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Патент USA US3076438

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Fel» 5, 1963
~ D. R. sTAPLEToN
3,076,427
MARINE PROPULSION APPARATUS
` Filed Dec. 8, 1959
-
2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
_
l
ä'MW
Feb. 5, 1963
D. R. sTAPLEToN
3,076,427
MARINE PROPULSION APPARATUS
lF‘iltad Dec. 8, 1959
2 Sheets-»Sheet 2
ÖZ
ÖZ
60
¿5a/@alor
United sat-es Patent one@
1
3,076,427
Donald R. Stapleton, RO. Box 237, Leda, Ill.
MARINE PRUPULSÍON APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 8, 1959, Ser. No. 858,086
4 Claims. (Cl. 11S-_16)
The present invention relates to means for driving or
propelling boats or ships, and more particularly to .a
3,076,427
Patented Feb. 5, 1963
2
FIG. 5 is a transverse sectional view taken substan
tially as indicated by the line 5-5 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 3, but showing an
other embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 7 is a horizontal sectional view, Vlooking up
wardly, takensubstantially as indicated by theline 7-7
of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a transverse sectional view ltaken substan
marine propulsion apparatus adapted for small boats.
tially as indicated by the line 3-8 of FIG. 6; and
Among the objects of the invention is the provision 10
FIG. 9 is an enlarged view of one of the turbine blades
illustrating ydetails thereof.
of marine propulsion apparatus which provides great
flexibility in operation without requiring changes in the
Referring first to FIGS. 1 to 5, there is shown the
operation of the driving means.
~stern portion of a boat hull H, on the bottom B of
which the propulsion ,apparatus of the invention is
Another object is the provision of such apparatus
achieving forward or reverse movement or neutralization
of the moving force without requiring gearing, clutches,
mounted. Two of these apparatus are shown in FIG. l,
in a twin.- or parallel arrangement, adapted to be driven
by a single motor or engine E, such as an internal com
bustion engine, although it will be obvious that more or
fewer of the apparatus may be employed if desired.
or other complicated and expensive mechanism.
Another object is the provision of a marine propulsion
apparatus which provides for quick and positive reversal
A single apparatus 'accordingrto the present invention
of the direction of movement of the boat without shock 20
may be provided-for mounting on the bottom ofthe boat
or strain being imposed upon the boat or the apparatus.
as a unit, requiring no further assembly of its parts, or
A further’ object of the invention is the provision of
substantially as'a unit, 'requiring only a minimum assem
a marine propulsion apparatus which achieves a very high
degree of safety, particularly for people in the water
bly of additional parts after mounting, as will hereinafter
appear. The apparatus as shown in FIGS. l »to 5, in
through which the boat moves, by reason of having n0
exposed propeller or other rotating parts.
clusive, comprises a base Vplate 1li which has adjacent
one end thereof an elongated rectangular aperture 11.
Still another object of the invention is the provision
of such an'apparatus which provides a very quick and
The base plate is secured to the bottom B of the boat
positive steering response, particularly in forward move
by any suitable means (not shown), or in any suitable
ment.
manner, as by bolts, screws, rivets, welding, or the like.
Another object is the provision of va marine propulsion
In the present instance, a weld 10’ is shown as used for
this purpose. The boat bottom has an aperture 12 formed
apparatus in which the developed thrust is dis-tributed
>over a large area of the boat hull so .as to eliminate
therein somewhat larger than the `base plate aperture 11,l
high or concentrated stress at any particular point.
to accommodateV the mounting flanges 13 of a turbine
A further object is the provision of a marine propul 35 wheel housing 14 which is of generally cylindrical form
but is open in the plane of the flanges 13 for communi
sion apparatus which by reason of its .arrangement and
location may permit the use of less bracing than is ordi
cation wi-th the aperture 11. The housing 14, as best
narily required.
shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, may have one side thereof
closed by an integral wall 15, and the other by a remov
Another object is the provision of a marine propulsion
apparatus which may be assembled, transported, and 40 able plate 16 secured to the housing in any suitable Inan
installed as a unit.
ner, as by attachment to a fiange 17 of the housing by
cap screws 13 or the like. The mounting flanges 13 of
Another object of the invention is the provision of
marine propulsion apparatus employing a turbine wheel
the housing 14 are welded, screwed, bolted, riveted, or
otherwise suitably secured to the base plate 10 about the
to develop a powerful, high-speed jet which achieves a
margins of the aperture 11 and within the aperture 12
very high efficiency by reason of the turbine wheel blades
having an improved shape to drive substantially all the 45 in the bottom B, the flanges 13 engaging against the face>
of the base plate 1d which lies in engagement with the
water engaged thereby as a jet while carrying substan
tially no water about the axis of the wheel.
