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Патент USA US3077054

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Feb. l2, 1963
F. P. REED
3,077,044
COMBINED ‘CARTRIDGE EJEcToR «AND RETAINER
Filed Nov. 2. 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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IÑVEN TOR.
Feb. 12, 1963
F. P. REED
3,077,044
COMBINED CARTRIDGE EJECTOR AND REÈI‘AINER
Filed Nov. 2, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
JNVENT’OR. i
BY
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Patented Foto. i2, i953
is a pair of parallel, vertically disposed lips 34 which are
spaced from the front face thereof so as to be slidingly
received by extractor groove 26B of a chambered cartridge
AND
itâ when the breech block is raised to the breech closed
Frederick l). Reed, Ludiow, Mass., assigner to the United
States of America as represented by the Secretary of
the
Filed Nov. 2, web, Ser. No. 66,89î
S Elanna. (Cl. Li2--2e)
(Granted under Titia 35,
Code (i952),
on
Sm..
position. whereby, the base of the chambered cartridge
lâ is held in contact with the front face of breech block
2d and the longitudinal component of movement thereof,
is transferred to cartridge i8 or the tired case thereof.
The rear sides of the lips 34 are charnfered to provide at
10 the upper end of each thereof, an angular surface 36
The invention described herein may be manufactured
and used by or for the Government for governmental pur
poses without the payment of any royalty thereon.
which inclines downwardly and rearwardly for guiding
rim 22 of chambered cartridge ld in back of the lips
during initial displacement of breech block Z8 from the
breech open position.
This invention relates to those mechanisms which re
Mounted on the top of breech housing 24 is a retainer
tain a cartridge in the chamber of a firearm and eject iired 15
housing 38 which is attached thereto by dovetail means
cases therefrom.
dit. rEhe rear end of retainer housing 36 is bifurcated by
In that class of firearms which are manually loaded for
a vertical crevice ¿il to form a pair of laterally spaced
single shotV operation and which when loaded are often
ear portions ¿i2 which supporta pin ftd extending trans
times >elevated beyond the point where the chambered
round is frictionally held against displacement in the 20 versely therethrough. Pin ¿ii-'l is positioned so that the
longitudinal axis thereof is disposed in a vertical plane
chamber, it is necessary to provide some means for re~
which is spaced slightly forward of the plane occupied
taining the cartridge in the chamber while the breech is
by lips 3d when breech block 2f» is in the breech open
being closed, so as to prevent the cartridge from falling
position.
onto the ground or cause jamming of the breechlock when
Pivotally mounted on pin 4d is a retainer d5 having a
closed.
hole ¿t8 for receiving the pin. Hole 4S is elongated to
it is therefore the object of this invention to provide for
ermit vertical as well as pivotal displacement of retainer
such class of firearms, a retainer which is actuatable by
do, as hereinafter described. Retainer d6 is provided with
the cartridges ‘v hen inserted into the chamber of the lire
a flap
detent portion 59 having the same thickness as
arm, and which for simplicity of structure, also performs
the width of extractor groove 2d so that end Sl of detent
the function of ejecting the tired case.
portion 5b is receivable thereby. End 51 is arcuately
rIhe speciñc nature of the invention as well as other
formed according to _the radius of extractor groove Ztl,
objects and advantages thereof will clearly appear from
a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the
accompanying drawings in which:
FÍG. l is a longitudinally cross-sectioned View of the
breech end of a firearm, showing a cartridge chambered
therein and the breech block in the breech closed position;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. l but
showing the breech block in the breech open position and
the retainer engaged with the extractor groove of a par- '
tially chambered cartridge;
FlG. 3 is a view similar to HG. 2 but showing a tired
cartridge case partially ejected by the retainer;
PlG. 4 is a view taken along line d-Ai of îG. i;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view similar to MG. l but
showing a different embodiment wherein the retainer is
fabricated from an integral spring coil and loop;
FiG. 6 is a view similar to PEG. 5 but showing the re
so as to provide full engagement of such end therewith.
The front end of channel 26 extends suñiciently forward
in breech housing 24- to permit the forward displacement
of detent portion Se by cartridge 18 when the cartridge
is fully received by chamber 16.
Retainer 46 is also provided with a thumb piece 52
which extends upwardly above pin dal from detent portion
to provide manual means for pivoting the retainer to
displace the detent portion rearwardly and thereby with
draw a cartridge i8 or the tired case thereof from cham
ber i6.
