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Патент USA US3077025

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Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Jan. 9, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Jan. 9, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Jan. 9, 1961
s Sheets-Sheet s
United States Patent O?lice
Patented Feb. 12, lot-53
A ladle mechanism ill is illustrated in FIGS, 1 and 2
as preferably mounted on the dip~well ll of a melting
and/or holding furnace 1.‘ and oper ble to dip molten
Earle W. iiearwin, Longmeadow, Mass" assi?nor to
metal therefrom and pour into tl e receiving chamber 13
Joseph A. Kozzna and .losegsh A. Korma, In, both of
of a casting machine 14, a portion only of which is shown.
Dearborn, Mich.
Although a die casting machine is shown, it will be ap
Filed Jan. 9, 1961, See. No. 815%
parent that the invention will operate with other types
6 Qialms. (Cl. 22-—$l)
of machines such as permanent mold, gravity fed ma
chines and the like.
My invention relates to a new automatic ladle for dip
‘One preferred ladle mechanism
comprises an elon
ping molten metal from the dip Well of a melting furnace 10
gated liquid conducting structure
such as a trough,
and pouring into the receiving chamber of a metal cast
launder or conduit having downwardly extending ?anges
ing or extruding machine, and more particularly to an
to to which is secured a rod 17 pivotally carried on up
improved ladle construction and automatic controls for
wardly extending arms
of a support 19, preferably
opening same.
mounted on the dip well structure ii. A ladle ill} is car
Heret fore, in the feedin? of molten metal to casing
ried on one end of the structure 15 and a pouring spout
or extruding machines, many problems have been en
or the like is carried on the other end. The structure
countered. Delays in the closing or locking of the dies
held for feeding, resulting in failure to completely ?ll
the dies or molds, or, if the metal is not poured, it will
harden in the ladle. Also, delays and the inefficient
methods by which the molten metal is dipped result in the
tin‘: of excessive oxides, causing poor quality of
Moreover, experience shows that molten
metal is sometimes inadvertently poured into the receiving
chamber of the machine when tr e dies or molds are not
fully closed and/ or locked, and the charge of metal may
cool and harden in the receiving chamber causing expen
and loss of the use of the machine until
repairs l.
An object of the present invention is to improve metal
casting quality by providing an automatic ladle which
will dip molten metal only from beneath the oxidized
surface of the melting and/ or loading furnace.
Another obiect of the invention is to avoid losses due
to cooling of the molten metal by providing an automatic
15 is arranged to alternately dip molten metal 22 from
the dip well it and pour it into the receiving chamber 13
of the casting machine id.
The ladle
is provided with a cover 2-5 having a
downwardly extending cup shaped portion 25a conform
ing generally to the contour of the ladle 29 but spaced
therefrom to provide a passage 26 from the edge of the
to a slot 27, shown in FiG. 3, cut into the
end of the ladle 29 at a location remote from the edge
of the portion 25a.
in operation, when the ladle
is dipped into the
molten metal 22 (called the “fill” position), the portion
pushes aside the oxides which are always present
on toe surface. The cover
prevents these oxides from
entering the ladle 2b‘, and instead, pure molten metal
?ows from beneath the surface through the passage 2w
into the slot 27. The
of the slot 2.7 regulates the
ladle with a heating means.
amount of metal retained in the ladle 25.} when same is
raise ‘.
in case the charge is not poured immediately, and also
A further object of the invention is to improve opera—
tion of automatic ladies by providing an actuating sys
for the purpose of avoiding any cooling of the charge
in ?owing through the structure 15 when the pouring
tem connected with the casting or extruding machine
which will provide for rapid transfer of metal from the
dip well of the melting furnace to the machine.
A still further object of the invention is to protect cast
ing and extrud
I machines by providing a means for
is lowered, a radiant heater device 3%‘ of any
preferred type (shown only in FIG. 1), is mounted on
structure E5, to furnish radiant infra-red heating to
the interior thereof.
The rod 37 has on its outer end a lever- arm 31 pref
preventing pouring of metal unless the dies or molds
erably actuated by a piston 32 reciprocable in a ?uid
are closed and locked.