A still further object is the provision of such apparatus
which allows operation of the boat in very shallow water.
Another object is the provision of a marine propulsion
unit which provides for control of the speed of boat
movement without requiring change in the speed of the
driving means.
boat bottom in the mounted condition of the apparatus.>
The wall 15 and plate 16 of the turbine wheel housing
14 are formed with suitable bearing bosses 19 which
journal a shaft Ztl extending transversely through the
housing and arranged to be driven by the engine E. It
will be appreciated that in actual practice any suitable
anti~friction bearings may be employed for the shaft 20.
Another object is the provision of a marine propulsion 55 Fixed on the shaft portion within the housing 14 is a
apparatus which is not readily damaged.
turbine wheel generally’designated 21, in'this case shown
Still another object of the invention is the provision
as comprising a hollow drum type hub 22 from the cir
of marine propulsion apparatus which may be located
cumference of which extend a plurality of equally spaced
in the stern of a boat to provide more usable free space
blades 23 which are of substantially rectangular form in
within the hull.
face elevation, as will be clear from FIG. 4, and are curved
60
The above and other objects, and the advantages and
in section or -en'cl elevation, as will be clear particularly
features of the invention, will be apparent from the ‘fol
from FIG. 3. A more detailed explanation of the for
lowing description, taken in conjunction‘with the accom
mation of the blades 23 is given hereinafter. The hous
panying drawings, in which:
.
ing is formed to fit closely about vthe turbine wheel v21,
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a boat employ
65 but to allow sufficient clearances for free rotation of the
ing the marine propulsion .apparatus of the invention;
wheel therein. The turbine’wheel is fixed on the shaft
FIG. 2 is Va side elevational view of the boat and ap
29 by any suitable means, exemplified in this instance by
paratus shown in FIG. l;
the set screws ‘24. The ‘shaft 20 is so located relative to
FIG. ¿3 is an enlarged vertical longitudinal section taken
the base plate 10 upon mounting of the housing 14 there
substantially as indicated by the line 3-3 of FIG. l;
on that'the circumference of the drum hub 22 comes just
70
FIG. 4 is a horizontal sectional view taken ¿substan
to the plane ofthe lower face ofthe base vplate 10, as will '
tially .as indicated by the line 4-4 of FIG. 3;
readily be apparent'from FIG. 3.
‘
3,076,427
3
On the bottom of the base plate 10 there is defined a
tubular structure which extends longitudinally in align
3000 rpm., with a speed of at least 3500 r.p.m. being con
ment with the aperture 11. In FIGS. l to 5, this tubular
structure comprises a first tube 25 extending from a point
somewhat forward of the forward end of the aperture 11
to a point appreciably to the rear of the rear end of the
to carry water around the device. Although the exact
proportions and curvature of the blades in cross section
may of course be varied, in general the straight root por
tion Sti is approximately one-fourth of the total radial
aperture, and a second and cross-sectionally larger tube
26 extending from a point somewhat forward of the rear
extent of the blade 23, the curved portion 31 extending
provides passage means 27 openingr forwardly from the
tube 26, as will be particularly evident from FIGS. 3 and
5. 'I'he cross-section of the tube 2S corresponds in shape
and dimensions to the face elevation of the blades 23,
the interior of the tube 26 when disposed transversely
templated by the invention, thus offsetting any tendency
for substantially three-fourths of the height or radial ex
end of the tube 2S to a point considerably to the rear
tent of the blade. Thus through a combination of the
thereof, as will be evident from FIGS. l to 4, inclusive. 10 particular blade form and the relatively high speed at
In the present case, the tubes 25 and 26 are provided by
which the turbine wheel 21 is driven, the blades 23 rotat
members of channel section having their outturned flanges
ing into and out of the tube 25 develop a jet of great
secured to the bottom face of the base plate It) in any
force and speed therein which by reason of its rearward
suitable manner, as by bolts or cap screws 27, as best
direction drives the boat forward by reaction therewith.
shown in FIG. 5. As already mentioned, the forward end
It will be apparent that the jet passes from the rear end
portion of the tube 26 extends somewhat forwardly of the
of the tube 2S into the tube 26 and issues ultimately from
rear end of the tube 25', so that it is in overlapping and
the rear end of tube 26. Means are provided in the tube
surrounding relation with the rear portion of tube 25.
