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Патент USA US3076672

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Feb- 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 20, 1961
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
,1 E *
3mm”: M swan/v
Feb. 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 20, 1961
3 Sheelts-Sheet 2
HIS 1477-0206)’
Feb. 5, 1963
Filed Feb. 20, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
_ _ 1_ _ _ _
United States Patent O?lice
Patented Feb. 5, 1%63
hold production dimensional tolerances within predeter
Seymour N. Schlein, University Heights, Ohio, assignor to
The Farmer Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of Rhode Island
Filed Feb. 20, 1961, Ser. No. 90,383
2 Claims. (Cl. 285-179)
This invention relates to improvements in apparatus for 10
drainage systems for houses and more particularly to an
improved elbow for connecting a leader to an eavestrough
or gutter.
mined limits, with the result that either the joint was loose
or the parts were so nearly the same size that they could
not be assembled together.
A further disadvantage of the metallic elbows resided
in the fact that in cold weather the ice and snow accumu
lated in them and the alternate melting and icing caused
the elbows to become clogged, due to their high thermal
The present invention enables the manufacture of an
elbow or coupling which is cheap to make, will not rust,
and wherein the connection to the other parts or between
each other becomes more ?rm and leakproof as time
Heretofore it has been common practice to connect a
gutter to a leader or downspout with one or more elbows. 15
In this case the eavestrough is disposed at and slightly
under the outermost horizontally extending edge of the
roof which usually has some overhang outward of the
side of the dwelling. The eavestrough is usually supported
passes, being self sealing. Furthermore, it is so made
that the problem of assembly is materially less di?icult.
Due to its method of manufacture, the couplings are all
identical to each other and no problem is realized in the
?eld in assembling the same with other parts.
A further advantage resides in the fact that the coupling
so that it drains toward one end, and, the lower end is 20 can be made in various colors. Another advantage is that
provided with an opening in the bottom. It is desirable
it does not need painting, particularly on the inside. Once
to have the downspout supported close to or against the
installed, it becomes an integral part of the drainage
side or corner of the house, and, the upper end connects
system and adds to rather than detracts from the aesthetic
to the eavestrough while the lower end connects to a drain.
beauty of the installation. It may be installed by work~
Usually the eavestrough and downspout are made of
men with a limited amount of skill and with an assurance
metal and where one is connected to the other, metallic
that once installed it increases its effectiveness with the
elbows are used.
passage of time.
The metallic elbows usually have a certain ?xed degree
Due to its low thermal conductivity, it is not subject
of bend, such as 45° or 90° and it is common to provide
to icing. Furthermore the construction allows it to ex
two such elbows, one at the eavestrough which bends 30 pand and contract and partake of other movements due
toward the downspout and one at the downspout which
to the change in position of the eavestrough. Further
bends toward the eavestrough, the two being connected
more it is not subject to electrolysis as were the previous
together. When the overhang of the edge is large, this
presents no particular problem, but, when the overhang
metal elbows.
Briefly, the invention contemplates the manufacture of
is small, it is sometimes dit?cult to provide room enough 35 the couplings by a molding process, from a plastic material.
to enable the installation of these elbows, with the result
The coupling itself comprises opposite end portions, one
that a “custom built” elbow is required, which is expensive.
of which is adapted to be slipped‘over another connector
Although elbows are made which are adjustable, they
and the other end adapted to he slipped into another
are also expensive to make as well as dii'licult to adjust.
connector. The intermediate portion of the coupling is
The elbow of the present invention has certain attri
vprovided with a bellows formation which provides the
butes, due to its design, that enable one single design of
coupling with a certain degree of flexibility, allowing it to
elbow to ?ll substantially all the purposes of all the prior
be bent in any direction and to expand and contract.
elbows used for this purpose, thus enabling the artisan to
Still other advantages of the invention and the inven
reduce the, size of his stock on hand, and what is also
tion itself will become more apparent from the following
important to assure that when he arrives on a job he 45 description of some embodiments thereof, which descrip
always has an elbow that can be used to ful?ll his purpose
tion is illustrated by the accompanying drawings and forms
‘and does not have to waste time hunting'for a particular
type of elbow, and then to ?nd thathe must return to the
a part of this speci?cation.
the metal.
of a roof and its eavestrough with a pair of the couplings
In the drawings:
shop to get it.
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a coupling of my
Other disadvantages of the prior art metallic elbows 50 invention;
resided in the fact that they were expensive to make.
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
They usually were made of a ?at sheet of metal which was
FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
then bent into the desired configuration and welded, sol~
FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
dered or riveted. A particular disadvantage resides in the
FIG. 5 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in sec
fact that if they were adjustable they required sliding 55 tion, taken from the line 5-5 of FIG. 1;
joints which were difficult to operate and which, when
FIG. 6 is a similar view taken from the line on of
FIG. 2; and
installed, soon rusted out, due to the fact that dirt got
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view showing the'bottom edges
into the joints, absorbed and held water in contact with
Furthermore, the ?tting of the joints to each other and 60 used to connect the same to a downspout.
