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Патент USA US3076973

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Feb. 5, 1963
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D. w. G. BYATT
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3,076,963
PHASE INDICATORS
Filed Dec. 10, 1959
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ENVENTQE'" \
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United States Patent 0 C6
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3,076,963
Patented Feb. 5., 1963
2
per cycle of said second wave. The momentarily ap‘
3,076,963
plied potential may conveniently be obtained by squar
PHASE RNDICATORS
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Dennis William George Byatt, Great Baddow, England,
assignor to Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company
Limited, London, England, a company of Great Britain
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Filed Dec. 10, 1959, Ser. No. 858,804
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Claims priority, application Great Britain May 26, 1959
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8 Claims.
(Cl. 343-413)
ing said second electrical wave, differentiating the re
sultant squared wave to produce sequential momentary
excursions of potential of opposite polarities and select;
ing and utilising the excursions of one polarity as the
momentarily applied potential. So long as the diodes are
conductive the quadrature components applied to the de
?ection means will be “clamped” to earth and thus be
This invention relates to phase indicators, i.e. to ar 10 of substantially zero amplitude and the cathode ray will
rangements for indicating the phase relationship between
adopt its “rest” position. When, however, the diodes are
two electrical waves. It is often required for a variety of
di?erent purposes to measure and indicate the phase rela
tion between two electrical waves, and the present inven
cut off, the cathode ray will be subjected to a circular
de?ection (assuming that the quadrature components
are of equal amplitudes) of a radius dependent on the
quadrature component amplitude. The effect, therefore,
tion seeks to provide improved and simple means which
will indicate phase relationship directly and in a conveni~_
of momentarily cutting o? the diodes will be to produce
ent manner on a cathode ray tube.
a radial de?ection whose position round the circle is
Indeed, as will be
dependent on the phase relation between the two elec
seen later, the invention, in its preferred forms, pnovides
trical waves. If the ray is cut off except‘ when the
phase indicators which will indicate a vphase relationship
by a cathode ray tube display resembling a simple radial 20 diodes are cut off the cathode ray tube will give a pointer
like display, the position of the “pointer” directly indicat
pointer which can be read against a circular scale marked
in degrees.
.
ing the phase relation.
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It is preferred to cutoff the ray except when the diodes
are cut olf, in part because of the convenient type of
direction ?nders of the well known kind in which a
radio directional receiving system, such as a pair of mutu 25 display which is obtained if this is done, and in part, in
order to prevent “burning" of the screen of the tube by
ally perpendicular crossed frames and a radio goniometer,
the ray when in its “rest" position. It is 1a simple matter
has its directivity continuously rotated at some predeter
to have the cathode ray tube norm-ally cut off and‘, to
mined frequency, e.g, by rotating the search coil of the
utilise the second electrical wave momentarily to “brighten
goniometer, and the incoming signal direction is ascer
An important ‘application of the invention is to radio
tained by comparing the phase of the goniometer output 30 up” the tube simultaneously with changing the ampli-'
tudes of the quadrature components applied'to the de
with the phase of a reference oscillation of the same fre
?ection devices.
> It is, of course, possible normally to apply'the quadra
ture components to the de?ection devices at full amplitude
provides a very convenient way of measuring the phase
relationship between the goniometer output and the refer 35 and to arrange the second wave momentarily to reduce
the applied amplitudes once per cycle. ‘If this isdone
ence frequency giving ‘an indication in the form of a
there Will be a resultant inward instead of’an outward
cathode ray tube trace resembling a radial pointer mov~
phase indicating radial de?ection on the tube screen and,
ing over a circular scale which can be marked in incom
if the tube is arranged to be cut off except when‘said
ing signal directions.
quency as the frequency of rotation of directivity. When
applied to such a direction ?nder, the present invention
' According to this invention an arrangement for indicat
radial de?ection is occurring, the display will 'againbe
ing the phase relationship between two electrical waves
in the form of a radial line extending, if the applied
(amplitudes are reduced to zero, to the centre‘. The de
comprises a display cathode ray tube having mutually
perpendicular de?ection devices, means for deriving two
scribed arrangement, with outward radial de?ection, is,
components in phase quadrature from one of said waves,
circuits for applying one of said components to one of 45
however, at present preferred.
said devices and the other to the other, and means con
trolled by the second of said ‘electrical waves once per
the de?ection of the ray will, of course, be circular while,
if they are unequal, it will be elliptical. In the case in
which the invention is applied to a radio direction ?nder
of the kind referred to, in order to measure the ‘phase
cycle thereof for momentarily and substantially changing
the amplitudes of said components applied to said devices.
