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Патент USA US3076556

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Feb. 5,: 1963
A. G. Booms, JR
‘
3,076,547
SONIC APPARATUS FOR MATERIEL SEPARATION
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Feb. 5,: 1963
A. G. BODINE, JR
3,076,547
SONIC APPARATUS FOR MATERIAL SEPARATION
Original Filed Sept. 29. 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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IN VEN TOR. N ’
United States Patent 0
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3,076,547
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‘Patented Feb. 5, 1963
2
plates 11 and 12, and immediately below plate 15 is a
3,076,547
similar ring-plate 16. These ring-plates project outwardly
beyond side wall 11, providing ?anges which are bolted
together, as indicated. The vessel is supported by legs
17 engaging under and welded to plate 16. A cylindric
SONIC APPARATUS FOR MATERIAL SEPARATION
Albert G. Bodinc, Jr., Sherman Oaks, Calif.
(3300 Cahuenga Blvd., Los Angeles 28, Calif.)
Original application Sept. 29, 1959, Ser. No. 843,269.
Doitgged and this application Oct. 5, 1960, Ser. No.
6 ,
wall 18, of the same diameter as wall 11, extends down
wardly from ring-plate 16 immediately inside legs 17,
7
being welded at the top to member 16. A bottom ring
plate 19 is welded to and extends inwardly from the
This invention relates ‘generally to material moving 10 lower edge of wall 18 and a perforated frusto-conical
and/ or separating apparatus operating by sonic principles,
wall 20 is welded at the top to the inner edge of ring
and has application in a number of ?elds, including,
16, and extends downwardly and inwardly therefrom
among others: classi?cation and separation of granular
to meet the inner edge of ring-plate 19, as shown best
in FIG. 3. Fibreglass sound absorption packing 21 is
materials of different densities, or particle size, for ex
ample, separation of metals from ore.
15 placed in the annular space de?ned by the members 16,
A general object of the invention is to perform such
18, 19 and 20, as indicated. Secured to the inner periph
functions and operations through use of propulsive forces
ery of ring-plate 19 is a frusto-conical wall 22 forming a
generated in simple acoustic apparatus in which powerful
continuation of wall 20, to which is joined a materials
acoustic standing waves of high acceleration factor are
outlet and air inlet tube 23. A frusto-conical wall 24
2 Claims. (Cl. 209—20)
maintained.
The invention in its various aspects depends upon ma
is mounted slightly inside perforated wall 20, and shields
the latter from downwardly discharging material.
terials motivating forces occurring between the nodes
Welded to the top of walls 11 and 12 is a ring-plate
20
26, engaged by a ring-plate 27 of the removable top
forces operate differentially, in apparatus according to the
28 of the vessel, the projecting ?ange portions of plates
invention, or particles of different densities and/ or particle 25 26 and 27 being bolted together, as indicated. The top of
size. Apparatus in accordance with the invention utilizes
28 comprises an exterior cylindric side wall 29 welded
such forces to separate or classify heterogeneous mixtures
to and rising from ring-plate 27, a‘ top wall 30 extending
of materials of different densities and/or particle size,
inwardly from the upper edge ofsidewall 29 and formed
for example, metals from ores.
with a central opening 31, a depending cylindric wall 32
In addition to the motivating force, and apparently of 30 located somewhat outwardly from opening 31, and a per
equal importance, is a particle agglomerating compul
forate wall 33, joining the lower end of wall 32 with the
sion which arises by reason of wave action on the ma
inner edge ‘of ring-plate 27. The annular space so formed
terial. The oscillation of the particles of the material
is packed with ?breglass 34, also for sound absorption
and anti-nodes of an acoustic standing wave.
