Патент USA US3077025код для вставки
Feb. 12, 1963 3,077,015 E. w. REARWIN AUTOMATIC LADLES Filed Jan. 9, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 4% wmbulr I@ao2w3a1 2zuOmxODhom __J INVENTOR. EARLE W. REARWIN BY ATTORNEYS Feb. 12, 1963 E. w. REARWIN 3,077,015 AUTOMATIC LADLES Filed Jan. 9, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 H62. EAR LE W. REAEWIN ATTORNEYS Feb. 12, 1963 y E. w. REARWIN , 3,077,015 AUTOMATIC LADLES Filed Jan. 9, 1961 s Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR. EARLE W. REARWIN ATTORNEYS United States Patent O?lice Patented Feb. 12, lot-53 i 2 A ladle mechanism ill is illustrated in FIGS, 1 and 2 as preferably mounted on the dip~well ll of a melting 3,®77,di5 AUTQMA'EEC LADLEd and/or holding furnace 1.‘ and oper ble to dip molten Earle W. iiearwin, Longmeadow, Mass" assi?nor to metal therefrom and pour into tl e receiving chamber 13 Joseph A. Kozzna and .losegsh A. Korma, In, both of of a casting machine 14, a portion only of which is shown. Dearborn, Mich. Although a die casting machine is shown, it will be ap Filed Jan. 9, 1961, See. No. 815% parent that the invention will operate with other types 6 Qialms. (Cl. 22-—$l) of machines such as permanent mold, gravity fed ma chines and the like. My invention relates to a new automatic ladle for dip ‘One preferred ladle mechanism comprises an elon ping molten metal from the dip Well of a melting furnace 10 gated liquid conducting structure such as a trough, and pouring into the receiving chamber of a metal cast launder or conduit having downwardly extending ?anges ing or extruding machine, and more particularly to an to to which is secured a rod 17 pivotally carried on up improved ladle construction and automatic controls for wardly extending arms of a support 19, preferably opening same. mounted on the dip well structure ii. A ladle ill} is car Heret fore, in the feedin? of molten metal to casing ried on one end of the structure 15 and a pouring spout or extruding machines, many problems have been en or the like is carried on the other end. The structure countered. Delays in the closing or locking of the dies held for feeding, resulting in failure to completely ?ll the dies or molds, or, if the metal is not poured, it will harden in the ladle. Also, delays and the inefficient methods by which the molten metal is dipped result in the " tin‘: of excessive oxides, causing poor quality of Moreover, experience shows that molten metal is sometimes inadvertently poured into the receiving chamber of the machine when tr e dies or molds are not fully closed and/ or locked, and the charge of metal may cool and harden in the receiving chamber causing expen sive and loss of the use of the machine until repairs l. An object of the present invention is to improve metal casting quality by providing an automatic ladle which will dip molten metal only from beneath the oxidized surface of the melting and/ or loading furnace. Another obiect of the invention is to avoid losses due to cooling of the molten metal by providing an automatic 15 is arranged to alternately dip molten metal 22 from the dip well it and pour it into the receiving chamber 13 of the casting machine id. The ladle is provided with a cover 2-5 having a downwardly extending cup shaped portion 25a conform ing generally to the contour of the ladle 29 but spaced therefrom to provide a passage 26 from the edge of the portion to a slot 27, shown in FiG. 3, cut into the end of the ladle 29 at a location remote from the edge of the portion 25a. in operation, when the ladle is dipped into the molten metal 22 (called the “fill” position), the portion pushes aside the oxides which are always present on toe surface. The cover prevents these oxides from entering the ladle 2b‘, and instead, pure molten metal ?ows from beneath the surface through the passage 2w into the slot 27. The of the slot 2.7 regulates the ladle with a heating means. amount of metal retained in the ladle 25.