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Патент USA US3076512

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Feb. 5, 1963
D. E. ROBINSON
3,076,502
FLOW DISTRIBUTOR
‘Filed Jan‘ 8. 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
DAVID E. ROBINSON
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ATTORNEYS.
Feb. 5; 1963
D. E. ROBINSON
3,076,502
FLOW DISTRIBUTOR
Filed Jan. 8. 1960
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INVENTOR.
DAVID E. ROBINSON
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ATTORNEYS
Feb. 5, 1963
D. E. ROBINSON
3,076,502
FLOW DISTRIBUTOR
Filed Jan. 8. 1960
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DAVID E. ROBINSON
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3,076,502
FLOW DISTRIBUTOR
Filed Jan. 8. 1960
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INVENTOR.
DAVID E. ROBINSON
BY
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ATTORNEYS
United States
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3,075,592
Patented Feb. 5, 1963
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3,076,502
rRobinsonyNorwalk, Conn, .assignorto Time,
‘FLOW .DISTRJBUTQR
.David
Incorporated, New York, N.Y., acorporation of New
.York
Filed Jani‘S, 1960, Set‘. No.'1,262
12' Claims. (Cl. 162-4939)
dimensions of the slice. "The primary purposes of the
how spreader are to avoid any abrupt change in the
cross-sectional‘area of the ?ow which would cause un
desirable vortices and i?occulation of the pulp, and to
evenly distribute the furnish from the ducts across the
slice nozzle. Actually,vany. arrangement designed to dis
tribute pulp furnish or the‘ like’ across an elongated sur
face is ‘operable with the'?ow divider.
This invention relates to a flow system for'delivering
‘It is contemplated that thei?owdivider may have many
‘*pulp furnish ‘to a forming machine such as a Fourdrinier 10 uses, inladditionto that with respect to a ‘pulp ?ow‘ sys~
~>or wet-end machine, and moresparticularly to a novel
tern as described, wherein theprimary purpose is to divide
‘divider andl'?ow spreader. designed toprovide ‘to an
elongated slice, pulp furnish of annifornr consistency and
the flow of a single duct simultaneously, and substantially
instantaneously into a multiple number of ducts without
amount across the facewof the. slice.
substantially changing the direction of-tlow. For instance,
"Prior .to the :present invention, means for .dividing the
‘it-may be ‘desired. to modify the divider to obtain other
?ow of :the .pulp furnishtor extrusion. from a slicegin one
than equal. ?ow outputs in the multiple ‘ducts, in'which
improved system ‘has-been comprised of a. single duct
case it is apparent that the present invention provides an
extremely accurate means for so doing.
leadingfrom a storage vat with two or more take-off
ducts leading therefrom, : each take-oft‘ duct being
A ?ow corrector may beiprovided betweenthe spreader
divided into‘ additional .ducts .eventually ‘leading to 20 ~and~slice nozzle to eliminate variations in ‘the velocity
the slice. Generally, ‘the divisioniotthe ?owv is from one
of flow coming from. the spreader duct outlets. it is
duct into two, »with :the axes of ‘the two positioned at
apparent that, in the spreader ducts, the velocity of the
‘substantial angles .with respect to the intake duct, the
pulp furnish will be the least adjacent the walls of the duct
whole system involving numerous sections wherein the di
and greatest in =thecenter, creating‘velocity tongues or an
rection of ‘?ow is substantially. altered. .Primary dis
‘uneven velocity pattern at the duct outlets. One such
advantages of such a system include: (1) The sudden
?ow corrector for eliminating ithese velocity tongues is dis
changes in the direction of flow create vortices or eddies
closed in applicant’s copending application Serial No.
causing ?occulation ofthe pulp; and (2) the division of
v1,263, .?ledJanuary 8, 1960, entitled “Flow System for
pulp furnish, not being simultaneously to all of the ?nal
Paper Formers‘.”
