вход по аккаунту


Патент USA US3077142

код для вставки
Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Dec. 4, 1958
4 Sheets-Shee-t v 1
Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Dec. 4, 1958
FIG. 3.
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 12, 1963
Filed Dec. 4, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Feb. 12, 1963
M, RomcK
Filed Dec. 4, 1958
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
FIG. 5. 49
#47. ‘W
United States Patent O?iee
Patented Feb. 12, 1963
Various other objects, features and advantages of the in
vention will become apparent as the description proceeds.
In the drawings which illustrate an embodiment of
Murray Ronick, East Meadow, N.Y., assignor to Baldwin
Lirnanliiamilton Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa, a cor
poration of Pennsylvania
Filed Dec. 4, 1958, Ser. No. 778,181
5 Claims. (til. 83-559)
the invention by way of example,
FIG. 1 shows a vertical shear according to the inven
tion in section taken generally along line 1—1 of FIG.
3, certain parts being broken away for better illustration;
FIG. 2 shows a portion of FIG. 1, some of the parts
being in different positions for cutting another size of
This invention relates to shears for cutting metal, and 10 material;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged section taken generally along
versal type for handling a great variety of materials such
line 3-3 of FIG. 1, but showing some of the parts in
as billets, bars, angles, beams, channels, and other pro?les.
the FIG. 2 position, the material to be sheared being
Conventional shears of the above type normally have
a lower knife which is in a ?xed position onthe shear 15
FIG. 4 is a plan view taken in the direction of the
housing or frame, and an upper knife which is rigidly
arrow 4 of FIG. 1, certain parts being broken away for
more particularly to vertical shears of the so-called uni
secured to a knife actuator or ram.
Thus, both knives
are within the con?nes of the shear housing and all
knife changes must be made within the shear proper.
better illustration;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary section taken along
line 5-5 of FIG. 4;
Such changes and the necessary realignment of the parts 20 FIG. 6 is an enlarged, fragmentary section taken along
are extremely time consuming and cause the machine
line 6—6 of FIG. 1;
to remain idle while these steps are carried out, which
FIG. 7 is an enlarged, fragmentary section taken along
results in a very considerable loss in production.
line 7-7 of FIG. 6; and
It has been proposed to provide a removable lower
FIG. 8 is an enlarged, fragmentary section showing a
knife carrier sliding laterally out of the shear so that the 25 detail.
lower knife or knives may be replaced outside the ma
Referring to the drawings, an upright housing or frame
chine. The upper knife or knives, however, must still
generally indicated at It) and mounted on a foundation
be changed within the con?nes of the shear where ac~
block 11 is adjacent its top equipped with split bear
cessibility is limited so that the work requires much time.
ings 12 for journalling a crankshaft 14 which has a con
Likewise, the alignment of the upper and lower knives 30 necting rod 15 attached thereto to operate a knife actuator
must be carried out within the shear.
The machine is
or ram 26 reciprocable in vertical guideways 22 of the
idle while the upper knives are changed and the parts
frame. It will be clear that instead of the mechanical
drive 14, 16, hydraulic operating means may be provided
if desired.
Another difliculty encountered in conventional shears 35 Below its vertical guideways 22, the frame 10 has a
of the above type is due to the fact that normally the
large opening 24 therethrough in which horizontal guide
lower knife is vertically ?xed relative to the frame. In
ways 26 (FIG. 3) are positioned to accommodate a car
such arrangement, the material to be cut must be sup
riage generally indicated at 3%. The latter is inter
plied to the shear at the ?xed level of the lower knife,
changeable and used in rotation with similar carriages,
which, if the shape of the material varies, requires cum
one of which is indicated at 31 in FIG. 4. An upper
are aligned so that the loss in production is still very
bersome and expensive handling equipment.
it is an object of the invention to provide an im
proved shear in which a change of knives will cause a
knife 34 and its backer 35 (FIG. 3) are secured at 37
(FIG. 1) to an upper knife holder 36 which is vertically
movable in guideways 38 positioned particularly in the
minimum of down time.