} when same is raise ‘. in case the charge is not poured immediately, and also A further object of the invention is to improve opera— tion of automatic ladies by providing an actuating sys for the purpose of avoiding any cooling of the charge in ?owing through the structure 15 when the pouring tem connected with the casting or extruding machine which will provide for rapid transfer of metal from the dip well of the melting furnace to the machine. A still further object of the invention is to protect cast ing and extrud I machines by providing a means for spout is lowered, a radiant heater device 3%‘ of any preferred type (shown only in FIG. 1), is mounted on structure E5, to furnish radiant infra-red heating to the interior thereof. The rod 37 has on its outer end a lever- arm 31 pref preventing pouring of metal unless the dies or molds erably actuated by a piston 32 reciprocable in a ?uid are closed and locked. Yet a furl er object of the invention is to facilitate ef cylinder 33 pivotally mounted as at 34 on a floor bracket 35. The ladle mechanism 1% is illustrated in full line in an intermediate position and in phantom lines in the ?ll fee've operation of casting and extruding machines by and pour positions. providing a fully automatic ladle mechanism integrated 50 At each position, some part of the mechanism such with the operation of the machine. as the lever arm will be arranged to contact and trip For a more complete understanding of the invention, a limit switch, these switches designated as LS4, LS—2 reference may be made to the accompanying drawings and 18-3. illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention in A portion only of a typical die-casting machine 14, which like reference characters refer to like parts through with which the ladle mechanism may be used, is illus out the several views and in which trated as comprising a stationary die plate 4d’ carrying 5* l is a side View, psrtia ly in section and partially a stationary die half 4:1, a movable die half 42. having in elevation, of a preferred ladle mechanism embodying a cavity (i3 in which is mounted a die 44“. A tubular the present invention. sleeve is carried by the die plate 40‘ and provides for FIG. 2 is a top plan view of part of the mechanism 60 the shot or receiving chamber 13, the molten metal being shown HG. 1. poured therein through a pouring slot 46 and subse F16’. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the ladle taken on quently forced into the die cavity 43 by a piston 47, all the line 3-43 of PEG. 1. d8. 4 is electrical diagram illustrating a preferred as is conventional with such machines. When the movable die half 42 is closed against the sta or typical control system for the present invention. R6. 5 is a diagrammatic view of a preferred actuat 65 tionary die half 4-1, a locking mechanism 129 can be actu ated in conventional fashion to lock-up the macihne, and ing system embodied in the present invention. when so locxed, a relay designated as DL in FIG. 1 is PEG. 6 is a side view, partially in section and partially preferably arranged to be closed for a purpose to be n elevation, of a modified construction. explained. The general preferred operation of the ladle mechanism is as follows: When the machine operator presses a switch (not 3,077,015 3 4% shown) to initiate closing, the ladle mechanism It} will sequence of operation avoids the possible inadvertent pouring of metal into a casting machine not yet ready be simultaneously actuated to lower the ladle 20 to the ?ll position in the dip well 11 and when ?lled, will auto matically raise to the intermediate position. If the lock up switch BL is closed, the control system of the ladle mechanism 10 will operate to continue raising the ladle 2t) and will lower the spout 21 to the pouring slot 46, the controlled charge of molten metal ?owing from the ladle at) through the pre-heated liquid conducting structure to operate and returns the ladle 2a to the dip well to pre vent freezing of the metal in the ladle or the accumulation of excessive oxides. (9) When the ladle mechanism 1t? is actuated to the pour position, limit switch LS-l (N.O.) closes to energize a timer solenoid ZTR, which closes relay ZTRl to hold the ZTR circuit, opens relay ZTRZ, and on timing out, 15 and from the spout 21 into the receiving chamber 13. 10 relay 2TR3 opens (see step 11 below) and relay 2TR4 (if The ladle mechanism 10 will dwell at this pour position used) closes. until pouring is completed and will then return to the (10) Closing relay 2TR4 may be utilized either to sig intermediate position. After piston 47, in the case of a nal the operator that the shot may be made or to auto die-casting machine, is actuated to make the shot and matically operate the die-casting piston 4'7, where the the die 42 opened, a new cycle can be initiated. 