Патент USA US3076973код для вставки
Feb. 5, 1963 ' D. w. G. BYATT ~ I 3,076,963 PHASE INDICATORS Filed Dec. 10, 1959 H6. 5 I (4b) ' : | I i 7 ENVENTQE'" \ 5mm & W470’ 11 United States Patent 0 C6 1 3,076,963 Patented Feb. 5., 1963 2 per cycle of said second wave. The momentarily ap‘ 3,076,963 plied potential may conveniently be obtained by squar PHASE RNDICATORS 7 Dennis William George Byatt, Great Baddow, England, assignor to Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company Limited, London, England, a company of Great Britain _ Filed Dec. 10, 1959, Ser. No. 858,804 ‘ Claims priority, application Great Britain May 26, 1959 I , 8 Claims. (Cl. 343-413) ing said second electrical wave, differentiating the re sultant squared wave to produce sequential momentary excursions of potential of opposite polarities and select; ing and utilising the excursions of one polarity as the momentarily applied potential. So long as the diodes are conductive the quadrature components applied to the de ?ection means will be “clamped” to earth and thus be This invention relates to phase indicators, i.e. to ar 10 of substantially zero amplitude and the cathode ray will rangements for indicating the phase relationship between adopt its “rest” position. When, however, the diodes are two electrical waves. It is often required for a variety of di?erent purposes to measure and indicate the phase rela tion between two electrical waves, and the present inven cut off, the cathode ray will be subjected to a circular de?ection (assuming that the quadrature components are of equal amplitudes) of a radius dependent on the quadrature component amplitude. The effect, therefore, tion seeks to provide improved and simple means which will indicate phase relationship directly and in a conveni~_ of momentarily cutting o? the diodes will be to produce ent manner on a cathode ray tube. a radial de?ection whose position round the circle is Indeed, as will be dependent on the phase relation between the two elec seen later, the invention, in its preferred forms, pnovides trical waves. If the ray is cut off except‘ when the phase indicators which will indicate a vphase relationship by a cathode ray tube display resembling a simple radial 20 diodes are cut off the cathode ray tube will give a pointer like display, the position of the “pointer” directly indicat pointer which can be read against a circular scale marked in degrees. . ing the phase relation. ‘ ' . It is preferred to cutoff the ray except when the diodes are cut olf, in part because of the convenient type of direction ?nders of the well known kind in which a radio directional receiving system, such as a pair of mutu 25 display which is obtained if this is done, and in part, in order to prevent “burning" of the screen of the tube by ally perpendicular crossed frames and a radio goniometer, the ray when in its “rest" position. It is 1a simple matter has its directivity continuously rotated at some predeter to have the cathode ray tube norm-ally cut off and‘, to mined frequency, e.g, by rotating the search coil of the utilise the second electrical wave momentarily to “brighten goniometer, and the incoming signal direction is ascer An important ‘application of the invention is to radio tained by comparing the phase of the goniometer output 30 up” the tube simultaneously with changing the ampli-' tudes of the quadrature components applied'to the de with the phase of a reference oscillation of the same fre ?ection devices. > It is, of course, possible normally to apply'the quadra ture components to the de?ection devices at full amplitude provides a very convenient way of measuring the phase relationship between the goniometer output and the refer 35 and to arrange the second wave momentarily to reduce the applied amplitudes once per cycle. ‘If this isdone ence frequency giving ‘an indication in the form of a there Will be a resultant inward instead of’an outward cathode ray tube trace resembling a radial pointer mov~ phase indicating radial de?ection on the tube screen and, ing over a circular scale which can be marked in incom if the tube is arranged to be cut off except when‘said ing signal directions. quency as the frequency of rotation of directivity. When applied to such a direction ?nder, the present invention ' According to this invention an arrangement for indicat radial de?ection is occurring, the display will 'againbe ing the phase relationship between two electrical waves in the form of a radial line extending, if the applied (amplitudes are reduced to zero, to the centre‘. The de comprises a display cathode ray tube having mutually perpendicular de?ection devices, means for deriving two scribed arrangement, with outward radial de?ection, is, components in phase quadrature from