26 to control the movement of the hull H, in the form
This overlapping relation of the two tubes, together with
of vanes arranged rotatably therein. A reversing vane
the difference in the cross-sectional areas of the two tubes, 20 33 shaped and dimensioned to have a slight clearance in
thereof is mounted in the tube 26 for rotation about a ver
tical axis. This rotational axis of the reversing vane 33
is spaced rearwardly from the rear end of the tube 25,
with sufficient clearance to allow the blades to rotate 25 a distance somewhat greater than half the width of the
freely through the aperture Il into and out of the passage
tube 26, so that when the vane 33 is arranged extending
defined by the tube. Both of the tubes 25 and 26 are
axially of tube 26 it will clear the tube 25. The rotatable
open at both their front and rear ends.
mounting of the reversing vane is accomplished by means
of a shaft 3d which extends vertically through the center
In addition thereto, in most cases, it will be necessary
or desirable to provide >an additional opening 27’ in each 30 of tube 26 and projects outwardly of the base plate it)
side wall of the tube 25, as clearly illustrated in FIG. 3,
located just ahead of the vertical diameter of the turbine,
any suitable distance. The shaft 34 is journaled in the
lower wall of the tube 26, and may also be journaled in
to provide adequate entrance capacity for the incoming
the base plate 1€? if desired, although this is rendered un
necessary by a tubular housing 35 through which the shaft
water. To prevent the entrance of debris, fioating objects,
marine vegetation and the like into the open forward end 35 34 extends and in which it has suitable bearing, the hous
ing 35 being welded as at 36 to the outer face of the base
of the tubular construction, suitable guard means (not
plate itl. An opening 37 may be formed in the bottom
shown) may be provided.
B of the boat to accommodate the shaft and housing,
Upon rotation of the turbine wheel 21, the blades 23
which as will be apparent, extend into the interior of the
will develop a strong stream or jet of water flowing rear
wardly through the tube 25 and the second tube 26 to 40 hull. The shaft 34 preferably extends upwardly to a
height such that the housing 35 may extend to a height
provide a thrust which by reaction with the hull H drives
above the level of the water in which the boat is operated,
the boat forward. The turbine wheel is arranged to be
so as to avoid the possibility of water coming into the boat
driven in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIGS.
interior through the housing. If desired, of course, the
2 and 3 by means of a suitable driving belt D trained
about pulleys 28 and 29 respectively fixed on the shaft 45 housing may be of less height and provided with suitable
sealing means to prevent passage of water therethrough
of the engine E, and the shaft 2d. As will be clear from
about the shaft. Similarly, suitable anti-friction bearings
FiG. l, where more than one marine propulsion apparatus
may be provided for the shaft 34, in place of the bearing
according to this invention is employed, they may all be
arrangement illustrated. The reversing vane 33 is fixed
driven from a single engine E by making the shaft 20
common thereto. The shaft, belt, and pulleys may be 50 on the lower portion of the shaft 34 in any suitable man
suitably enclosed for cleanliness and safety.
The blades 23 of the turbine wheel are of a shape spe
cifically provided to achieve the maximum efficiency in
developing the driving or thrusting jet or stream, the form
ner or by any suitable means, not shown.
At the rear of the tube 26 there is mounted for rotation
about a vertical axis the deflecting or steering vane 38
which is suitably fixed on a vertically extending shaft 39
of the blades resulting in substantially no carryover of 55 similar to the shaft 34 and having a similar bearing ar
rangement which may include the housing 4€) receiving
water from the tube 25 through the housing 14. Each
the shaft 39 therethrough and secured to the upper face
blade has at the circumference of the wheel hub 22 a
of the base plate itl in any suitable manner, as by a weld
substantially straight radially extending portion root 30
41. The housing 40 and weld ¿il are similar to the hous
from which extends outwardly an arcuately curved por
tion 31 formed on the respective radii R1 and R2, the out 60 ing 35 and weld 36 in the case of the shaft 34, and an
aperture 42 may be formed in the bottom of the boat to
er edge 3l' of which is beveled and extends in advance of
allow the shaft 39 and housinty 46 to extend upwardly
the root portion 3d, in the direction of rotation of the
into the interior of the hull. The side walls of the tube
wheel 2i, so that as will be readily understood from FIG.