15 machine is a die-casting machine. In FIGS. 4 and 5, a preferred or typical control system ‘(11) Opening relay 2TR3 de-energizes the solenoid is illustrated diagrammatically in more detail, noting that ZCR to close relay 2CR3 (see step 12 below) and to open switch, relay and valve positions are shown as when the relay 2CR, de-energizing the solenoid SCR to open relay ladle mechanism 10 is in the intermediate position with SCRl and de-energize valve solenoid VR. the limit switch LS~2 engaged by the arm 31, and that 20 (12) Closing relay 2CR3 again energizes solenoid lCR limit switch LS-2 is a gang switch with its three switches (limit switch LS—2a being closed in the pour position) designated as LS-Za, LS-Zb, and LS-Zc, in FIG. 4. Op— closing relay 1CR1 to energize valve solenoid VL and eration of the preferred circuit diagrammed is as follows: lower the ladle mechanism It)‘ to the intermediate posi (1) Master switch MS is closed manually. tion, where the limit switch LS-2a is again engaged and (2) If used, pump switch PS is closed manually, en 25 opened to de-energize solenoid 1CR once more stopping ergizing solenoid PR to close relay PR1 holding the PR ladle operation at the intermediate position. circuit and close relay PR2 to start the pump P. This (13) Before a new cycle can begin (since relay ZTR2 provides fluid pressure for the cylinder 33. In some is open), the dies or molds must be opened to open relay installations, the user may instead use pressure from the DW, de-energizing solenoid ZTR to close relay ZTRZ, after casting machine or other source, ‘and instead of the 30 which, when the operator starts the dies closed, the relay shown fluid operated system, an electrical or mechanical DW will close and the sequence of operation will repeat system may be employed. from step 3 et seq. ~ (3) The casting cycle is initiated by the operator, to In FIGS. 6-8, another modi?cation is illustrated in start the dies or molds closing and to simultaneously which a ladle mechanism 116)‘ comprises a shortened pivot close relay DS, energizing solenoid 1CR through circuit 35 ally carried liquid conducting structure 115 having a ladle having relays ZTR2 and 2CR3. Energizing solenoid lCR 120 at one end, and a second liquid conducting structure closes relay lCR1 to energize valve solenoid VL and 115A having a pouring spout 121. actuate a valve 50 shown in FIG. 5, the valve shuttle 51 A bracket 119 pivotally carries the structure 115 as at being moved to direct fluid pressure through a conduit 117, and the second structure 115A is preferably pivot 52 to the upper end of the cylinder 33. This retracts the 40 ally carried by the bracket 119 on trunnions 123 or the piston 32 to lower the ladle 20 into the molten metal 22 like so that it may be placed and remain stationary with (?ll position). (4) The ladle mechanism in the ?ll position engages and closes limit switch LS-3 (NO) to energize solenoid the spout 121 disposed in the receiving chamber of the molding machine (not shown in FIGS. 6-8). The struc ture 115 only is operatively connected with the cylinder ZCR (ITR3 and 2TR2 being closed). Energizing sole 45 33 in this modi?cation, so that when raised to the pour noid ZCR closes relay 2CR1 to hold the ZCR circuit, position, the molten metal flows into the stationary struc opens relay 2CR3 to de-energize solenoid 10R (thereby ture 115A and thence to the molding machine. opening relay ICE1 and de-energizing the valve solenoid For convenience, switches and the heating device have VL), and closing relay ZCR2 to energize solenoid 3CR, limit switch LS—2c (N.C.) having closed on movement 50 been omitted from FIGS. 6—-8, although operation will be substantially the same. It will be apparent that the of the ladle mechanism 10 from the intermediate position. switches LS-1, 2 and 3 shown in FIG. 1 may be located (5) Energizing solenoid 3CR closes relay 3CR1 to en for actuation by any of the operative structure involved. ergize valve solenoid VR and actuate the valve 50 to The advantage in thus dividing the conducting struc direct ?uid pressure through a conduit 53 to the lower end of the cylinder 33. This extends the piston 32 to 55 ture into two sections lessens the cost and increases con venience where the ladle must be replaced or changed, raise the ladle 20. since only a small part of the total structure is involved. (6) When the ladle mechanism reaches the intermedi Although I have described only one preferred embodi ate position, limit switch LS-2c (N.C.) opens. However, ment of the present invention, it will be apparent to one if the dies or molds are locked, the lock-up relay DL will be closed, so that, relay ZCR also being closed (see step 60 skilled in the art to which the invention pertains that vari ous changes and modi?cations may be made therein with 4 above), solenoid 3CR will remain energized to keep out departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope relay 3CR1 closed so that the ladle mechanism 10 will of the appended claims. continue on to the pour position (see step 9 below). I claim: (7) If the casting machine is not locked up when the 1. An automatic ladle mechanism for transferring