There is provided in retainer housing 38, a bottomed
bore Slt which extends forwardly from the front end of
crevice di and such bore slidingly receives a cylindrical
plunger $6 which is terminated at the rear end by a conical
portion 53. A compressible coil spring ntl is disposed
lationship of the parts when the breech block is adjacent 50 between the front end of plunger 56 and the bottom of
bore 54 for biasing the plunger rearwardly to resiliently
the breech open position thereof; and
engage conical portion 5S with a cam projection 62
FlG. 7 is a View taken along line 7-7 of FÍG. 5.
Shown in FÍGS. 1_4 is a firearm l2 having a barrel 14
with a chamber i5 for receiving a cartridge itl which is
provided with a tapered case having an extractor groove
2@ disposed adjacent the base thereof to form a rim 22.
A breech housing Z4 is threadingly mounted on the breech
end of barrel ltd, and such breech housing is bifurcated
rearwardly of the breech end of the barrel by a vertical
channel 26.
Channel 25 receives a breech block 23
which is slidingly disposed therein for vertical reciproca
tion between an upper breech closed position, and a lower
breech open position by means of frange 3d and mating
groove 3l. Flange 3i) and groove 3l are also formed so
as to incline downwardly and rearwardly at approximately
a 5° angle, whereby breech block 23 is moved forwardly
towards the breech end of barrel i4, when it is raised to
the breech closed position, for firmly pressing cartridge
18 into chamber île’. Breech lock 28 is actuated manual
which protrudes forwardly from retainer ¿i6 adjacent hole
48.
Bore da is formed so as to incline downwardly and
rearwardly so that the extended longitudinal axis of
plunger S6 intercepts the longitudinal axis of pin ¿ißt and
so as to clear dovetail means ¿il and permit pin ‘td to
be positioned as low as possible in retainer housing for
as low a silhouette thereof as possible.
The force of spring 6i? is transferred to retainer 486, Áso
as to perform the functions of retaining cartridge i8 in
chamber f6 and ejecting the fired case therefrom, through
the camming cooperation of conical portion 58 with
cam projection 62 and the angular application of force
from the retainer to the cartridge or case thereof, as
hereinafter described. Cam projection 62 is essentially
triangular in longitudinal cross-section, and is provided
with an ejection cam surface 64 which extends down
wardly and forwardly from retainer ‘i6 and a retainer
ly between the breech closed and the breech open posi 70 cam surface 6d, which extends upwardly and forwardly
„tions by handle operated lever means 32.
from the retainer. Ejection cam surface 64 and retainer
cam surface de intersect to form an apex 68..
Formed integrally on the front end of breech block 2d
3,077,044
3
As is especially well shown in FIG. l, when the tip of
the angular distance between the axis of pin 44 and end
51 is reduced land this is compensated for by the elonga
tion' of hole, as is especially well shown in FIG. l.
After cartridge 18 is ñred by a ñring mechanism, which
conical portion 58 contacts retainer cam surface 66, the
translational displacement of plunger 56 by spring 60*
is converted to pivotal displacement of retainer 46 in a
counter~clockwise direction. There is also seen how the
force applied to retainer 46 by plunger 56 is multiplied
is not part of this invention, the ñred case is extracted
from chamber 16 and ejected from firearm 12 by actu
ating lever means 32 to lower breech block 28 to the
breech open position. As breech block 28 is lowered, itV
is also moved rearwardly by flange and groove means 30,
through the angular relationship between the plunger
and retainer cam surface 66.
In FIG. 2, it is seen that
retainer 46 is biased for clockwise rotation, and with in
creased force, when the tip of conical portion 58 presses 10 and therefore, throughV the engagement of lips 34 with
against ejection cam surface 64. Thus, when the tip of
extractor groove 20, the fired case is pulled rearwardly
conical portion 58 is in contact with retainer cam surface
in chamber 16. With detent portion 50 being engaged
66, end 51 of detent portion' 50 is disposed forwardly
with extractor groove 20, -retainer 46 is pivoted by the
of a center line x-x, at which the angular application
rearward displacement of the cartridge case to move cam
of force from the detent portion lto cartridge 18 is zero. 15 projection 62 relative to conical portion 58, so that be
Whereby, the angular application of force from retainer
-fore breech block 28 reaches breech open position, the
46 -to cartridge 18 presses the cartridge forwardly into
conical portion is in contact with ejection cam surface 64
chamber `16. It is also seeny that when lthe tip of conical
and end 51 is moved rearwardly of center yline x-x.
portion 58 is in contact with ejection cam surface 64,
Consequently, when the base of the cartridge case is
end 51 is disposed rearwardly of center line x-x so 20 uncovered by breech block 28, the rearward bias ’applied
thaty the angular application of force between the `detent
by retainer 46 to the cartridge case causes it to be flipped
portion and cartridge 18 forces the cartridge rearwardly
out of chamber 16. It is, therefore, readily apparent
that when the «tip of conical portion 58 is in contact with
from chamber 16.