25 are cut away or otherwise formed so as to terminate
3, the blades may cut into the water in the tube 25 and
force the same rearwardly with a minimum of resistance, 65 forwardly of the bottom wall thereof, as indicated at 43,
and the bottom wall is cut away at each side at an angle
both downwardly and rearwardly.
of substantially forty-five degrees from the rear end of the
side wall to the central portion of the bottom, as indicated
at 44, and provided with an apexial portion 45 for mount
thereby being forced rearwardly through the tube 25,
and substantially no water being carried by the blades 70 ing the shaft 39. The vane 38 is of a height somewhat
less than that of the interior of the tube 26, so as to have
about the hub 22 and through the housing 14, so that no
power-wasting, inefficient pumping action is involved.
sufficient clearance therein for free turning, and may be
This may be due partly to the considerable centrifugal
of any suitable length. The portion of the vane 38 ex
forces resulting from the fact that the turbine wheel 21
tending forwardly from the shaft 39 preferably is of such
may be rotated at relatively high speed, of the order of 75 length as to engage against one or the other of the side
It has also been found that this configuration of the
blades results in substantially all of the water engaged
5
envase?
walls of the tube 2'6adjacent the cut-away rear'end >por
tion 43 thereof to limit the rotation of the vane in either
direction. It will be appreciated that the amount of
_turning allowed the vane 38 in eitherdirection may be
greater than the approxímatelyforty-ñve degree rotation
from the center position thereof which is possible with the
construction illustrated, without any >departure from the
invention. Both of the vanes >33 and 33 may be of suit
ably streamlined form so as to oiferaminimum resistance
6
shaft 2t) 4and having‘the blades 23 of the form and‘con
struction described, and the shafts 34 and 39 extending
through the vertical housings 35 and 40 secured to the
pla-te 10 by welds 36 and 41, the apertures 12, 37 and 42
being provided in the bottom B of the hull H as already
described _to accommodate the parts secured on the upper
face of the base plate. As in the case of the embodiment
of FIGS. l to 5, the plate 10 is shown as secured to the
boat bottom B by a weld 10', although the securement
to passage of the jet through the tube 26 when they are 10 may be any other appropriate means. The means for
disposed in their centered positions,`that is parallel to the
driving the turbine wheel 21 and the means for operating
sides of the tubes.
the shafts 34 and 39 to control the vanes 33 and 33 may
Fixed on the upper end of the shaft 34 is -a radially
be substantially the same as in the first-described embodi
extending turning arm 45 by means of which the shaft
ment.
and reversing vane`33 may be rotated, so that the vane 33 15
In the embodiment of FIGS. 6 to 8, inclusive, the tubu
may be turned from a central position extending parallel
lar structure which in the ñrst-mentioned embodiment
4to the sides of the tube y26 to one extending transversely
comprised the two tubes 25 and 26 takes the form of a
thereof and blocking the tube, these two positions of the
single tube 60 extending longitudinally along the hull
_yane -being'illustrated in FIG. 5 in full lines and dotted
and defined by a suitable member of channel section hav
lines, respectively. The .arm 45 may be `formed with a 20 ing its free edges secured to the lower face of the base
plate 10 as by welds 61. The tube 6i) is of substantially
suitable handle for direct manual operation thereof, or
may be connected to any suitable linkage for operation
identical cross section with the tube 25 previously de
from a distance. VIn the event more than one apparatus
scribed, having forward intake openings 60' therein cor
4according to< the `present invention is employed, as illus
responding tothe openings 27' in the tube 26, so as to
Vtrated in FIG.- 1, the arms 45 of the several reversing 25 have the same cooperative relation with the turbine wheel
vane shafts 34 may be connected by a link or links 46 so
21 as the tube 25, but is of considerably greater length
lthat they may be moved simultaneously and in _correspond
than the tube 25 so that it may also provide for the same
'e'nce with each other. One of the shafts 34 may have
cooperative relationship with the vanes 33 and 38 as the
ñxe'd thereon, in addition to the arm 45, a rigid arm 47 to
tube 26. To the rear of the aperture 11 in the base plate,
ythe free end of which may be connected a control rod 4S 30 or rearwardly-of the blades 23 which rotate through the
`or the‘like extending to a point forward of the propulsion
tube 66, and forwardly of the axis of rotation of the
apparatus so that from such point the rod may be shifted
reversing vane 33, the side walls of the tube 60 are pro
¿forwardly or rearwardly to swing the arm 47 in one direc
vided with apertures 62 which serve as passage means
tion or the other and thus -turn the several shafts 34
corresponding‘tto the passage 27 of the previously de
fthrough the linkage described so as to .position the sev 35 scribed embodiment.
