leaves de?ning a light aperture and each
mounted in the housing for pivot-a1 movements about its
for slidably receiving the driving pin.
;
center of vgravity; means comprising a pin-and-slot con
12. In a camera having a housing, in combination: 60 nection for coupling said levers for simultaneous move
an objective mounted in said housing; two spaced parallel
ments in opposing directions to vary the area of said light
shafts each r-ot-atably mounted in said housing; a di
aperture; and a control system for said diaphragm com
aphragm comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves
prising la photoelectric cell mounted in the housing, a
comprising a two-armed lever and each connected with
magnetic core meter electrically connected in the output
one of said shafts in such manner that its center of gravity
circuit of said cell and comprising a moving coil which
coincides with the point about which it is rotatable with
the respective shaft relative to said housing, one arm of
one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other leaf
a variable light aperture for said objective; means for
balancing said leaves; means coupling said leaves for
simultaneous movements in opposing directions to vary
the area of said light aperture, said coupling means com
prising a cam slot formed in one of said leaves inter
mediate said shafts and a pin slidably received in said
cam slot and connected to the other leaf; and a con 75
is angularly movable in response to current impulses
conveyed by said cell to said meter, and an operative
connection between one of said leaves and said coil, said
last mentioned connection comprising a spindle coaxially
connected to and rotatable by said coil, a disc concentri
cally connected to said spindle, a driving pin eccentrical
ly connected to said disc, ‘and a cam slot formed in one
of said leaves and slidably receiving said driving pin for
pivoting said one leaf when the coil is angularly dis
placed.
3,078,398
11
167 In 1a camera having a housing, in combination:
an objective mounted in said housing; two spaced paral
lel shafts each rotatably mounted in said housing; 2. dia
phragm comprising a pair of leaves, each of said leaves
comprising a two-armed lever and each connected with
one of said shafts in such manner that its center of gravity
coincides ‘with the point about which it is rotatable with
the respective shaft relative to said housing, one arm of
12
leaves and said coil, said connection comprising a spindle
coaxi-ally connected with’ and turnable by said coil, said
spindle parallel with said shafts, a disc concentrically
connected with said spindle, a driving pin eccentrically
connected with said disc, and“ a substantially sinusoidal
second cam slot formed in the other arm of said one leaf
for slidably receiving the driving pin, said coil adapted
to pivot said one leaf through said driving pin so that‘
one of said leaves de?ning with one arm of the other
said coupling means may move the other leaf whereby
leaf a variable light aperture for said objective; means 10 the ?rst mentioned-arms of ‘said leaves vary the area of
for balancing said leaves; means coupling said leaves for
said light aperture.
simultaneous movements in opposing directions to vary
References‘ Citedv in the ?le of‘this- patent
the area of said light aperture, said coupling ‘means com
prising a cam slot formed in one of said leaves intermedi;
,UNITED STATES PATENTS,
ate said shafts and a pin slidably received in said cam 15
slot and connected to the other leaf; and a control sys
tem for said diaphragm comprising a photoelectric cell
mounted in the housing, a magnetic core‘rneter electrical
ly connected in the output circuit of’ said coil and com
prising a movable coil which is angularly movable in re 20
sponse to current impulses conveyed by said cell to said
meter, and an operative connection between one of said
2,421,499
‘
Gjuedon ..____~____ __‘-__-.. June’ 3,," 1947
3,024,715‘ '
Wittel et=al; _____ __v_.-.___ Mar. 13;"1962’
661,893
Great Britain ________ __ Nov. 28,1951'
1,193,902j
France ______ _...r__;..v_.____ May 4, 1959
FOREIGN- PATENTS
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