These
owing to this wave action occurs with an acceleration
purposes.
many times that of the acceleration of gravity, causing
A short vertical wall 40 rises from‘ top wall 30, just
outwardly of opening 31, and mounted on the top portion
particles of like density to agglomerate. The agglomerat
ed body of like-density, particulate material is then readi
of the latter is a louvered chamber 41, equipped with a
ly separated out of the carrier material. Such body
top 42, from which leads outlet pipe 43. The latter is
travels longitudinally of the standing wave under the in
coupled by ?exible coupling 44, such as a rubber hose,
?uence of the above-mentioned propulsive force between 40 to a pipe 45 leading to the inlet of a blower 46. Chamber
nodes and anti-nodes, and tends also to separate out of
41 has sidewalls 47 formed with air louvers 48, and‘a
lighter carrier material by gravity. The over-all pro
lower conical portion 49 formed with louvers 50. Rising
pulsive and separative force availed of by the invention
from the inner edge of the latter is a generally conical
shield 51.
"
‘
‘
is thus the resultant of both physical phenomena.
45
With this brief preliminary discussion in mind, the
A plurality of vertical cylindrically shaped rubber posts
invention may best be further described in connection
55 are mounted in cylinders 56 secured to lower ring
with the following detailed description of a number of
plate 19, as by welding, these being located adjacent the
typical forms and embodiments thereof, reference for this
inner periphery of the latter, as illustrated. The lower
purpose being had to the accompanying drawings, in 50 most of a vertical series of horizontal, circular, steel vi
which:
bratory plates 58 rests on and is secured to the rubber
FIG. 1 is a vertical medial section of a form of the
posts 55. For example, an insert 59 molded in the upper
end of each post 55 has a projecting stud 60 passing
invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus of FIG. 1;
through plate 58, a nut 61 screwed on the upper end of
and
55 the stud securing the plate 58 in assembly with the rubber
FIG. 3 is a section on broken line 3——3 of FIG. 1.
post. The plates 58 are spaced by means of slotted spacer
In FIGS. 1 to 3 is shown a species of sonic separator
sleeves 62. The slots 62a and 62b extending inwardly
in accordance with the invention designed to carry out
from opposite ends of the sleeves, and preferably stag
my sonic process of separating metallic constituents from
gered, as indicated, are simply to give the sleeves a de
ore which has been reduced to a granular state. The ap
paratus heredisclosed was speci?cally designed for and
has demonstrated substantial effectiveness in the separa
tion of uranium salts from ore. However, while I will
refer to such materials hereinafter, no limitation thereto
60
sirable degree of ?exibility.
A vibrator shaft 65 extends vertically through central
apertures 66 in plates 58 and through the aforemen
tioned spacer sleeves 62, having on its lower end a ?ange
67 to which is bolted vibration generator 68. A spacer
is to be implied.
'
65 sleeve 69, slotted downwardly part way, as at 70, is placed
A generally cylindric vessel 10 is provided, having an
on shaft 65 between lowermost plate 58 and shaft ?ange
outer imperforate side wall 11, and an inner perforated
67; and a spacer sleeve 71, slotted part way up from
wall 12 annularly spaced inside the wall 11. Wall 12
the bottom, is placed on shaft 65 above uppermost plate
de?nes the side of an annular treatment chamber 13.
58. The upper extremity 73 of shaft 65 is reduced and
The annular space between Walls 11 and 12 is packed 70 screw-threaded, and a nut 74 threaded thereon is set up
with sound absorbent material, such as ?breglass pack
ing 14. A ring-plate 15 is welded to the lower edges of
tightly and holds the parts in assembly, serving to clamp
vibration generator 68 securely to the set of plates 58.
3,076,547
3
4
An eye '75 on the upper end of shaft 65 permits con
mediate nodal region remains substantially stationary.
venient lifting of said shaft together with the assembly
of plates 58.
To accomplish this standing wave vibration, the genera
The generator 68 may be of various types, provided
sufficient power is provided. That her-e shown (FIGS. 1
of the plates for the desired vibration pattern. Higher
harmonics may be used, if desired, by driving the genera
tor at multiples of the fundamental frequency.