_
eral reversing vanes 33 in the desired relation to the
v As has already been indicated, the reversing and steer
respective tubes 26. In any case, suitable locking means,
ing vanes 33 and 38 are mounted in the tube 60 in sub
"not shown, may be -provided to hold the arm 45 `of each
stantially the same manner as in the case of the tube V26.
shaft 34 in a predetermined position corresponding to a
The side walls of the tube 60 terminate in a vertical
>selected position of the associated reversing vane 33.
40 plane forward of the rear end of Vthe bottom wall, as in
On the upper end of the shaft 39 is ñxed a radially ex
the case of the side walls of the tube 26 as previously
tending tiller arm 5t) by means of which >the associated
explained, the rear ends of the side walls being indicated
steering vane’38 may be turned to one side or the other
at 63 in FIGS. 6 and 7. The rear end of the bottom wall
vfrom »its central or straight ahead position, and means
of the tube 6@ is formed substantially like that of the
'may be employed -to hold the tiller ‘arm in a selected ad
bottom wall of the tube 26, being cut away at each side
at an angle of substantially forty-tive degrees from the
justed position thereof, if desired,_such means not form
ing a part of the present invention and therefore not
side wall ends 63 toward the center of the bottom wall
being illustrated. When two or more of the apparatus of
and `having a central apexial portion’64 similar to the
thevinvention are employed as illustrated in FIG. l, the
po-rtion 45 and similarly serving for mounting the shaft
several tillerarrns may belinked together for operation ,_ 39. The bottom wall of the tube 60, shown in section
simultaneously andco'rre'spondingly so that »all of the de
in FIG. 6, is indicated in phantom in FIG. 7. From FIG.
flecting or steering vanes'38 will extend at the same angle
7 there are also apparent the two extreme positions of
relative to the several -tubes 26. . For this purpose, a link
the steering vane 33, determined by engagement of the
51 is provided extending «between the ends of the tiller
arms and pivotally `'connected to each thereof. If it be
desired to operate the steering vanes from a remote point,
forward end of the vane with one side wall or‘the other
adjacent the rear end 63 thereof’as explained Vin connec
tion with the embodiment of FIGS. l to 5. One of these
such as the cockpit or other location forward of the pro
pulsion apparatus, each end of the link S1 may have a
positions is shown in FIG. 7 in dotted lines and the other
in dot-dash lines, the full line position of the vane 38
‘cable 52 secured `thereto and extending forwardly, as to
being the normal or central position thereof. As in the
a conventional steering wheel, after passing through a
case of the previously described embodiment, the maxi
pulley 53 `secured to the interior of the hull at la point 60 mum of movement of the steering Avane 38 to either side
generally in line with the link 51. As is obvious, by pull
from its central position may be greater than the forty
ing on one of the cables 52 while allowing the other to
five degrees permitted by the construction described, if
run, the tiller arms 50 may beswung to one side or the
desired.
other'to position the Asteering vanes 38 in a desired posi
It will be apparent that `with either embodiment, the
65
tion.