one of said waves, circuits for applying one of said components to one of 45 however, at present preferred. said devices and the other to the other, and means con trolled by the second of said ‘electrical waves once per the de?ection of the ray will, of course, be circular while, if they are unequal, it will be elliptical. In the case in which the invention is applied to a radio direction ?nder of the kind referred to, in order to measure the ‘phase cycle thereof for momentarily and substantially changing the amplitudes of said components applied to said devices. Preferably the means for changing the amplitudes of the quadrature components applied to the de?ection de vices are constituted by an electronic switching circuit control-led by the second of the electrical waves and adapted to switch the applied quadrature components be tween maximum and substantially zero values. . - If the quadrature components are of equal amplitudes, between a directionally received signal and a reference frequency, it will often be of advantage to provide manual means for separately adjusting the amplitude of the'quad? rature components to a desired inequality and for5adjust ing the rest position of the ray. As is well known, direce In a 55 tional aerial systems such as are normally used'in'direc preferred arrangement of this nature the switching cir cuit is a'normally conductive circuit adapted to connect to a point of ?xed potential the circuits through which the quadrature components are applied to the de?ection tion ?nders commonly have, when installed, two impor tant components of directional error due‘ to local ‘condia tions-—-namely so-called semi-circular error and vso-called quadrantal error. When applying the present invention devices and means, actuated once per cycle of the second 60 to such directionv?nders, it is possible to compensate for electrical wave, are provided for cutting off said normally semi-circular error by providing means for adjusting the conductive circuit. Thus the switching circuit may con sist of a diode bridge with six normally conductive diodes, rest position, of the ray-—e.g. by providing separatelyad justable?xed de?ection biases on the mutually perpen dicular de?ection devices; and to compensate for quad; agonal and earth and one between earth and the other 65 rantal error by providing means for adjusting the relative amplitudes of the quadrature components-cg. by feed end of said bridge diagonal, and the ends of the other ing said components to the appropriate mutually perpen bridge diagonal are connected each to one or other of dicular de?ection devices through’ separately adjustable the two circuits through which the quadrature compo one in each arm, one between one end of one bridge di nents ‘are applied to the de?ection devices, means, con potentiometers. trolledyby the second electrical wave being provided for momentarily applying potential to the ends of said ?rst mentioned bridge diagonal to cut off the diodes once The invention is illustrated in the accompanying draw ings in which FTGURE 1 is a diagram of oneembodi~ ment, and FIGURE 2 is a set of explanatory waveforms ' _ t 3,076,963 3 and FIGURE 3 is a representation of a ?gure as‘ viewed phase relationship of the waves from the goniorneterand on a cathode ray tube. Referring to FIGURE 1, this shows the invention ap plied, to a, radio, direction'?nder of the kind referred to. generator 3 and 5. i V, The cutting off of the diodes in the unit B is effected by means of the units D, E and F. Unit D serves to square the substantially sinusoidal wave from the receiver The direction ?nder proper is illustrated only schemati (not separately shown) included in the unit 3. As shown, cally since 'it is well known per se. It is representedby unit D is aso-called Schmitt trigger circuit as well known two mutually perpendicular crossed frames 1 and 2 sup per seand comprising the two valves D1 and D2. The plying signals to the stator windings of a radio goniom squared output‘ wave from the unit D is differentiated by eter. vThis radio goniometer provides an output signal from a ‘search coil toa receiver asrin the usual way and 10 a differentiating circuit within the unit 'E, and consisting of the condenser E1 and. the'resistance E2; As will be the said goniometer and the said receiver are together represented by the ‘block 3 which includes both. The obvious, unit B will translate the successive rising and directivity-is rotated continuously at a predetermined fre falling edges of thesquared waves from unit D into mo quen'cy, e.g. 25 rotations per second, by an electric motor 4; which drives the search coil and which also drives a mentary “peaks? ofvoltage of opposite polarities. These peaks of voltage'are applied to the grid of the .valveFl