In event the tired case is notl ejected from chamber 16
during the actuation of breech block 28 to the breech
apex 68, the point of contact between detent portion 50 25 open position, or if it is necessary to remove a live cartridge from the chamber, prior to the closing of the
breech block, the cartridge, or the tired case, may be
ward position by the contact of ejection cam surface 64
manually ejected by pressing forwardly onl thumb piece 5‘2.
with the angular side of conical portion 58, as shown in
Shown in FIGS. 5-7, is an embodiment of the invention
FIG. 2. Apex 68 is so related to ejection cam surface
wherein a retainer housing 72 is fixedly mounted to the
64 that when detent portion 50 is in its normal rearward
top of breech housing 24 and the rear end of the retainer
position and an upward pressure is applied against end
Ihousing is bifurcated to form a pair of laterally spaced
51 thereof, the apex has camming contact with the ejec
ear portions 74, which 'are rearwardly disposed relative
tion cam surface to press plunger 56 forwardly against
to the breech end of bar-rel 14. Mounted transversely
Vthe bias of spring 60 to return the detent portion to its 35 through ear portions '74, is a pin 76, the longitudinal axis
normal rearward position when the upward pressure
of which lies in a vertical plane spaced slightly forward
applied against the end of the detent portion is relieved.
of that in which lips 34 lie when breech block 28 is in‘
Thus, firearm 12 is ready for loading when breech
the breech open position.
block 28 is in the breech open position' and detent por
Pin 76 supports a retainer 78 having a double-armed
tion 50 is in its normal rearward position. Firearm 12 40 spring coil Si) which receives the pin therethrough. One
is loaded by the manual insertion of cartridge 18 into
arm of coil 80 forms a loop 82 which is essentially U~
chamber 16. As cartridge 18 is pushed into chamber 16,
shaped in configuration with the free end being curved
the cartridge case has sliding contact with end 51 of
to encircle pin 76 to assist in the pivotal support of the
detent portion 5G Therefore, with the case of cartridge
loop. The cross piece of loop 82, noted at 84, is curved
18 being tapered, an upward force is applied to en'd 51 45 acocr-ding to the radius of extractor groove 20, so as to
so that detent portion 50 is swung in a counter-clockwise
be receivable thereby. Loop 82 extends radially from
direction from the normal rearward position thereof.
pin ’76 sufficiently, so that cross piece 84 has full engage
consequently, when cartridge 18 is moved into chamber
ment with extractor groove 2i) when cartridge 18 engaged
16 to where detent 50 is in registry with extractor groove
by the loop is in full chambered position.
20, end 51 is pressed thereinto, through the biased con' 50
The opposite arm of coil 80, noted at 86, is anchored
itact of conical portion 58 of plunger 56 with retainer
-to retainer housing '72, so lthat displacement of loop 82
cam surface 66. During the final displacement of car
in' either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction will
tridge 18 into chamber 16, the contact of rim 22 with end
energize the coil and so that the loop, when the coil is
51 causes retainer 46 to be pivoted in a counter-clockwise
deenergized, extends rearwardly of the center line of
direction, whereby 'apex 68 passes by conical portion 58 55 force x-x applicable from retainer 78 to cartridge 18
and cartridge 18 lies on center line x-x.
Detent portion 5t) is resiliently held in a normal rear
to move retainer cam surface 66 into contact with the
engaged thereby.
conical portion.
sliding contact with the case of cartridge 18 forwardly
of extractor groove during forward displacement of the
At the same time, end 5.1 is displaced,
so as to be disposed forwardly of center line x-x, to
press the engaged cartridge forwardly into chamber 16
with sufñcient force to be held therein against gravita
tional forces.
60
Cross piece 84 is also positioned for
cartridge into chamber 16.