'ducts, is such as to provide vfurnish of unequal amounts, 30
The ducts'between the .?ow'divider and ?ow spreader
consistency, and pressure across the faceof the slice. In
may be rectangular. or circular and, if the latter, the
the ‘formation of lightweight grades .of‘paper,‘ the creation
transition from rectangular to circular ‘in the ?ow divider
of ?ocs is detrimental in creating light anddark areas in
and back to rectangular in‘ the ?ow spreader should be
the sheet, while unequal distribution'and pressure of the
gradual to avoid undesirable vortices and ?occulation.
furnishacross the face of the slice result in whatis termed 35
Other objects and advantages of the invention will
“slice streaks.”
become apparent upon further consideration of the speci?~
Thus, in accordance with the objects of the present in
cation and accompanying drawings, in which:
ventiomthere is provided between the storage vat for
FIG. 1 'is a’bottom perspective view of a portion of- a
the pulp furnish and the slice, a-novel duct arrangement
?ow Idivider of the present invention;
comprised'of a .?ow'dividerand ?ow spreader, in that 40 . FIG. 2 'isra vtop perspective view of the flow divider of
order, designed to divide and distribute the flow equally
FIG. 1;
across the face of the slice without ?occulation and un
FIG. 3 isa side cross-sectional view of the flow divider;
equal distribution of the pulp stock.
‘FIG. v4 is a section‘ view taken along line 4-—4 of
Thev?ow divider may essentially‘ comprise the com~
FIG. 3;
bination of an inner cone or probe, which may have a
-rnulti-sided con?guration, having its apex pointed in a
direction opposite to the direction of ?ow. of the pulp,
and a’complementary shaped outer duct having walls co
FIG. 5 is a section view taken along line 5-5 of
F163;
FIG. .6 is a section view taken along line 6——6 of
FIG. 5;
operating with thesides of the. cone. The cone sides and
FIG. 7 is a schematic view'of. a ?ow system using the
duct walls are adapated to converge in a direction towards 50 ?ow ‘divider and spreader;
FIG. 8 is a plan viewwofa ?ow. spreader;
the base of the. cone, and in the direction of ?ow, to be
come concentric at'the base, and joined, to forms multiple
FIG.~ 9 is a cross~sectiona1 view‘taken along line 9-?
.number of individual ducts having equal cross-sectional
i or . FIG. 8;
areas of an isosceles, trapezoidal or other con?guration.
FIG. 10 is across-sectional view 'of a modi?ed form
This simultaneous division of ?ow into the desired number 55. of the invention;
of multiple ducts of equal cross-sectional ‘area provides
FIG. 11 is a‘view taken along line111—11 of FIG. 10‘;
a greater guarantee that furnish of equal consistency and
FIG. 12 is a view taken along line i2~12 of FIG. 10.
amounts will ‘be supplied to all points cross the face of
‘Referring to FIG. -7,‘there is illustrated schematically
the slice. Also to'provide an even and continuous ?ow
-a ?ow system utilizing the present invention comprising
free of vortices, eddies, and other ?ock forming condi 60 a storage vat'2, a duct 4 ‘leading from the storage vat and
tions, and further to avoid any abrupt change in the direc~
"including a standard Allis-Chalmers ACAP pump 6, a
.tion of flow, the apex of the cone is designed to have an
?ow divider 8, multiple ducts '19, leading from the ?ow
angle less than or equal to approximately 14°. Also, to
‘divider section to a‘?ow spreader 12, -a iiow correction
prevent any clogging of pulp in the ?ow divider, there
chamber ‘14, and a slice 16.
may be provided at any e'dge projecting into the flow 65
As shown in FIG. 7, the ?owdivi-derd is positioned
a flat or rounded surface incapable of collecting pulp
between a single duct inlet 4 and multiple ducts 10 lead
I?bers or the like.