turbine Wheel and housing, the shafthousings 35 and 40,
A somewhat different embodiment of the invention is
and the »tube-deñning members maybe welded or other
wise secured to Vthe base plate 16, and the vanes 33 and 38
illustrated in FIGS. 6 to 8, inclusive, in which parts sub
stantially identical tothose disclosed in FIGS. 1 to 5, in
together with the respective shafts 34 and 39 may be
elusive, are designated by the same reference characters. 70 properly assembled therewith, and the base plate with
The construction of the parts of the apparatus mounted
the several elements secured and mounted thereon then
on the upper face of the base plate 10 is substantially
applied to the boat bottom B as a unit, the wheel housing
the same as that of the correspondin-g parts of the iirst
14 being inserted through the aperture 12, and the shaft
described embodiment, comprising the housing 14 with
and housing constructions extending through the aper
the _turbine wheel 21 rotatably mounted therein on the 75 tures 37 and 42 after securement of the base plate .10 -to
3,076,427
the bottom of the boat, the arms 45 and 56 being then
secured on the respective shafts 34 and 39. It will also
be evident that if desired the aperture l2 in the bottom
of the boat hull may be expanded to a size such as to
ance of the jet from the tube construction upon movement
of the reversing vane to its blocking or reversing posi
tion. This arrangement, however, has the advantage that
it permits easier rotation of the vanes 33 and 38 because
include the apertures 37 and ¿i2 and only slightly less
than the base plate lo, and the base plate l@ employed as
a closure for such enlarged opening, in effect replacing
the turning thereof is not hindered by as strong a jet as
would otherwise be the case. In the second-described
embodiment, the tube construction, comprising the single
a portion of the bottom B. in such case, it will be
tube 60, is of substantially the same cross-sectional area
evident ‘.hat the entire propulsion apparatus may be pre
throughout its length and the jet developed by the turbine
assernbled on the ‘oase plate l@ as a unit, including the 10 wheel 21 retains substantially the same thrust throughout,
arms on the shafts 34 and 39, and the entire assembly
and thus provides a maximum of power for driving the
applied as a unit to the boat, the several elements which
boat. At the same time, since the cross-sectional area of
extend into the interior of the hull being inserted through
the tube construction in which the vanes 33 and 38 are
the enlarged opening as the plate iii is brought to posi
mounted is smaller in the case of the tube 60 than in
tion closing such opening. If a plurality of the propul 15 that of the tube 25, the areas of the vanes exposed to
sion apparatus are to be employed with a common shaft
the jet are similarly smaller so as to minimize as far as
20, as shown in FIG. l, the various elements associated
with each base plate Il@ may be assembled therewith, with
the common shaft 2G extending through the several tur
possible any diiiiculty in turning the vanes which may
arise from the force of the jet acting thereon.
it will be evident that when a plurality of the propul
bine wheel housings if; and the wheels 2l secured thereon, 20 sion mechanisms of this invention are employed together
and the plurality of units or assemblies applied to the boat
to drive a single craft, the arrangement for linking the
at substantially the same time, by providing a transverse
several vanes 33 together for simultaneous and corre~
slot or aperture extending between the apertures 12 so as
sponding rotation, and the arrangement for similarly
to accommodate the shaft 2@ and allow its insertion in the
swinging the several steering vanes 38 as one, provide for
assembled condition into the interior of the hull. Such 25 maximum eñiciency in that there is no counteraction as be
transverse opening or slot may be closed by a suitable
tween the respective vanes.
plate substantially in the same manner as the apertures l2
The vane 33 may be employed not only for reversing
are closed by the base plates liti. Thus, the entire pro
the direction of movement of the boat hull, but for effect
pulsion apparatus, or substantially the entire apparatus,
ing a neutralization of the jet so that it does not tend to
may be assembled, transported, handled and applied to 30 drive the boat in either direction, even though the turbine
a boat hull as a unit, so that the purchaser or user o-f the
apparatus is subjected to a minimum of expense and labor
in the installation thereof in a hull.
In operation of the apparatus after the installation
wheel 21 is rotated at its effective driving speed. This is
accomplished by rotating the vane 33 to a position in
which it in effect divides the jet into two portions, one of
which moves rearwardly through the tube construction
in a hull, the engine E is started to drive the turbine 35 and out the rear end thereof so as to tend to impart a
wheel 21 through the belt B and shaft 2t), the reversing
vane 33 being in its central position, or in other words
parallel to the sides of the tube construction, and the boat
may immediately begin moving, even though the wheel
forward movement of the boat, while another part is
yblocked and deflected to flow forwardly out of the tube
construction through the passage means as previously de
scribed, this forward-flowing portion tending to move the
has not reached the desired speed which results in the 40 boat rearwardly. The two oppositely acting portions 0f
development of a jet through the tube construction for
reactive driving of the boat. At the low starting speed
and while the high speed is being'reached, the wheel 21
may have a small, but relatively negligible paddle wheel
action, moving the boat at least in part by reaction of the
the jet thus neutralize each other, and the boat is thus
not under way or driven in either direction.