In operation, the material to be separated is intro
tor 68 is driven at the fundamental resonant frequency
and 3) provides the large output power required by the in
vention in a simple manner. The generator embodies a
duced, preferably continuously, through the inlet 100.
housing 80 bolted to the aforementioned shaft ?ange 67,
carrying bearings for two parallel shafts 81 and 81’.
This entering material, which for example may be a
Tightly mounted on these two shafts are spur gears 82 10 uranium ore, is preliminarily pulverized to a relatively
?ne grain size. In my work with the apparatus shown
and 83, respectively, meshing with each other, and carry
in FIGS. 1 to 3, I have found that optimum results are
ing eccentric weights 84; and shaft 81 is coupled to a
obtained with the entering material pulverized to a maxi
drive shaft 85 driven vfrom any suitable prime mover,
mum grain size of the order of 1/16 inch. This is men
such as an electric motor, not shown. The shaft 85, as
shown in FIG. 3, projects outside the apparatus through 15 tioned, however, by way of example, and without inten
tion of limitation.
suitable openings. The weights 84 are phased so as to
move vertically in unison. Hence, their unbalanced com
The material so introduced to the
vessel falls on the uppermost plate 58 somewhat inwardly
of the nodal region.
ponents of centrifugal ‘force are additive vertically, exert
ing a vertically directed oscillating force through the shaft
hearings to the generator housing and thence to the verti
The blower 46 is operated, and draws a strong current
of air through the vessel, in through tube 23 at the bot
tom, out through louvers 48 and 50 at the top, and thence
via pipes ‘4-3 and 45 to and through the blower. Broadly,
cal shaft 65. It will be seen, however, that the unbal
anced weights 84 develop horizontal components of forces
which are always equal and opposed, and that these
the purpose is to create an air flow which will pick up
the light particles of uranium salts which have been
6% accordingly, acting through shaft 65 and the several 25 spacially differentiated from the pulverized ore owing to
components of force are therefore cancelled. Generator
the standing wave vibration of plates 58 over which the
ore passes downwardly in succession. Various upward
air ?ow patterns may be used. The present apparatus,
however, has been contrived such that a substantial pro
spacer sleeves, exerts a vertically directed oscillating force
on the inner peripheries of the plates 58. The latter are
of a good grade of elastic steel, and are set into a mode
of standing wave vibration when generator 68 is driven
at proper frequency, in a manner to be more fully ex
30
portion of the air travelling upwardly through the vessel
plained presently.
around the plates '58 and batlles 9'1 is diverted radially
inward so as to sweep over the plates 58, and then pass
Suspended from plates ‘58, as by means of U-bent ?at
upwardly through the central apertures 92 in the baffles
spring elements 90, are upwardly concave ba?ie plates 91,
91, and then travel radially outward between the upper
formed with central apertures 92 of a diameter substan
tially larger than the outside diameter of the spacer sleeves 35 sides of the battles and the plates 58 immediately above,
in the pattern suggested by the arrows in FIG. 1.
62. The outside diameter of the dish members 91 ex
As stated above, the incoming granular material falls
ceeds the outside diameter of the plates 58 su?iciently to
from inlet 150 onto uppermost plate 58 at a point which
catch material falling off the peripheries of the plates 58,
may be somewhat inward from node N. The plate 58,
and are only narrowly spaced from the vessel wall 12.
vibrating in the standing wave pattern previously de
The baffle plates 91 are also suspended sufficiently far
scribed, has a component of vibration normal to its upper
below the plates 58 to accommodate any relative vibra
surface which is in contact with the granular material
tion between the members 58 and 91 so that these mem
supported thereon. This component of vibration of the
bers will not strike one another during the operation of
plate takes place with high acoustic power, and with an
the apparatus.
The vessel is completed by a plurality of material inlets 45 acceleration many times that of gravity. Under the in
100 extending through top wall 30, as shown, and dis
charging well inwardly on the uppermost plate 58.