ing therefrom, and comprises means intermediate the
The flow spreader leading to the slice may comprise
.two whereby the flow is equally, simultaneously, and al
‘essentially a multiple number‘of rectangular and adjacent
most instantaneously divided into the multiple ducts with
ducts and outlets therefor positioned across the intake
out any substantial change:in the direction of flow, .or
signi?cant change'in the velocity of flow. The divider
of the slice, having a cross-sectional area, height, and
.itseliis comprised essentially of a multi-sided cone 18
width, which, when added together, substantially equal the
3,076,502
located in the center of an encompassing duct 4 and hav
ing an apex 2h pointed in a direction opposite to the direc
tion of flow of the pulp. The angle at the apex of the
cone is preferably from 12° to 14", providing a gr dual
transition or change in the direction of ?ow without
separation of the ?ow from the sides of the cone or duct
walls, and the axes of all the component parts are sub
stantially parallel. An angle greater than 14° may cause
such separation, at least at high velocities of ?ow, and may
therein, from four to twelve inches in front of the spread
er outlets, and parallel to the face of the ?ow, is able to
red .ce variations in the velocity of ?ow from 20% to
about 1‘7 . Although the flow correction chamber 14 as
disclosed in the above-mentioned copending application
Serial No. 1,263 is of considerable usefulness with respect
to the present invention, the combination presenting a
highly uniform flow at the slice, any such flow correc
tion means may be used. Actually, a chamber comprised
e influential in the formation of vortices and ?occulation 10 of a box having a rectangular cross-section, if of su?icient
of the pulp. The length of the cone up to its base 22,
length, will cause a certain reduction in variations in the
in the illustrated embodiment, is approximately eighteen
velocity pattern.
inches in an eight inch duct, but this dimension may be
One modi?ed form of the flow divider is illustrated in
varied depending on the diameter of the duct, velocity of
flow, and the like.
HG. 10, showing a cone 5% having a circular cross-sec
tional area throughout. Tie apex 52 is provided with a
About two-thirds of the Way up the cone, the duct wall
parabolic curver. surface 54- which merges with wall 56
at about point 58, the Wall 55 forming an angle of 14°
in section 24, FIGS. 2 and 3, assumes a multi-sided con
?guration complementary to that of the cone. For the
with the vertical axis of the cone. To form a continuous
remaining third of the distance, the sides of the cone
unbroken surface on the cone, the slope of the parabola
diverge to the dimensions of the base 22, shown in FIG. 20 at the point of intersection with wall 56 must also be 14".
4, while the walls of the duct constrict (FIG. 3) until at
In this way the angle of 14° de?nes the overall shape or
the base 2?. they adopt the hexagonal con?guration 26,
con?guration that the divider will take.
FIG. 4, concentric to that of the cone.
Also at this
point, the duct walls and cone sides are joined by walls
or partitions 28, FIG. 5, to form the multiple four-sided
isosceles trapezoidal ducts 39, illustrated in FIG. 5.
These walls
also serve to support and hold the cone
in position. In the disclosed embodiment of the present
invention, the cone and duct are shown as hexagonal in
cross-section, merging to form the six separate ducts '30,
but obviously this could be modi?ed as desired to form
more or less ducts leading from the divider.
‘On the leading edges of the walls 28 of the multiple
ducts 39, a 5/16” rod 32, FIGS. 1, 5 and 6, is positioned,
acting to de?ect pulp ?bers away from the leading edge,
and to prevent build-up of ?bers thereon.
Each of the ducts it}, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 5,
progressively transforms from the isosceles trapezoidal
The duct wall
in this embodiment is designed to
?are outwardly, but at an angle slightly less than 14°,
preferably at about 12". Thus, in the direction towards
the base of the cone, there is a gradual convergence of
the cone and duct walls, the degree of convergence being
dependent on the diameter of the duct and the diameter
of the cone and slope of the cone wall. The apparent
objective is to maintain as close as possible, an equal
cross-sectional area of ?ow throughout division of the
flow.
As illustrated in FIGURES 11 and 12 there is a transi
tion area where the flow is simultaneously divided from
a unitary flow con?ned by the two concentric walls, 5%
and 69, FIG. 12, into a multiple flow con?ned by a multi
ple number of ?ow ducts, 62 formed by transverse posi
tions
As illustrated in FIG. 11, the uniquely sloped
con?guration 33 to a circular con?guration 34, and the
ducts are gradually transformed into circular ducts which
circular ducts then lead to the ?ow spreader 12, FIG. 7. 40 are led to a ?ow spreader in the manner described above.
The forming of the ducts is accomplished by extrusion.