It will readily be evident from the previous explana
tion of the operation of the reversing vane 33 in effecting
reverse or rearward movement of the boat, and also in
blades with the water. However, the driving speed soon 45 neutralizing any driving thereof in either direction, that
reaches a point wherein the jet shoots rearwardly through
the vane 33 may be employed to control the speed of
the tube construction, past the vanes 33 and 3S to issue
the boat in either forward or rearward movement thereof
from the rear of the tube, providing a powerful reactive
by turning the vane 33 to a position somewhat similar to
thrust which allows the boat to move at high speed. The
that
employed for the neutralization of the jet, but divid
direction or course of the boat is determined by the posi 50 ing the jet into unequal portions, as that a rearwardly di
tion of the steering vane 33, which when in its centered
rected portion provides more force than the forwardly
or normal position allows the jet to pass out of the
directed portion, with the result that the boat moves for
associated tube directly in line with the tube and with the
wardly at a speed corresponding to the differential be
plane of the turbine wheel, so that the boat is moved
tween the opposing forces of the divided jet. Similarly, if
directly forward. By turning the vane to one Side or the
the forwardly directed portion of the jet exceeds the
other, the jet is deflected or diverted thereby, and by its
force of the rearwardly directed jet portion, the boat
impingement on the vane causes the boat to turn, as will
will move rearwardly. The ability to employ the vane
be obvious.
The reversing vane 33 when rotated from its central
33 for controlling the speed of the boat in either direction,
without
necessitating a change in the speed of the engine
or longitudinal position to a position transverse of the 60 E or of the rotation of the turbine wheel 21, is of great
associated tube, blocks the passage of the jet rearwardly
advantage in providing great íîexibility in the operation
therethrough, detiecting it forwardly to pass out of the
of the craft, since it permits temporary slowing of the
tube construction through the passage means 27 or 62.
boat without having to adjust the motor to slow speed
The forward direction thus imparted to the jet results
and then bring it to full speed again.
in the boat being moved rearwardly, as will be evident,
ì It will beapparent that by reason of the reversing vane
instead of forwardly. The deflecting or steering vane 38
33 a very elfective and smooth control of the boat, from
may be employed to steering the boat in its rearward
forward at full speed through smoothly decreasing slower
movement, although in this case the steering vane reacts
speeds, to a neutral or idling position, and on to a reverse
with the water in which the boat is operating tot achieve
movement
with varying speeds, is achieved without gears
70
a determination of the course, instead of reacting with
or other relatively complicated means. As already men
the jet issuing from the rear of the tube.
tioned, reversing of the boat so that it will move back
It will be seen that the essential difference between the
ward is accomplished without any requirement for re
two embodiments of the invention illustrated resides in
versing the direction of the driving engine or the turbine
the form taken by the passage means for forward issu 75 wheel, and such reversal is accomplished smoothly and
3,076,427
10
quietly, and without any appreciable shock to the boat or
its parts. Obviously, the reversing vane will effect quick
stopping of the boat. The deflecting or steering vane
provides for quick and positive steering response of the
boat in either direction of its movement, since the vane
1, including rudder means at the rear of the second tube
operable in forward movement to react with the iet and
in rearward «mo-vement to react with the water supporting
said hull for determining the Acourse of the hull.
3. A marine pro-pulsion apparatus comprising a first
substantially straight tube extending longitudinally of a
boat hull exteriorly thereof below water level and open at
both ends, an opening from the hull interior into said
firs-t tube, a turbine wheel rotatably mounted adjacent said
opening to have the blades thereof extend through the
opening into the first tube to develop therein upon rota
ture defined on the bottom of a small boat extends down
tion yof the turbine wheel a jet directed rearwardly of the
wardly only a few inches, some three or four inches in
hull for effecting -forward movement of the hull, means
most cases. In Ithis connection, it may be pointed out
for rotating said tur-bine wheel at sufficient speed to de
that if desired the tubular construction may be provided
above the plane of the bottom of the boat, in the form of 15 velop said jet, a second tube substantially aligned with
and of greater cross-sectional area than said first tube and
a tunnel or vthe like, and thus the projection below the
disposed with its forward portion in overlapping relation
bottom of the boat m-ay be eliminated entirely. It will
will react with -the jet for steering the boat in forward
movement, and with the water in which the boat is oper
ating when Ithe boat is moving rearwardly. The propul
sion apparatus of this invention allows operation of boats
and larger craft in shallow waters, since the tubular struc 10
with the rear portion of .the first tube and rudder means
at the rear of the «second tube operable in forward move
sion mechanism being the turbine -wheel and its shaft, the 20 ment to react with the jet and in rearward movement to
react with the water supporting said hull to determine the
wheel being completely enclosed in the housing and the
course of the hull.