Yet a furl er object of the invention is to facilitate ef
cylinder 33 pivotally mounted as at 34 on a floor bracket
35. The ladle mechanism 1% is illustrated in full line in
an intermediate position and in phantom lines in the ?ll
fee've operation of casting and extruding machines by
and pour positions.
providing a fully automatic ladle mechanism integrated
At each position, some part of the mechanism such
with the operation of the machine.
as the lever arm
will be arranged to contact and trip
For a more complete understanding of the invention,
a limit switch, these switches designated as LS4, LS—2
reference may be made to the accompanying drawings
and 18-3.
illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention in
A portion only of a typical die-casting machine 14,
which like reference characters refer to like parts through
with which the ladle mechanism may be used, is illus
out the several views and in which
trated as comprising a stationary die plate 4d’ carrying
5* l is a side View, psrtia ly in section and partially
a stationary die half 4:1, a movable die half 42. having
in elevation, of a preferred ladle mechanism embodying
a cavity (i3 in which is mounted a die 44“. A tubular
the present invention.
is carried by the die plate 40‘ and provides for
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of part of the mechanism
60 the shot or receiving chamber 13, the molten metal being
shown HG. 1.
poured therein through a pouring slot 46 and subse
F16’. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the ladle taken on
quently forced into the die cavity 43 by a piston 47, all
the line 3-43 of PEG. 1.
d8. 4 is
electrical diagram illustrating a preferred
as is conventional with such machines.
When the movable die half 42 is closed against the sta
or typical control system for the present invention.
R6. 5 is a diagrammatic view of a preferred actuat 65 tionary die half 4-1, a locking mechanism 129 can be actu
ated in conventional fashion to lock-up the macihne, and
ing system embodied in the present invention.
when so locxed, a relay designated as DL in FIG. 1 is
PEG. 6 is a side view, partially in section and partially
preferably arranged to be closed for a purpose to be
n elevation, of a modified construction.
The general preferred operation of the ladle mechanism
is as follows:
When the machine operator presses a switch (not
shown) to initiate closing, the ladle mechanism It} will
sequence of operation avoids the possible inadvertent
pouring of metal into a casting machine not yet ready
be simultaneously actuated to lower the ladle 20 to the
?ll position in the dip well 11 and when ?lled, will auto
matically raise to the intermediate position. If the lock
up switch BL is closed, the control system of the ladle
mechanism 10 will operate to continue raising the ladle
2t) and will lower the spout 21 to the pouring slot 46, the
controlled charge of molten metal ?owing from the ladle
at) through the pre-heated liquid conducting structure
to operate and returns the ladle 2a to the dip well to pre
vent freezing of the metal in the ladle or the accumulation
of excessive oxides.
(9) When the ladle mechanism 1t? is actuated to the
pour position, limit switch LS-l (N.O.) closes to energize
a timer solenoid ZTR, which closes relay ZTRl to hold
the ZTR circuit, opens relay ZTRZ, and on timing out,
15 and from the spout 21 into the receiving chamber 13. 10 relay 2TR3 opens (see step 11 below) and relay 2TR4 (if
The ladle mechanism 10 will dwell at this pour position
used) closes.
until pouring is completed and will then return to the
(10) Closing relay 2TR4 may be utilized either to sig
intermediate position. After piston 47, in the case of a
nal the operator that the shot may be made or to auto
die-casting machine, is actuated to make the shot and
matically operate the die-casting piston 4'7, where the
the die 42 opened, a new cycle can be initiated.
15 machine is a die-casting machine.