It has been described how vibration generator 68, act
ing through post or shaft 65, exerts a vertically oscillat
ing force on the inner periphery of the plates 58, i.e., in 50
a direction normal to the plates. This action, when
generator 68 is driven at proper frequency, sets the sev
eral plates 58 into a mode or pattern of standing wave
?uence thereof, the different granular materials, e.g.,
carrier ore and uranium salts, are differentially motivated
and agglomerate. The materials, under the severe sonic
agitation, may be observed to become dynamically sus
pended or sustained in a free ?owing condition like a
liquid. The materials move toward the nodal region N,
where vibration amplitude is minimized, and the lighter
or more ?nely divided constituent, which is the uranium
salt desired to be recovered, simultaneously rises to the
vibration, characterized by an alternating upward and
downward elastic “bowing” of the plates. In this pattern, 55 top. The precise mechanism by which this performance
occurs is still somewhat obscure, and acoustics experts
who have observed the phenomena differ somewhat as
its precise nature. vIn the foregoing, I have given the
best explanation known to me. However, the phenomena
described are readily observed, and occur when the plate
or zero oscillation between the two. In the apparatus as
58 is vibrated with su?cient acoustic power to produce
disclosed in the ?gures, the nodal region of minimized
a high acceleration factor, whence the materials can be
oscillation, designated N, is at or just slightly outside the
seen to be in a highly agitated, dynamically sustained and
point of mounting of the lower-most plate 58 to the rub
free flowing state, moving to all intents and purposes sub
ber posts 55. Thus, at this region, the elastic de?ection
amplitude of the plates is minimized, and the vibratory 65 stantially as freely as a liquid.
The material on the plate 58 can be observed to form
de?ection amplitude increases progressively in both di
an annular mound, such as indicated X, highest over
rections, inward and outward, to maximums at its inner
the nodal region. As this mound builds up, a- thin edge
and outer edges. These edge regions are at velocity
of the material spills radially outward, and falls over
antinodes of the vibration pattern, designated by V and 70 the peripheral edge of the vibrating plate, to be caught
there is an elastic vertical oscillation of the inner or cen
tral region of the plate, a similar elastic vertical oscilla
tion, but of opposite phase, of the outer or rim portion
of the plate, and an annular nodal region of minimized
V1, respectively. In other words, the plate ?exes elastical
ly, de?ecting upwardly at its central velocity antinode
region while de?ecting downwardly in its outer velocity
antinode region, and then downwardly in the central
region and upwardly in its outer region, while the inter 75
by the ba?ie plate ‘91 immediately below. The lighter
or more ?nely divided constituent, i.e., the uranium salt,
moves to the top of the mound, and forms a dust cloud
thereover. This differential material, partly rising in a
cloud and partly residing at the surface of the mound
3,076,547
5
6
in a dynamically sustained state, is caught up by the air
current ?owing radially inward over the plate 58, and
is discharged with the air via the blower.
The material spilling over the edge of the plate 58 onto
I claim:
1. In an apparatus for separating unlike granular par
ticles, the combination of: a stack of vertically spaced,
generally horizontally disposed elastic disks, said disks
the ba?le plate 91 still contains a substantial amount of
the salt to be recovered. This material slides down the
ba?ie member, aided by vibration of the latter owing to
its spring suspension from the vibrating plate, and falls
through aperture 92 onto the plate 58 immediately below.
There the performance is repeated, the material migrating,
‘being elastically vibratory in a ?exural mode at one
common resonant frequency, means structurally and sub
stantially rigidly uniting the central portions of the disks
of said stack to one another, a vibrator connected to said
uniting means for vibrating said means vertically at said
10 resonant frequency, so as to induce high amplitude reso
under the standing wave of the plate, to the nodal region,
where it forms a mound, and spilling oif the edge of the
plate when the mound becomes high enough that its
natural slope, under the sonic agitation, causes the mate
rial to reach the edge. Again the lighter or ?ner particles 15
move to the top, and are picked up by the air current
over the plate, to be separated out.