Referring now to the drawings, throughout which like
to the eavestrough and downspout was accompanied by
parts are designated by like reference characters.
diiliculty, because the point where the joints coupled
As can be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2, the coupling com
together or to the eavestrough or downspout required the
prises an upper coupling member 10 which is generally
‘inter-?tting of male and female members and one had to
be larger than the other. If they were made of the proper
size so that a quick and easy ?t was obtained, then they
had to be held together by screws or by soldering and the
joint was usually sloppy, dif?cult to solder and not by
any means a solid waterproof joint and one that did not
improve with the passage of time.
With this type of product, it was extremely difficult to
square in cross section. It will be particularly noted that
the side walls diverge from each other in an upward di
rection. This portion is adapted to be telescoped over
the end of a connector 50 extending through an opening
in an eavestrough 51.
As can best be seen from FIGS. 1 and 3, the long or
front and back sides, of the part Ill, are provided with an
outwardly olfset part 12, which extends longitudinally of
cause the thickened part to ?atten out. This is not a fast
process but one ‘which takes a certain amount of time,
depending upon the temperature. It will be seen therefore
that there is a de?nite cooperation between the thick
part 22 and the offset 12 and the bordering parts that en
hance the quick and easy installation and provide a cou
the coupling and the adjacent side walls 21 are provided
with a thickened mid~portion 22. Emphasis is placed
upon the particular design because it has a de?nite bear
ing on the ease of installation and its ability after it is in
stalled to provide a leakproof seal which improves with
age and enhances the desirable operating characteirstics
pling that once in place “grows” onto the part to which it
of the material of which the device is composed.
is attached.
At this point it should be pointed out that although
Immediately below the upper coupling part there is pro
many dilierent types of plastic may be used a preferred
plastic is one which has good cold ?ow characteristics; that 10 vided a generally circuiar ?exible intermediate portion 30.
This is comprised of a series of adjacent inwardly and out
is one that will have limited ?ow, at low temperatures,
wardly extending convolutions, which provide a structure
and, still will not have excessive flow at the higher tem
similar to the well known bellows. A typical construction,
peratures that may be encountered. One such type of ma
as illustrated, contemplates circumferentially extending
terial is a polyvinyl chloride which has some flow down
corrugations the outer crests of which have a diameter
of approximately 3%” and the inner crests of which have
a diameter of 21/2". The crests may be spaced %<;" apart
to ——20° F. and does not have excessive ?ow up to 160°
F. vIt should be noted that such a material has a degree
of ?exibility which permits installation in cold weather
without cracking and which, although increasing a ?exi
longitudinally of the coupling.
Although the corrugations may be uniform from one
gripping qualities. The character inherent in the material 20 end of the other, certain advantages are obtained if the
radius of curvature at the roots and crests is larger at the
therefore cooperates with the design to provide a device
top end. As a typical construction, the curvature at the
which, after installation, will resist the variations in tem
roots at the top could be of 1A3 ” radius while at the bottom
perature and particularly will cause the device to gradual
they could be 1/16" radius.
ly shrink and conform closely to the parts to which it is
The corrugations are circular to permit the device to
attached as time progresses, to ultimately make a coupling 25
be bent in any direction and it is possible, with this con
that will, in effect, become an integral part of the system
struction, to make any degree of bend beyond 0° and 99°
in which it is installed.
and in any direction. Of particular interest is the fact that
The outwardly offset part is of particular advantage
this type of material may be made relatively sti? under
during installation. In a typical construction illustrated
normal temperatures and therefore is not apt to sag after
in the drawings Where the rectangular dimensions are
installation. Bending is facilitated by applying heat, such
roughly 21%2" by 3", the inner wall of the offset part may
as by immersion in hot water, after which it may be bent
be o?set from the bordering side wall portions at the top
white hot and then quenched with cold water to retain the
edges by 5/54”. This, as stated, is a typical construction,
desired bend in a more or less permanent state during
taking into consideration the size of the part 16 and the
installation. On the other hand, should there be any
material of which it is made. Variations in these dimen
tension on the joint, due to the fact that the prebending
sions will readily be apparent to those versed in the art
was not of the exact amount, the cold flow characteristics
For instance, it is contemplated that the amount of the
would eventually cause the same to move and bend or un
effect may decrease from the top edge toward the bottom
bility in hot weather, does not ?ow so much as to lose its
bend of its own accord until the device becomes stab
to such an extent that at the lower end the offset dis
appears. The point of having the oilset is that, during 40 bilized.
The lower end of the device terminates in a male cou
installation, increased ?exibility is realized, which, to
pling member 44} which is identical in construction to the
gether with the taper, facilitates its installation. Once
upper member except that it tapers in the downward
the coupling is telcsceped around a male member, as time
progresses, the offset will gradually become smaller and
the entire inner wall moves over and into close engage
direction or toward the end.
ment throughout its full length with the coupling mem
ber. Likewise at the lower and smaller end the coupling
will gradually move out and release the tensional stresses.