reference frequency source of ?xed phase exempli?ed as in the, unit F. consisting of a generator 5 driven by the same motor. The frequency of the generator is the same as that of rendered momentarily conductive by each positive going This valve is normally cut off but is peak‘fr'om the unit E. The anode and cathode of the valveFl are respectively coupled to’ the opposite ends of rotation and, as is'well known, thephaser'elation between the output fronrthe radio goniometer 3 and-that from 20 that diagonal of the diode bridge in'unit B in which the thepreference source Swill be a measure of the incoming diodes B5 and B6 are included. Accordingly each'time signal‘direction. The apparatus provided by this inven tion, ‘i.e. the'phase measuring apparatus, consists of the units shown within the chain line rectangles A, B, C, D, E a positive pulse is applied to the grid of the valve F1, the diodes in theunit'Bare cut off and the cathode ray in the tube C1 makes a return radial excursion. ' ' and F. vThe unit A which receives the output signals 25 In order to prevent burning of‘the screen of the tube from the “generator 5 and produces two quadrature com 01, due to, the fact that for most of the time the cathode ponents therefrom, is well known per se. and is shown as rayis in its rest position, the said tube isnormally cut off including-two valves and A2 of which the former is and is “brightened up” momentarily when radial excur¢ sionstof the ray take place by applying to the gridC7 a fedthr'ough aresistance A3 and the‘ latter through a con denser A74,’ The quadrature components which are taken from 'the'vvunit Ai'ar'e individually manually adjustable by adjusting the sliders on Potentiometers 1A5 and _A6 respec iivelr. ' 7 ~ 30 “brighten up” potential.fromtheunit E. FIGURE '2pis a set ofldiagrams illustratingthe opera: tion. , , I p _ . . . a a . FIGURE 2(a) represents a wave from the reference I The, unit C is the display unit and includes a display cathode ray tube C1 shown as of the electrostatic de?ec 35 tion type‘with'the usual mutually'perpendicular pairs of plates'—X and Y,plates—.-C2. Separately adjustable ?xed deflection‘ biases'can‘ be applied to the plates, the adjust-l ments-being effected by moving the sliders on potentiom~ generator 5l'and FIGURE 2(b) represents a, wavefrorn the goniometer-receiver unit ,3,‘ it being assumed in the case illustrated that these waves are in phase opposition. The wave v(a) is translated into two quadrature compo nents shown at (c)‘ and» (d),respectively, of which the former‘ is appliedgtothe ‘X plates of the cathode ray tube and the latter tothe Y plates. It is assumed in the draw~ eters C3 and 04 having resistances connected across suit 40 able bias sources.‘ The cathode C5 of the tube isre ing of FIGURE 2 that the potentioineters A5 and A6 are turned'to a suitable potential source through an adjustable set to give equal amplitude quadrature outputs. resistance C6 'and the output is provided with a grid‘ C7 . The ;wave (b) ‘is squared by unit D into the square by means of which the ray may bev'cut off or “brightened.” waveforrn'shown at (e) and this is translated by the diff *The' outputs vfrom'thesliders of the ‘potentiometers A5 andjA'6 are passed -.to the de?ection plates ofthe cathode rayvtube through suitable circuits as shown andbetween the'j'cireuits are connected‘ what is, in, effect, aswitching 45 (f). The: middle of the three peaks of voltage at.(;f), i.e_. thev positive going peak, cuts o?'the diodes in the unit B and‘ causes the cathode ray to, make, amomentary radial oi’clarnpingpcir'cuit within the'unit B. This switching or clampingt'circuit is-shown asconsisting of a diode bridge with‘sixv diodes of which four, B1, B2, B3 and'B4 are one ini-each'arm and vthe‘rernaining two, B5 and B6, are re 50 spectively ‘between one or other‘offthe ends of one diago nal .ofth'efbridge and‘earth. The ends of theother diago n'al 'ofzthebridge'are connected respectively-to the circuit between the potehtiorneterJAS and one pair? of de?ection 55 platesand-j theicircuit between the potentiometerAdand v the-other‘ 'pair of de?ection plates.) I ferentiating unit E into “peaks” .of voltage as shown at 1 diodesintheunit -B-are,“poled’..’ as shown and are normally-conductive; ‘In this condition, both circuits tofthede?ection'plates are clamped to earthandtheray within-the: tube ;will adopt a rest position determined by thesettingo£ the adjustment meansv providedin the .unit . 60 excursion in aldirectiondetermined by thetime ofoceur rence‘of-the positive going peak in question with relation to the Wave, (a). Thetube C1 is ‘so mounted that,sin the caseillustrated, where the: waves, (a) and. (b) are in phase, opposition, the radialltrace' represented at TR in FIGURE 3.