con ladle mechanism 10 reaches the intermediate position (in 65 trolled charges of molten metal from the dip Well of a step 6 above), solenoid SCR tie-energizes, opening relay 3CR1 to de-energize valve solenoid VR so that the ladle furnace to the receiving chamber of a casting machine having molds selectively opened and closed and locked, mechanism will remain in this intermediate position, hold said ladle mechanism comprising a support, a liquid con ing limit switch LS~2b (N.O.) closed to energize a timer solenoid HR. 70 ducting structure pivotally carried on said support to (8) On energizing timer solenoid 1TR, timer relay swing in a vertical plane, a ladle on one end of said struc locked in the interim) to de-energize solenoid ZCR, clos ture, said ladle mechanism being provided with means selectively operable to alternately lower said ladle into ing relay 2CR3 to re-energize solenoid lCR, initiating the and raise same from the molten metal contained in said 1TR1 will time out and open (unless the die or mold gets ladle lowering cycle again (from step 3 et seq.)~ This 75 dip well, the molten metal dipped from said dip well ?ow~ 3,077,015 5 6 ing through said conducting structure to the casting ma~ chine and said ladle having means excluding oxides on the surface of the molten metal from entering said ladle when same is lowered into said dip well, said excluding means (7‘) said automatic means including means connected comprising a cover extending over and closing the top of ing machine molds are in a locked position, and (g) means holding said actuating means at said inter mediate position if said molds are not in a locked said ladle and projecting outwardly and turned down wardly around the sides thereof to form a space between the ladle and the downwardly turned portion of the cover, and means openly connecting said space with the ladle with said casting machine and automatically operat ing said ladle actuating means from the intermediate position to the pouring position only when the cast position. 4. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 3 and in which under the cover. 10 said holding means is automatically operable to retain said ladle actuating means in the intermediate position for a predetermined time interval if said molds are not in a remote from the edge of the downwardly turned portion locked position and to return said ladle mechanism back of said cover. to the ?ll position if said molds are not locked within said 2. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 1 and in which said latter means comprises a slot in the edge of said ladle 3. An automatic ladle mechanism for transferring con trolled charges of molten metal from the dip well of a furnace to the receiving chamber of a casting machine having molds selectively opened and closed and locked, said ladle mechanism comprising, predetermined time interval. 5. The mechanism as de?ned in claim 4 and in Which said automatic means includes means automatically oper able to hold said ladle actuating means in the pour posi tion for a predetermined time interval. 20 (a) a support, 6. The mechanism as defined in claim 4 and in which (b) a liquid conducting structure carried on said sup said automatic means includes means connected with said port to swing in a vertical plane, (0) a ladle on one end of said structure, (d) actuating means operable to selectively pivot said ‘structure to a ?ll position in which said ladle is low 25 ered into the molten metal contained in said dip well, to an intermediate position in which said ladle is re moved from the molten metal, and to a pour position in which said ladle is raised higher than the conduct ing structure so that the molten metal will flow from 30 the ladle through the conducting structure to dis charge into said casting machine and (e) automatic means normally operating said ladle actuating means through a cycle in sequence begin ning with the intermediate position to the ?ll position, 35 then through the intermediate position to the pour position, then returning to the intermediate position, casting machine and automatically operable each time the casting machine molds are closed to initiate the aforesaid sequence of actuation of said ladle actuating means. References ?tted in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,313,895 Hopkins _____________ __ Aug. 26, 1919 2,263,880 2,363,759 2,568,578 Jung ________________ .__ NOV. 25, 1941 Waldie ______________ __ NOV. 28, 1944 Bennett _____________ __ Sept. 18, 1951 2,676,370 Doehler et al __________ .. Apr. 27, 1954 2,962,278 Goetz _______________ __ Nov. 29, 1960 2,982,534 Me?ert _______________ __ May 2, 196].