Thus recovery is progressive, the ore giving up a pro
nant ?exural vibration of said disks, means ‘for feeding
said materials to the uppermost of said disks, sloping,
?ow directing ba?les located between said disks and
extending from outside the peripheral edge line of the
disks to a region inwardly thereof and above the disk
below, whereby over?ow off the peripheries of the disks
is delivered to the disks below by gravity flow, a housing
around said disks for con?ning dust created by the vi
portion of its metallic constituent at each plate 58. The
bration of the plates, said housing having an opening in
remaining ore going oil the lowermost plate 58 is caught 20 the lower portion thereof for discharging the over?ow
within the conical bottom portion of the apparatus, and
from the lowermost of the disks, and an air and dust
discharged at 23.
conduit connected to the upper portion of said housing
The material so discharged may still contain a valuable
for discharging said dust.
,.
proportion of recoverable mineral, and may be run
2. in an apparatus for separating unlike granular
through a second similar separator. Also, the separated 25 materials the combination of: a stack of vertically spaced,
material going off through the blower may still contain
generally horizontally disposed elastic disks,‘ each having
a substantial proportion of the carrier ore, and may be
a central hole therein, said disks being elastically vibra
subjected to further separative treatment.
'
t-ory in a ?exural mode at one common resonant fre
Granular uranium ore may contain particles of car
quency, a vertical post extending through said holes in
rier ore, and particles of uranium salt. The particles of 30 said disks and rigidly fastened to said disks adjacent
carrier ore may also have adhering thereto substantial
said holes, a vibrator connected to said vertical postrfor
amounts of uranium salt.
In the course of the sonic
vibrating said post vertically at said resonant frequency,
agitation of the material within the apparatus, the uranium
salt adhering to the particles of carrier ore is largely
so as to induct high amplitude resonant flexural vibra
tion of said disks, means for feeding said materials to the
abraded away, and becomes a ?ne dust.
Grains of 35 uppermost of said disks, sloping, ?ow directing bat?es
, located between said disks and extending from outside
uranium salt initially present are also reduced to a ?ne
size in the process, and the salt is recovered in a ?nely
divided form.
the peripheral edge line of the disks to a region inwardly
thereof and above the disk below, whereby over?ow off
The previously mentioned air flow paths through the
the peripheries of the disks is delivered to the disks below
vessel are in no way critical. It is merely necessary to 40 by gravity flow, a housing around said disks for con?ning
provide unidirectional air movement through all parts
dust created by the vibration of the plates, said housing
of the main chamber of the machine, so that the dust
having an opening in the lower portion thereof for dis
cloud of uranium salts which have been sonically sepa
charging the over?ow from the lowermost of the disks,
rated from the parent ore by the above described mecha
and an air and dust conduit connected to the upper por
nism, and which have become thrown up from the plates 45 tion of said housing for discharging said dust.
and reside in a dynamically sustained state at the top of
the ore bodies on the plates will be transported to a col
lection point. Many standard forms of dust collectors
can be employed at the collection point, to remove the
50
uranium material from the air stream.
This application is a division of my prior application
entitled Sonic Materials Separation Process and Appa
ratus, Serial No. 843,269, ?led September 29, 1959, now
abandoned.
The invention has now‘ been shown in an illustrative 55
form. It will of course be understood that this is for
illustrative purposes only, and that many variations in
design, structure and arrangement are possible within the
scope of the appended claims.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,983,968
2,071,260
2,591,083
2,755,927
2,766,881
Clark ______________ __ Dec. H,
Holden ______________ .._ Feb. 16,
Maier ________________ __ Apr. 1,
Brooks ______________ __ July 24,
Westervelt __________ __ Oct. 16,
1934
1937
1952
1956
1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
508,675
Great Britain ____ __'__.._ June 26, 1939
718,588
Great Britain ________ __ Nov. 17, 1954
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