tube construction, and the shaft being encased or housed
be noted that there is no propeller or other similar ex
posed rotating part, the only rotating part of the propul
4. A marine propulsion apparatus comprising a high
along with the `drive belt and the rotating pulleys therefor,
speed turbine wheel having a central drum portion and
as «already mentioned. The apparatus, therefore, is par
ticularly safe when operating in water where swimmers, 25 a plurality of radially extending turbine blades, each of
which has a straight radially extending root portion and a
skiers, or divers :are pursuing their sport. It will |be ap
radial outer portion extending outwardly from said root
parent that the developed thrust is distributed over a rela~
portion and has arcuately curved faces formed on dif
tively large area of the boat bottom, thus avoiding con
ferent axes of generation, the radii of curvature of said
centration of stress -at any particular point and eliminating
the danger of failure of critical parts. 'Ihe turbine wheel 30 outer blade faces being approximately three times the
radial extent of the root portion, a housing structure en
provides for a very high efficiency in the operation of the
closing the upper portion of said turbine wheel including
boat, since no power is lost or dissipated in pumping
said drum portion and constructed to dispose the latter sub
water, that is carrying it through the wheel housing, and
stantially within a hull on which the apparatus is to be
substantially all of the power is employed in developing
the jet which provides the driving force. The propulsion 35 mounted, said housing including a bottom portion con~
structed to be disposed below the bottom of such a hull
apparatus of this invention readily lends itself to instal
with the turbine blades extending downwardly below such
lation at the stern of a boat, thus providing more usable
a bottom, said bottom portion of the housing structure
and available space within the hull, and lat the same time
extending below and rearwardly of the depending turbine
allowing considerably less bottom bracing of the hull to
be employed than would otherwise be the case. Such 40 blades and forming a channel for the passage of water
rearwardly discharged from said turbine wheel, said bot
bracing, at the stern at least, may in large part take the
tom portion having means forming a passageway disposed
form of the base plate by which the apparatus is mounted.
below and communicating at its rear end with said chan
Having -thus described my invention, it will be obvious
nel for the passage of water through said passageway in
that various modifications may be made in the same with
out departing from the spirit of the invention; hence I do 45 a forward direction, and a control member cooperable
relative to said channel and said passageway for control
not wish to be understood as limiting myself to the exact
ling the flow of water through the latter, said bottom
form, construction, arrangement and combination of parts
housing portion being open at its forward end and at op
herein shown and described, or uses mentioned.
posite sides of the turbine blades to provide substantially
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
50 unrestricted water flow operatively into the path of said
Patent is:
turbine blades, with all water entering said bottom portion
1. A marine propulsion apparatus comprising a first
substantially straight tube extending longitudinally of a
being directed rearwardly through said channel without
any water carrying over around said wheel.
boat hull exteriorly thereof below water level and open
at both ends, an opening from the hull interior into said 55
References Cited in the file of this patent
first tube, a turbine wheel rotatably mounted adjacent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
said opening to have the blades thereof extend through
the opening into the first tube to develop therein upon
115,425
`Boyman _____________ __ May 30, 1871
rotation of the wheel a jet directed rearwardly of the hull
133,275
Wells ______________ __ Nov. 19, 1872
to effect forward movement of the hull, means for ro
164,033
tating said turbine wheel at sufficient speed to develop
said jet, a second tube substantially aligned with and of
340,237
Nagel et al. __________ __ Apr. 20, 1886
1,365,939
Mortensen ______________ _.- Jan. 18, 1921
greater cross sectional area than said first tube and dis
posed with its forward portion in overlapping relation
with the rear portion of the first tube, and intercepting 65
means in said second tube rearwardly of the first tube
movable progressively between a position allowing full
jet flow through the second tube and a position substan
1,374,533
Stenberg ___________ ___,..- Apr. 12, 1921
1,498,919
1,542,540
1,572,812
Jensen ______________ __ June 24, 1924
Zsiki ________________ __ June 16, 1925
»Rees ________________ __ Feb. 9, 1926
2,042,499
Brady ___..„_.____--.___n-_ June 2, 1936
FOREIGN PATENTS
346,099
Germany __„_-_.r__, _____ __ Dec. 24, 1921
tially preventing fiow therethrough, said overlappingly re
lated tube portions defining a passage for forward ñow 7
Pratt ________________ __ June 1, 1875
from the second tube of any jet portion prevented from
rearward ñow therethrough.
457,650
Great Britain __________ _.. Dec. 2, 1936
65,371
Norway ___-. __________ __ June 7, 1943
2. A marine propulsion apparatus as defined in claim
523,021
Italy _________________ __ Apr. 13, 1955
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