Preferably the means for changing the amplitudes of
the quadrature components applied to the de?ection de
vices are constituted by an electronic switching circuit
control-led by the second of the electrical waves and
adapted to switch the applied quadrature components be
tween maximum and substantially zero values.
.
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If the quadrature components are of equal amplitudes,
between a directionally received signal and a reference
frequency, it will often be of advantage to provide manual
means for separately adjusting the amplitude of the'quad?
rature components to a desired inequality and for5adjust
ing the rest position of the ray. As is well known, direce
In a 55 tional aerial systems such as are normally used'in'direc
preferred arrangement of this nature the switching cir
cuit is a'normally conductive circuit adapted to connect
to a point of ?xed potential the circuits through which
the quadrature components are applied to the de?ection
tion ?nders commonly have, when installed, two impor
tant components of directional error due‘ to local ‘condia
tions-—-namely so-called semi-circular error and vso-called
quadrantal error. When applying the present invention
devices and means, actuated once per cycle of the second 60 to such directionv?nders, it is possible to compensate for
electrical wave, are provided for cutting off said normally
semi-circular error by providing means for adjusting the
conductive circuit. Thus the switching circuit may con
sist of a diode bridge with six normally conductive diodes,
rest position, of the ray-—e.g. by providing separatelyad
justable?xed de?ection biases on the mutually perpen
dicular de?ection devices; and to compensate for quad;
agonal and earth and one between earth and the other 65 rantal error by providing means for adjusting the relative
amplitudes of the quadrature components-cg. by feed
end of said bridge diagonal, and the ends of the other
ing said components to the appropriate mutually perpen
bridge diagonal are connected each to one or other of
dicular de?ection devices through’ separately adjustable
the two circuits through which the quadrature compo
one in each arm, one between one end of one bridge di
nents ‘are applied to the de?ection devices, means, con
potentiometers.
trolledyby the second electrical wave being provided for
momentarily applying potential to the ends of said ?rst
mentioned bridge diagonal to cut off the diodes once
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying draw
ings in which FTGURE 1 is a diagram of oneembodi~
ment, and FIGURE 2 is a set of explanatory waveforms
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3,076,963
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and FIGURE 3 is a representation of a ?gure as‘ viewed
phase relationship of the waves from the goniorneterand
on a cathode ray tube.
Referring to FIGURE 1, this shows the invention ap
plied, to a, radio, direction'?nder of the kind referred to.
generator 3 and 5.
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The cutting off of the diodes in the unit B is effected
by means of the units D, E and F.
Unit D serves to
square the substantially sinusoidal wave from the receiver
The direction ?nder proper is illustrated only schemati
(not separately shown) included in the unit 3. As shown,
cally since 'it is well known per se. It is representedby
unit D is aso-called Schmitt trigger circuit as well known
two mutually perpendicular crossed frames 1 and 2 sup
per seand comprising the two valves D1 and D2. The
plying signals to the stator windings of a radio goniom
squared output‘ wave from the unit D is differentiated by
eter. vThis radio goniometer provides an output signal
from a ‘search coil toa receiver asrin the usual way and 10 a differentiating circuit within the unit 'E, and consisting
of the condenser E1 and. the'resistance E2; As will be
the said goniometer and the said receiver are together
represented by the ‘block 3 which includes both. The
obvious, unit B will translate the successive rising and
directivity-is rotated continuously at a predetermined fre
falling edges of thesquared waves from unit D into mo
quen'cy, e.g. 25 rotations per second, by an electric motor
4; which drives the search coil and which also drives a
mentary “peaks? ofvoltage of opposite polarities. These
peaks of voltage'are applied to the grid of the .valveFl
reference frequency source of ?xed phase exempli?ed as
in the, unit F.
consisting of a generator 5 driven by the same motor.
The frequency of the generator is the same as that of
rendered momentarily conductive by each positive going
This valve is normally cut off but is
peak‘fr'om the unit E.