Thus, when cartridge 18 is loaded into chamber `16, the
case of the cartridge slidingly contracts cross piece 84,
and because of the taper of the case, forces loop 82 up
retainer 46, breech block 28 is free to be actuated by
wardly to energize coil 80. Therefore, when extractor
lever means 32 to the breech closed position. As breech
groove 20 comes into registry with cross piece 84, the
block 28 moves upwardly in breech housing 24, the 65 cross piece is snapped thereinto. Continued movement
angular surfaces 36 on the lips 34 contact the front face
of cartridge 18 into chamber 16 causes rotation of loop
of rim 22 4to initially displace the engaged cartridge 18
82 to energize coil 80 and displace cross piece 84 for
rearwardly for full engagement of the lips with extractor
wardly of center line x-x. Whereby, the energy in coil
groove 20. ' During the remaining displacement of breech
80 is converted to forward bias of cartridge 18 and
block 28 to the breech closed position, cartridge 18 is 70 thereby resiliently holds the cartridge in the'chamber.
moved forwardly with the breech block which is provided
From the foregoing, it is clearly apparent that there
with a longitudinal component of movement through the
is provided herein, a retainer ejector device which per
inclination of ñange 30 and groove 31 for full engagement
:forms the dual functions of, retaining a cartridge in the
with chamber 16. As cartridge 18 is moved forwardly,
chamber of a barrel, so that it will not be displaced there
and detent portion 50 is swung past center line x-x, 75 from by the 4force of gravity, and ejecting the tired case
With cartridge 18 resiliently held in chamber 16 by
3,077,044
E..
à
therefrom with »fthe device being positive in opera-tion,
plunger and retainer disposed for transferring the energy
easy to manufacture, and rugged in construction.
lAlthough a particular embodiment of the invention
has been described in detail herein, it is evident that many
variations may be devised within the spirit and scope
thereof and the following claims are intended to include
such variations.
l claim:
in said spring through said retainer to the cartridge en~
block disposed for vertical reciprocation between a
forwardly of the plane in which the lips of the breech
gaged thereby for retaining the engaged cartridge in the
chamber after being inserted thereinto and for ejecting
the fired case of the cartridge from the chamber after
being displaced rearwardly by the breech block during
actuation thereof to the breech open position.
'
4. The invention as defined in claim 3, wherein said
pin is disposed so that the center line of force applicable
‘ l. For a firearm, having a Vbarrel with a chamber for
receiving `a cartridge with an extractor groove, a breech 10 from said spring to said end of said retainer is disposed
breech closed and a breech open position, and for simul
taneous rearward longitudinal displacement towards the
block lie when the breech block is in the breech open
position.
breech end of the barrel when moved to the breech
5. The invention as defined in clairn 4, wherein said
closed position, and lips formed on the front end of the
breech block for sliding engagement with the extractor
cam -means on said plunger is a conical portion formed
` groove of the cartridge to transfer the rearward longi
on the rear end thereof and said cam means on said re
tainer includes a triangular cam projection disposed on
the front side of said retainer yfor engagement by said
tudinal displacement of the breech block to the fired
conical portion.
>case of the cartridge in the chamber when the breech
6. The invention as defined in claim 4, wherein said
block is actuated to the breech open position, a device 20
cam means on said plunger is a conical -portion formed
having the dual functions of retaining the cartridge in
on the rear end thereof and said cam means on said
the chamber after insertion thereinto and ejecting the
retainer includes a triangular cam projection disposed
fired case of the cartridge therefrom during actuation of
for engagement by said conical portion, said cam pro
the breech block to the breech open position, the device
jection including an ejection cam surface disposed for
including an energizable spring means, a pivotal member
contact by said conical portion to transfer the energy
formed integral with said spring means and arranged
in said spring to said retainer for ejecting the fired car
to be engageable with the extractor groove of the car
tridge case from the chamber after the iired cartridge
tridge yfor converting pivotal displacement of said pivotal
case is displaced rearwardly by the breech block when
member to longitudinal displacement of the cartridge
actuated to the breech open position thereof, and said
forwardly into the chamber and of the fired cartridge
cem projection also including a retainer cam surface
case rearwardly therefrom, and means for directing the
disposed for contact by said conical portion to transfer
energy in said spring means to said pivotal member so
the energy in said spring to said retainer for retaining
that the cartridge engaged by said pivotal member is
the cartridge engaged thereby in the chamber after being
pressed into the barrel chamber when the area of engage~
inserted thereinto.