—this diagram isthe representation of the face‘ of the cathode rayv tube-will be; vertically ‘down wards. If the directionalaerial installation has semi‘ cireular and_,,qua_drantal error-r-asitis likely to do,—the former error. may ‘be, compensated- for by adjusting, the rest position of .the ray v_-by "adjusting-‘the .potentiometers C3 and C4 andquadrantal error may becompensated for‘ by, ‘adjusting, thegrelation' between; the amplitude 'of_.,the quadrature toutputsilfrom, the‘unit vA, Le.‘ by adjusting the, potentiometersfAS_andiA6.l ‘ , ' CL": If‘ho'weventhe'diodes are cut off, the pairs of de?ec tion plates will receivev quadrature inputs from the unit 65. 1. Anelectrical system, for indicating the phase rela A'andjif'thesej inputs are of the same amplitude the re'~ sultan't de?ection of the raywillbe along a circular path; If the quadrature inputs are ofdifferent amplitudes,>the de?ectionio'f the ray willbe along an elliptical path. tionship between two electrical waves of the samefre quency, saidsystem comprising cathode, ray tube means having mutually perpendicular de?ection devices, means for deriving two components inyphasequadrature from -’ Thevdiodesin vthe unit B are arranged tobe momen 70 one of said waves, circuits for applying one of said com tarily; cut offjonce. perrcycle of the output fromlthe goni ometer 3. It will be seen that each time this-is done the ponentsto one of said, devices and the other component to'theother device, electronic switching meansfor con necting the-applied quadrature components to a point of ray,ipreviously in- its rest'position, will be momentarily de?ected out andback substantially along a'radius whose ?xedpotential except on the application of a controlsig position round ,; the ‘circle will be _ dependent upon the n'al ,theremiatlsllmeans forderiring from the ether 9f said 6 5 5. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the cathode waves, once in each cycle thereof, a signal of short dura tion relative to the period of said waves, and applying said short duration signal as a control signal to said switching ray tube means is normally cut oif and the second elec trical wave is utilised momentarily to “brighten up” the tube simultaneously with changing the amplitudes of the quadrature components applied to the de?ection devices. means. 2. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein said switch 6. A radio direction ?nder wherein an arrangement as ing means is a normally conductive circuit adapted to claimed in claim 1 is provided to indicate the phase be connect to a point of flXeCl potential the circuits through tween a directionally received signal and a reference which the quadrature components are applied to the de frequency. ?ection devices and means are provided for cutting off 7. A radio direction ?nder as claimed in claim 6 where said normally conductive circuit on the occurrence of said 10 in manually actuated means are provided for separately control signal. adjusting the amplitudes of the quadrature components 3. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein said switch to a desired inequality and for adjusting the rest position ing means includes a diode bridge with six normally con ductive diodes, one in each arm, one between one end of one bridge diagonal and earth and one between earth 15 and the other end of said bridge diagonal, and the ends of the other bridge diagonal are connected each to one of the two circuits through which the quadrature compo— through separately adjustable Potentiometers. deriving a signal from the other of said waves including means for applying said control signal to the ends of said ?rst mentioned bridge diagonal to cut oil the diodes once per cycle of said second wave. References Cited in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 4. A system as claimed in claim 3 wherein said last mentioned means includes means for squaring said sec 25 tential of opposite polarities and selecting and utilising the excursions of one polarity as the momentarily applied potential. in separately adjustable ?xed de?ection biases are pro vided for the mutually perpendicular de?ection devices and wherein the quadrature components are fed to the appropriate mutually perpendicular de?ection devices nents are applied to the de?ection devices, said means for ond electrical wave, differentiating the resultant squared wave to produce sequential momentary excursions of po of the beam of said cathode ray tube means. 8. A radio direction ?nder as claimed in claim 7 where 2,571,051 2,913,721 Mizen ________________ __ Oct. 9, 1951 Ortusi et a1. __________ ._ Nov. 17, 1959 OTHER REFERENCES Millman, 1., and H. Taub, “Pulse and Digital Circuits,” 30 p. 455, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc, New York, 1956.