The anode and cathode of the
valveFl are respectively coupled to’ the opposite ends of
rotation and, as is'well known, thephaser'elation between
the output fronrthe radio goniometer 3 and-that from 20 that diagonal of the diode bridge in'unit B in which the
thepreference source Swill be a measure of the incoming
diodes B5 and B6 are included. Accordingly each'time
signal‘direction. The apparatus provided by this inven
tion, ‘i.e. the'phase measuring apparatus, consists of the
units shown within the chain line rectangles A, B, C, D, E
a positive pulse is applied to the grid of the valve F1, the
diodes in theunit'Bare cut off and the cathode ray in the
tube C1 makes a return radial excursion.
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and F. vThe unit A which receives the output signals 25
In order to prevent burning of‘the screen of the tube
from the “generator 5 and produces two quadrature com
01, due to, the fact that for most of the time the cathode
ponents therefrom, is well known per se. and is shown as
rayis in its rest position, the said tube isnormally cut off
including-two valves
and A2 of which the former is
and is “brightened up” momentarily when radial excur¢
sionstof the ray take place by applying to the gridC7 a
fedthr'ough aresistance A3 and the‘ latter through a con
denser A74,’ The quadrature components which are taken
from 'the'vvunit Ai'ar'e individually manually adjustable by
adjusting the sliders on Potentiometers 1A5 and _A6 respec
iivelr.
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“brighten up” potential.fromtheunit E.
FIGURE '2pis a set ofldiagrams illustratingthe opera:
tion.
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a
a
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FIGURE 2(a) represents a wave from the reference
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The, unit C is the display unit and includes a display
cathode ray tube C1 shown as of the electrostatic de?ec
35
tion type‘with'the usual mutually'perpendicular pairs of
plates'—X and Y,plates—.-C2. Separately adjustable ?xed
deflection‘ biases'can‘ be applied to the plates, the adjust-l
ments-being effected by moving the sliders on potentiom~
generator 5l'and FIGURE 2(b) represents a, wavefrorn
the goniometer-receiver unit ,3,‘ it being assumed in the
case illustrated that these waves are in phase opposition.
The wave v(a) is translated into two quadrature compo
nents shown at (c)‘ and» (d),respectively, of which the
former‘ is appliedgtothe ‘X plates of the cathode ray tube
and the latter tothe Y plates. It is assumed in the draw~
eters C3 and 04 having resistances connected across suit 40
able bias sources.‘ The cathode C5 of the tube isre
ing of FIGURE 2 that the potentioineters A5 and A6 are
turned'to a suitable potential source through an adjustable
set to give equal amplitude quadrature outputs.
resistance C6 'and the output is provided with a grid‘ C7
. The ;wave (b) ‘is squared by unit D into the square
by means of which the ray may bev'cut off or “brightened.”
waveforrn'shown at (e) and this is translated by the diff
*The' outputs vfrom'thesliders of the ‘potentiometers A5
andjA'6 are passed -.to the de?ection plates ofthe cathode
rayvtube through suitable circuits as shown andbetween
the'j'cireuits are connected‘ what is, in, effect, aswitching
45
(f). The: middle of the three peaks of voltage at.(;f), i.e_.
thev positive going peak, cuts o?'the diodes in the unit B
and‘ causes the cathode ray to, make, amomentary radial
oi’clarnpingpcir'cuit within the'unit B. This switching or
clampingt'circuit is-shown asconsisting of a diode bridge
with‘sixv diodes of which four, B1, B2, B3 and'B4 are one
ini-each'arm and vthe‘rernaining two, B5 and B6, are re
50
spectively ‘between one or other‘offthe ends of one diago
nal .ofth'efbridge and‘earth. The ends of theother diago
n'al 'ofzthebridge'are connected respectively-to the circuit
between the potehtiorneterJAS and one pair? of de?ection
55
platesand-j theicircuit between the potentiometerAdand v
the-other‘ 'pair of de?ection plates.)
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ferentiating unit E into “peaks” .of voltage as shown at
1
diodesintheunit -B-are,“poled’..’ as shown and
are normally-conductive; ‘In this condition, both circuits
tofthede?ection'plates are clamped to earthandtheray
within-the: tube ;will adopt a rest position determined by
thesettingo£ the adjustment meansv providedin the .unit .