In FIGS. 4 and 5, a preferred or typical control system
‘(11) Opening relay 2TR3 de-energizes the solenoid
is illustrated diagrammatically in more detail, noting that
ZCR to close relay 2CR3 (see step 12 below) and to open
switch, relay and valve positions are shown as when the
relay 2CR, de-energizing the solenoid SCR to open relay
ladle mechanism 10 is in the intermediate position with
SCRl and de-energize valve solenoid VR.
the limit switch LS~2 engaged by the arm 31, and that 20
(12) Closing relay 2CR3 again energizes solenoid lCR
limit switch LS-2 is a gang switch with its three switches
(limit switch LS—2a being closed in the pour position)
designated as LS-Za, LS-Zb, and LS-Zc, in FIG. 4. Op—
closing relay 1CR1 to energize valve solenoid VL and
eration of the preferred circuit diagrammed is as follows:
lower the ladle mechanism It)‘ to the intermediate posi
(1) Master switch MS is closed manually.
tion, where the limit switch LS-2a is again engaged and
(2) If used, pump switch PS is closed manually, en 25 opened to de-energize solenoid 1CR once more stopping
ergizing solenoid PR to close relay PR1 holding the PR
ladle operation at the intermediate position.
circuit and close relay PR2 to start the pump P. This
(13) Before a new cycle can begin (since relay ZTR2
provides fluid pressure for the cylinder 33. In some
is open), the dies or molds must be opened to open relay
installations, the user may instead use pressure from the
DW, de-energizing solenoid ZTR to close relay ZTRZ, after
casting machine or other source, ‘and instead of the 30 which, when the operator starts the dies closed, the relay
shown fluid operated system, an electrical or mechanical
DW will close and the sequence of operation will repeat
system may be employed.
from step 3 et seq.
(3) The casting cycle is initiated by the operator, to
In FIGS. 6-8, another modi?cation is illustrated in
start the dies or molds closing and to simultaneously
which a ladle mechanism 116)‘ comprises a shortened pivot
close relay DS, energizing solenoid 1CR through circuit 35 ally carried liquid conducting structure 115 having a ladle
having relays ZTR2 and 2CR3. Energizing solenoid lCR
120 at one end, and a second liquid conducting structure
closes relay lCR1 to energize valve solenoid VL and
115A having a pouring spout 121.
actuate a valve 50 shown in FIG. 5, the valve shuttle 51
A bracket 119 pivotally carries the structure 115 as at
being moved to direct fluid pressure through a conduit
117, and the second structure 115A is preferably pivot
52 to the upper end of the cylinder 33. This retracts the 40 ally carried by the bracket 119 on trunnions 123 or the
piston 32 to lower the ladle 20 into the molten metal 22
like so that it may be placed and remain stationary with
(?ll position).
(4) The ladle mechanism in the ?ll position engages
and closes limit switch LS-3 (NO) to energize solenoid
the spout 121 disposed in the receiving chamber of the
molding machine (not shown in FIGS. 6-8). The struc
ture 115 only is operatively connected with the cylinder
ZCR (ITR3 and 2TR2 being closed). Energizing sole 45 33 in this modi?cation, so that when raised to the pour
noid ZCR closes relay 2CR1 to hold the ZCR circuit,
position, the molten metal flows into the stationary struc
opens relay 2CR3 to de-energize solenoid 10R (thereby
ture 115A and thence to the molding machine.
opening relay ICE1 and de-energizing the valve solenoid
For convenience, switches and the heating device have
VL), and closing relay ZCR2 to energize solenoid 3CR,
limit switch LS—2c (N.C.) having closed on movement 50 been omitted from FIGS. 6—-8, although operation will be
substantially the same. It will be apparent that the
of the ladle mechanism 10 from the intermediate position.
switches LS-1, 2 and 3 shown in FIG. 1 may be located
(5) Energizing solenoid 3CR closes relay 3CR1 to en
actuation by any of the operative structure involved.
ergize valve solenoid VR and actuate the valve 50 to
The advantage in thus dividing the conducting struc
direct ?uid pressure through a conduit 53 to the lower
end of the cylinder 33. This extends the piston 32 to 55 ture into two sections lessens the cost and increases con
venience where the ladle must be replaced or changed,
raise the ladle 20.
since only a small part of the total structure is involved.
(6) When the ladle mechanism reaches the intermedi
Although I have described only one preferred embodi
ate position, limit switch LS-2c (N.C.) opens. However,
ment of the present invention, it will be apparent to one
if the dies or molds are locked, the lock-up relay DL will
be closed, so that, relay ZCR also being closed (see step 60 skilled in the art to which the invention pertains that vari
ous changes and modi?cations may be made therein with
4 above), solenoid 3CR will remain energized to keep
out departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope
relay 3CR1 closed so that the ladle mechanism 10 will
of the appended claims.
continue on to the pour position (see step 9 below).