ment of said pivotal member with the extractor groove
7. The invention as defined in claim 6, wherein said
ofthe cartridge is forwardly of a center line of force
cam ejection surface is disposed so as to be contacted
extending at right angles from the axis of said pivotal
by said conical portion when said end of said retainer
means to the longitudinal axis of the cartridge, and so
is disposed rearwardly of the center line of force extend
that the fired case of the cartridge is energized for ejec
ing at right angles from the pivotal axis of said retainer
tion from the chamber when the area of engagement be
tween the pivotal member and extractor groove is rear
to the longitudinal axis of the cartridge engaged thereby,
wardly of the center line of force.
2. 'lhe invention as dehned in claim l, wherein said
and said retainer cam surface is disposed so as to be
spring means includes a double-armed coil which re
ceives a supporting pin therethrough, and said pivotal
member includes a U-shaped loop formed from one of
the arms of said coil, said loop including a cross piece
bent according to the radius of the extractor groove so
ask to be receivable thereby.
contactable by said conical portion when said end of said
retainer is disposed rearwardly of the center line of
force.
8. For a firearm having a barrel with a chamber for
receiving a cartridge with an extractor groove, a breech
block disposed for vertical reciprocation between a
breech closed and a breech open position and for simul
3. For a firearm having a barrel with a chamber for 50 taneous rearward longitudinal displacement towards the
breech end of the barrel when moved to the breech
receiving a cartridge with an extractor groove, a breech
closed position, and lips formed on the front end of the
block disposed in a breech housing for vertical recipro
breech block for sliding engagement with the extractor
cation therein between a breech closed and a breech
groove of the cartridge to transfer the rearward longi
apen position and for simultaneous longitudinal dis
placement towards the breech end of the barrel when 55 tudinal displacement of the breech block to the tired case
of the cartridge in the chamber when the breech block
moved to the breech closed position and lips formed on
is actuated to the breech open position, a device having
,the front end of the breech block for sliding engage
the dual function of retaining the cartridge in the charn
ment with the extractor groove of the cartridge to trans
ber after insertion thereinto and ejecting the fired case
fer the rearward longitudinal displacement of the breech
of the cartridge therefrom during actuation of the breech
block to the `fired case of the cartridge in the chamber
block to the breech open position, the device including
when the breech block is displaced to the breech open
an energizable spring means, a pivotal member engage
position, a device having the dual functions of retaining
able with the extractor groove of the cartridge for con
the cartridge in the chamber after insertion thereinto
verting pivotal displacement of said pivotal member to
and ejecting the tired case of the cartridge therefrom
during displacement of the breech block to the breech 65 longitudinal displacement of the cartridge forwardly into
the chamber and of the fired cartridge case rearwardly
open position, the device including a retainer housing
therefrom, and means for directing the energy in said
mounted on the top of said breech housing, a plunger
spring means to said pivotal member so that the car~
slidingly received by a mating bore in said retainer
tridge engaged by said pivotal member is pressed into
housing for rearward extension therefrom, a spring dis
posed in said bore for resiliently pressing said plunger 70 the barrel chamber when the area of engagement of said
rearwardly, a retainer pivotally mounted on said retainer
housing by means of a pin extending transversely there
through, said retainer being provided with an end ar
cuately formed so as to be receivable by the extractor
groove of the cartridge, cooperating cam means on said
pivotal member with the extractor groove of the car
tridge is forwardly of a center line of force extending at
right angles from the axis of said pivotal means to the
longitudinal axis of the cartridge, and so that the iired
case of the cartridge is energized for ejection from the
7
3,077,044
â
chamber when the area of engagement between the piv
otal member and extractor groove is rearwardly of the
center line of force, and camming means interposed be
said pivotal member to the longitudinal axis of the, ca_r
tridge and is cammingly pressed rearwardly when the
area of engagement is disposed rearwardly of the center
tween said spring means land said pivotal member where~
line of force.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
by said pivotal member is cammingly pressed forwardly
by said spring means when the area of engagement be
tween said pivotal member and the extractor group of
the engaged cartridge is disposed forwardly of a center
line of force extending at` right angles from the axis of
2,43 5,247
2,809,561
Summerbell __________ _.. Feb. 3, 1,94‘8
Edmund ____________ __ Oct. 1,5, 19'K57
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