Again the leading edges of the portions 64 are curved to
The ?ow spreader 12 is illustrated as comprised of cir
prevent build up thereon and the number of ducts formed
cular ducts 36 which progressively assume a rectangular
may be varied depending on the application contemplated.
con?guration at outlets 38. The formation of the pipes in
In the illustrated embodiment, the number of ducts is
this area is again accomplished by an extrusion process. 45 twenty (20).
The circular ducts, in the described embodiment, are two
From the above, it is apparent that a novel flow system
is provided capable of dividing the flow and distributing
inches in diameter, but it is contemplated that between
the flow divider and ?ow spreader other shapes and
it across a slice in a manner avoiding abrupt changes in
the direction of flow or signi?cant changes in the cross
dimensions may be used, depending on the application.
The ?ow spreader outlets 38, FIG. 9, are rectangular 50 sectional area of ?ow which might cause ?occulation or
outlets positioned adjacent each other of height and com~
- unequal distribution of the pulp. '1' here is also provided,
bined width approximately equal to the dimensions of the
by the invention, a divider capable of more evenly and
slice is. The walls at this point are as thin as possible
and the ducts as close as possible to prevent any flow
uniformly dividing the pulp furnish.
separation or creation of vortices as the pulp is extruded
from the ducts. These outlets may open directly into
the slice it» or there may be interposed between the slice
and spreader outlets a ?ow correction chamber 14 de
signed to reduce variations in the velocity of the flow
in several forms, it is apparent that the components may
be further modi?ed without departing from the spirit and
scope of the invention, and that the scope of the invention
emerging from the outlets.
One such correction chamber is disclosed in copend
ing application Serial No. 1,263, relating to “Flow Sys
tem for Paper Formers.” It is apparent that the multiple
duct outlets 1% of the ?ow distributor cause a flow pat
tern at the outlets comprised of a number of elongated
velocity tongues positioned at each outlet, each tongue
being caused by the relatively faster flow in the center
While the invention has been described and illustrated
shall be considered limited only as speci?cally set forth
in the appended claims.
60
1 claim:
1. In a flow system for a paper forming machine ar
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
slice of said machine, a flow divider comprising a ?rst
duct at the intake end thereof and an annular array of
elongated multiple ducts at the opposite end thereof, an
elongated probe positioned within said ?rst duct and hav
ing a base and an apex directed opposite to the direction
portions of the duct, and slower ?ow at the sides thereof
of flow in said duct, and means extending between said
due to resistance of the sides of the duct. These tongues
will be more pronounced at higher velocities of ?ow, 70 ‘not and probe base supporting and holding said probe
'11 position, said first duct, probe sides and last named
and will produce light and dark areas in the formed
neans de?ning free, unobstructed and ‘open ends of the
paper known as slice streaks. To avoid slice streaks it
ntalte portions for said multiple ducts.
is important that the flow be corrected and that an essen
2. A flow divider as claimed in chair. 1 wherein said
tially uniform pressure face be presented at the slice.
The box-like chamber 112', using a rod 49 positioned 75 probe has an axis parallel to the line of ?ow andlan
3,076,502
5
angle between the axis of the probe and sides of the
probe of from 12° to 14° at the apex.
3. In a ?ow system for a paper forming machine ar
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
slice of said machine, a ?ow divider comprising a ?rst
duct at the intake end thereof and an annular array of
elongated multiple ducts at the opposite end thereof, an
elongated probe positioned within said ?rst duct having a
base and an apex directed opposite to the direction of
?ow in said duct, and means extending between said duct 10
and probe base supporting and holding said probe in posi
tion, said ?rst duct, probe sides and last named means
de?ning free, unobstructed and open ends of the intake
portions for said multiple ducts, and said ?rst duct, probe
and multiple ducts having axes substantially parallel to 15
each other.
4. In a flow system for a paper forming machine ar
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
slice of said machine, a ?ow divider comprising a ?rst
duct at the intake end thereof and an annular array of 20
elongated multiple ducts at the opposite end thereof, an
elongated probe positioned within said ?rst duct and hav
ing a base and an apex directed opposite to the direction
6
ducts 1without substantially changing the direction of ?ow
or the cross-sectional area of ?ow comprising a probe
positioned in said single duct, the apex of which is di
rected in a direction opposite to the direction of flow and
the axis of which is aligned with the axis of said single
duct, the sides of said probe and said duct being con
centric in the area of the base of said probe and de?ning
free unobstructed and open ends of equal cross-sectional
area of intake portions for said array of multiple ducts
to thereby divert the ?ow to said array of multiple ducts.