I claim:
(7) If the casting machine is not locked up when the
1. An automatic ladle mechanism for transferring con
ladle mechanism 10 reaches the intermediate position (in 65
trolled charges of molten metal from the dip Well of a
step 6 above), solenoid SCR tie-energizes, opening relay
3CR1 to de-energize valve solenoid VR so that the ladle
furnace to the receiving chamber of a casting machine
having molds selectively opened and closed and locked,
mechanism will remain in this intermediate position, hold
said ladle mechanism comprising a support, a liquid con
ing limit switch LS~2b (N.O.) closed to energize a timer
solenoid HR.
70 ducting structure pivotally carried on said support to
(8) On energizing timer solenoid 1TR, timer relay
swing in a vertical plane, a ladle on one end of said struc
locked in the interim) to de-energize solenoid ZCR, clos
ture, said ladle mechanism being provided with means
selectively operable to alternately lower said ladle into
ing relay 2CR3 to re-energize solenoid lCR, initiating the
and raise same from the molten metal contained in said
1TR1 will time out and open (unless the die or mold gets
ladle lowering cycle again (from step 3 et seq.)~ This 75 dip well, the molten metal dipped from said dip well ?ow~
ing through said conducting structure to the casting ma~
chine and said ladle having means excluding oxides on the
surface of the molten metal from entering said ladle when
same is lowered into said dip well, said excluding means
(7‘) said automatic means including means connected
comprising a cover extending over and closing the top of
ing machine molds are in a locked position, and
(g) means holding said actuating means at said inter
mediate position if said molds are not in a locked
said ladle and projecting outwardly and turned down
wardly around the sides thereof to form a space between
the ladle and the downwardly turned portion of the cover,
and means openly connecting said space with the ladle
with said casting machine and automatically operat
ing said ladle actuating means from the intermediate
position to the pouring position only when the cast
4. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 3 and in which
under the cover.
10 said holding means is automatically operable to retain said
ladle actuating means in the intermediate position for a
predetermined time interval if said molds are not in a
remote from the edge of the downwardly turned portion
locked position and to return said ladle mechanism back
of said cover.
to the ?ll position if said molds are not locked within said
2. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 1 and in which
said latter means comprises a slot in the edge of said ladle
3. An automatic ladle mechanism for transferring con
trolled charges of molten metal from the dip well of a
furnace to the receiving chamber of a casting machine
having molds selectively opened and closed and locked,
said ladle mechanism comprising,
predetermined time interval.
5. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 4 and in Which
said automatic means includes means automatically oper
able to hold said ladle actuating means in the pour posi
tion for a predetermined time interval.
(a) a support,
6. The mechanism as defined in claim 4 and in which
(b) a liquid conducting structure carried on said sup
said automatic means includes means connected with said
port to swing in a vertical plane,
(0) a ladle on one end of said structure,
(d) actuating means operable to selectively pivot said
‘structure to a ?ll position in which said ladle is low 25
ered into the molten metal contained in said dip well,
to an intermediate position in which said ladle is re
moved from the molten metal, and to a pour position
in which said ladle is raised higher than the conduct
ing structure so that the molten metal will flow from 30
the ladle through the conducting structure to dis
charge into said casting machine and
(e) automatic means normally operating said ladle
actuating means through a cycle in sequence begin
ning with the intermediate position to the ?ll position, 35
then through the intermediate position to the pour
position, then returning to the intermediate position,
casting machine and automatically operable each time the
casting machine molds are closed to initiate the aforesaid
sequence of actuation of said ladle actuating means.
References ?tted in the ?le of this patent
Hopkins _____________ __ Aug. 26, 1919
Jung ________________ .__ NOV. 25, 1941
Waldie ______________ __ NOV. 28, 1944
Bennett _____________ __ Sept. 18, 1951
Doehler et al __________ .. Apr. 27, 1954
Goetz _______________ __ Nov. 29, 1960
Me?ert _______________ __ May 2, 196].
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