Actually with the passage of time the pressure of the cou
pling with the outer member will become equalized 50
throughout its circumference and length and this pressure
will remain the same, due to the plastic memory of the
device, i.e., the ability to stretch and after stretching lose
some of its tension, or, to contact until a certain tension is
reached and then stop contracting. The ability to expand 55
and contract, and the fact that the material has a plastic
memory, together with the particular design assures that
In this respect the offset
45 portion 12a engages with the inner surface of the down~
spout and, on initial installation will be pressed inwardly,
resulting in some inward bowing of the bordering wall
portions on opposite sides. On the adjacent sides the
thickened parts 22a have an initial tangential engage
ment with the opposite inner walls of the downspout.
The shape is such, however, that this structure acts as
two opposite levers, causing the corners to be pulled out
ward into close engagement with the corners of the down
An additional advantage of the structure resides in
the fact that since the lower end is smaller, it may be
telescoped into the upper portion, when two of the units
an effective seal will be provided throughout a Wide range
are used and an 8 curve is desired, with the parts 12a
posite the mid-line through the coupling and gradually
that parts may be readily joined to each other or to the
of the small end sliding closely within the parts 12 of
of temperatures.
The thickened portion 22 also provides an important 60 the enlarged end.
In all instances there is a suf?cient degree of ?exibility
attribute. It will be noticed that the thickened part is op
eavestrough and downspout and after a time gradually
change in shape to such an extent that the parts closely
thickest part of the thickened portion provides a tangen
tial engagement with the outer wall of the male member, 65 grip each other and still retain sufficient of the original
conformation that with changes in temperature the in
which causes the wall 22 to bow outwardly slightly. ‘But
herent resiliency will maintain a good gripping engage
this outward bowing is resisted by the member being
thicker in the middle and thus the outward force helps to
Having thus described the invention I am aware that
vbring the oliset part 12 inward. This portion also causes
the thinner corners to conform more closely to the corners 70 numerous and extensive departures may be made there
from without departing from the spirit of the invention as
on the male member. Furthermore, in time the increased
de?ned by the appended claims.
‘thickness of the material permits a “cold” ?ow, preventing
I claim:
the corners from thinning down too much and breaking.
1.- An elbow for connecting an eavestrough to a down<
This is because the sides being wider and the corners hug
ging the male member, plus the tangent pressure noted, 75 spout wherein the eavestrongh has a coupling of rec-1
thins out toward the corners. Thus, on installation, the
tangular cross section connected thereto, said elbow com
prising an upper portion for telescopic engagement over
the outside of said coupling and being comprised of a
plastic having limited ?exibility and a tendency to cold
to cause it to return to its original conformation upon
release of pressure and the ability to contract and form
a close weatherproof seal, such as polyvinyl chloride,
and having an upper portion which is substantially rec
tangular in cross section and of a length substantially
that of the coupling on the eavestrough and being of
?ow to a predetermined set under sustained pressure and
having an elastic memory, such as to cause it to return
to its original conformation upon release of pressure and
the ability to contract and form a close weatherproof seal,
such as polyvinyl chloride, and having an upper por
tion which is substantially rectangular in cross section
and of a length substantially that of the coupling on the
eavestrough and being of increasing diameter toward its
upper end, two opposite sides of said walls being formed
with an outwardly extending portion arranged to be
distorted on application and the two adjacent sides being 15
formed with a median zone which gradually increases in
diameter toward the mid-line of the wall to provide an
increasing diameter toward its upper end, two opposite
sides of said Walls being formed with an outwardly ex
tending portion arranged to be distorted on application
and the two adjacent sides being formed with a median
zone which gradually increases in diameter toward the
mid-line of the wall to provide an inwardly projecting
portion, an intermediate ?exible portion comprised of a
plurality of circumferentially extending convolutions to
provide a bellows formation, a second rectangular por
tion integrally connected to the [other end of said ?exible
portion and being of substantially the same conforma
inwardly projecting portion, an intermediate ?exible por
tion as the upper rectangular portion, and being of gradu
tion comprised of a plurality of circumferentially ex
ally decreasing diameter toward the end and arranged to
tending convoluti'ons to provide a bellows formation, the 20 be telescoped inside ‘a downspout.
radius of curvature at the extremities of said corrugations
being larger at the upper end and smaller at the lower
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
end, a second rectangular portion integrally connected
to the other end of said ?exible portion and being of
substantially the same conformation as the upper rec
tangular portion, and being of gradually decreasing di
ameter toward the end and arranged to be telescoped
inside a downspout.
2. A connector for connecting an eavestrough to a
downspout wherein the eavestrough has a coupling of 30
rectangular cross section connected thereto, said con
nector comprising an upper portion for telescopic en
gagement over the outside of said coupling and being
comprised of a plastic having limited ?exibility and a
tendency to cold ?ow to a predetermined set under sus
tained pressure and having an elastic memory such as
Hagerty _______________ _ Jan. 12,
Weltmer _____________ __ Jan. 22,
Kuehne ______________ __ Jan. 10,
Hermann ____________ __ Sept. 24-,
Phillips ______________ __ Dec. 27,
Weinandy ____________ __ Jan. 9,
Jackson et al __________ __ Feb. 20,
Great Britain _________ __ Sept. 8, 1898
Germany _____________ _._ Dec. 8, 1906
Switzerland __________ __ Aug. 31, 1954
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