8. A ?ow system for providing pulp furnish of uniform
consistency to a slice comprising a ?rst duct leading from
a storage vat, a ?ow spreader means having a series of
outlets positioned transversely across and leading into the
slice to deliver furnish equally across the slice, multiple
ducts leading to said outlets, and a ?ow divider means
positioned intermediate said spreader and said ?rst duct
adapted to divide the ?ow equally from said ?rst duct to
said multiple ducts, said divider comprising a cone having
an axis aligned with the axis of said ?rst duct and pro
jecting into the ?ow and a base whose sides cooperate with
the multiple ducts to form a part of their wall at the duct
intakes, said ?rst duct and cone sides cooperating to de
?ne free and unobstructed open ends of intake portions
for said multiple ducts whereby a single flow is divided
of ?ow in said duct, means extending between said ?rst
duct and probe base supporting and holding said probe 25
in position so that axis thereof is aligned with the axis
into multiple ?ows without substantial change in the direc
of said ?rst duct, said ?rst duct, probe sides and last
tion of ?ow.
named means de?ning free, unobstructed and open ends
9. In a flow system for a paper forming machine ar
of equal cross-sectional area of intake portions for said
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
multiple ducts, the axes of said multiple ducts being paral 30 slice of said machine, a ?ow divider comprising, in com
lel to those of said probe and said ?rst duct.
bination, a single intake duct and multiple outlet ducts, a
5. In a ?ow system for a paper forming machine ar
cone positioned within said single intake duct having a
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
base and an apex directed in a direction opposite to the
slice of said machine, a ?ow divider comprising a ?rst
direction of ?ow, said cone base and intake duct compris
duct at the intake end thereof and an annular array of 35 ing and de?ning free unobstructed and open ends of in
elongated multiple ducts at the opposite end thereof, an
take portions for said multiple ducts.
elongated probe positioned within said ?rst duct having
10. A ?ow divider, according to claim 9, wherein said
a base and an apex directed opposite to the direction of
flow in said duct, means extending between said duct and
probe base supporting and holding said probe in position 40
duct wall and cone base form circular, concentric con
?gurations.
11. A ?ow divider, according to claim 9, wherein the
so that the axis thereof is aligned with the axis of said
apex of the cone is of a parabolic con?guration.
?rst duct, said ?rst duct and probe being concentric in
12. A flow divider according to claim 11, wherein the
the area of the base of said probe and having a multiple
cone sides form an angle of approximately 14° with the
number of sides and with said last named means de?ning
axis of the cone, the duct being substantially concentric
free unobstructed and open ends of equal cross-sectional 45 with the cone sides but forming an angle of approximately
area of the intake portions for said multiple ducts, said
12'’ relative to the cone axis and converging on the cone
open ends having an isosceles trapezoidal cross-sectional
sides, said duct, cone sides, and multiple ducts being there
con?guration.
by adapted to maintain a substantially constant cross
6. A ?ow divider according to claim 5 wherein said
sectional area of ?ow.
50
probe has a hexagonal pyramid shape, and wherein the
multiple number of ducts number six.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
7. In a flow system for a paper forming machine ar
ranged to transport pulp furnish from a pulp vat to a
slice of said machine, a ?ow divider comprising a single
duct at the intake end thereof and an annular array of 55
elongated multiple ducts at the opposite end thereof, the
axes of said multiple ducts being substantially parallel to
UNITED STATES PATENTS
McCoole _____________ __ Feb. 13, 1'9‘12
Swanson _______________ __ Mar. 8, 1938
Seaborne ______________ __ Apr. 18, 1944
146,077
Sweden _______________ __ July 6, 1954
FOREIGN PATENTS
the axis of said single duct, means for simultaneously di
viding the flow from said single duct into said multiple
w " ‘'5
1,017,638
2,110,4301
2,347,130
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