60
excursion in aldirectiondetermined by thetime ofoceur
rence‘of-the positive going peak in question with relation
to the Wave, (a). Thetube C1 is ‘so mounted that,sin the
caseillustrated, where the: waves, (a) and. (b) are in
phase, opposition, the radialltrace' represented at TR in
FIGURE 3.—this diagram isthe representation of the
face‘ of the cathode rayv tube-will be; vertically ‘down
wards. If the directionalaerial installation has semi‘
cireular and_,,qua_drantal error-r-asitis likely to do,—the
former error. may ‘be, compensated- for by adjusting, the
rest position of .the ray v_-by "adjusting-‘the .potentiometers
C3 and C4 andquadrantal error may becompensated for‘
by, ‘adjusting, thegrelation' between; the amplitude 'of_.,the
quadrature toutputsilfrom, the‘unit vA, Le.‘ by adjusting the,
potentiometersfAS_andiA6.l
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CL": If‘ho'weventhe'diodes are cut off, the pairs of de?ec
tion plates will receivev quadrature inputs from the unit 65. 1. Anelectrical system, for indicating the phase rela
A'andjif'thesej inputs are of the same amplitude the re'~
sultan't de?ection of the raywillbe along a circular path;
If the quadrature inputs are ofdifferent amplitudes,>the
de?ectionio'f the ray willbe along an elliptical path.
tionship between two electrical waves of the samefre
quency, saidsystem comprising cathode, ray tube means
having mutually perpendicular de?ection devices, means
for deriving two components inyphasequadrature from
-’ Thevdiodesin vthe unit B are arranged tobe momen 70 one of said waves, circuits for applying one of said com
tarily; cut offjonce. perrcycle of the output fromlthe goni
ometer 3. It will be seen that each time this-is done the
ponentsto one of said, devices and the other component
to'theother device, electronic switching meansfor con
necting the-applied quadrature components to a point of
ray,ipreviously in- its rest'position, will be momentarily
de?ected out andback substantially along a'radius whose
?xedpotential except on the application of a controlsig
position round ,; the ‘circle will be _ dependent upon the
n'al ,theremiatlsllmeans forderiring from the ether 9f said
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5. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein the cathode
waves, once in each cycle thereof, a signal of short dura
tion relative to the period of said waves, and applying said
short duration signal as a control signal to said switching
ray tube means is normally cut oif and the second elec
trical wave is utilised momentarily to “brighten up” the
tube simultaneously with changing the amplitudes of the
quadrature components applied to the de?ection devices.
means.
2. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein said switch
6. A radio direction ?nder wherein an arrangement as
ing means is a normally conductive circuit adapted to
claimed in claim 1 is provided to indicate the phase be
connect to a point of flXeCl potential the circuits through
tween a directionally received signal and a reference
which the quadrature components are applied to the de
frequency.
?ection devices and means are provided for cutting off
7. A radio direction ?nder as claimed in claim 6 where
said normally conductive circuit on the occurrence of said 10
in manually actuated means are provided for separately
control signal.
adjusting the amplitudes of the quadrature components
3. A system as claimed in claim 1 wherein said switch
to a desired inequality and for adjusting the rest position
ing means includes a diode bridge with six normally con
ductive diodes, one in each arm, one between one end of
one bridge diagonal and earth and one between earth 15
and the other end of said bridge diagonal, and the ends
of the other bridge diagonal are connected each to one
of the two circuits through which the quadrature compo—
through separately adjustable Potentiometers.
deriving a signal from the other of said waves including
means for applying said control signal to the ends of said
?rst mentioned bridge diagonal to cut oil the diodes once
per cycle of said second wave.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
4. A system as claimed in claim 3 wherein said last
mentioned means includes means for squaring said sec 25
tential of opposite polarities and selecting and utilising
the excursions of one polarity as the momentarily applied
potential.
in separately adjustable ?xed de?ection biases are pro
vided for the mutually perpendicular de?ection devices
and wherein the quadrature components are fed to the
appropriate mutually perpendicular de?ection devices
nents are applied to the de?ection devices, said means for
ond electrical wave, differentiating the resultant squared
wave to produce sequential momentary excursions of po
of the beam of said cathode ray tube means.
8. A radio direction ?nder as claimed in claim 7 where
2,571,051
2,913,721
Mizen ________________ __ Oct. 9, 1951
Ortusi et a1. __________ ._ Nov. 17, 1959
OTHER REFERENCES
Millman, 1., and H. Taub, “Pulse and Digital Circuits,”
30 p. 455, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc, New York, 1956.
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