45 corner regions of carriage 30. The upper knife holder
It is also an object of the invention to provide a vertical
has a raised portion 39 at its top for engaging the ram 20
shear in which the upper and lower knives may be
and normally is resiliently urged upwardly by biasing
changed, as well as aligned with each other, outside
means such as four cylinder and piston units 40 arranged
the machine in a simple manner.
adjacent the four corners of the knife holder. Each of
it is another object of the invention to provide a shear 50 the units Kill which are single-acting comprises a cylinder
with an integrated knife assembly in which cutting move
41 (FIG. 5) mounted in a bore 42 of the upper knife
ments may be simulated outside of the shear for precise
holder and secured to the latter at 42A, a cylinder head
alignment of the knives.
43 fastened at 43A, a piston 44, and a piston rod 45,
Another object of the invention is to provide a vertical
each cylinder having an upper chamber 46. The lower
shear in which the upper knife system cooperates with 55 ends 47 of the piston rods are spherically shaped and
its actuator merely under resilient pressure without being
supported on mating surfaces of replaceable: wear disks 43
fastened thereto so that the upper knife system may be
(FIG. 3) inserted in carriage 3t).
readily separated from its actuator.
Still another object of the invention is to minimize the
Attached to lateral ports 49 (FIG. 5) of the cylinder
heads 43 are pipes 5%.! (see carriage 31, FIG. 4) which
transmission of eccentric forces from the reciprocating 60 are positioned in grooves 51 of the upper knife holder
knife system of a shear to the actuator thereof, and
practically to eliminate play between the reciprocating
parts during operation.
36 and connected to a common pipe line 52 accom
modated in a groove 53 of the upper knife holder. A
conventional quick disconnect coupling comprising por
A further object of the invention is to equip a vertical
65 tions or halves 54,‘ 55 (see carriage 30, FIG. 4) serves
shear with a plurality of interchangeable assemblies which
for the attachment to pipe line 52 of a ?exible hose 56
are used in rotation, and each of which comprises a com
which is in turn connected to a pipe line 57.1eading to
plete set of upper and lower knives.
a source of pressure such as an accumulator 58 con
It is a still further object of the invention to provide a
taining oil under pneumatic pressure.
vertical shear with a movable lower knife holder and 70
Conventional hold-down or stripper pins till (FIG. 3)
compact means for positioning the holder at a desired
are movable in hushed bores 61 of the upper knife holder
level prior to a shearing operation.
36 against the pressure of springs 62. Nuts 53 attached
to the threaded upper ends of the pins serve to limit down
ward movement of the pins relative to the knife holder 36.
A lower knife 6d and its backer as are secured at or
portion 55. The hose 172 is connected to a pipe line 176
which includes a manually controlled exhaust or bleeder
(FIG. 1) to a lower knife holder 65 which is vertically
movable in guideways 68 of carriage 3%. The knife
holder 66 is provided with upwardly extending portions
69 for better guidance and with lateral projections 7t), 71
(FIG. 3) which in the lowermost position of the knife
as a pump unit 17%.
holder rest on shoulders 72, '73 of the carriage.
valve 177 and leads to an auxiliary source of pressure such
When carriage 343 is in its cutting position shown in full
lines in FIG. 1, both knife holders 36 and 65 are aligned
with the ram or actuator 2d. The chambers 46 of cylin
ders Iii communicate freely with the accumulator 5% so
shoulders terminate in inclined faces 74, 75 which coop 10 that the upper knife holder is urged upwardly and its top
erate with shields '75 made of plate material and mounte
3? is in engagement with actuator 26'. The lower knife
on the frame in to de?ect pieces of metal dropping down
holder 66 may rest on the shoulders 72, 73 of the frame
during a shearing operation. Mechanism for lifting the
as shown in FIG. 1. As the knives, 34, 64; are shaped for
lower knife holder to a level above its rest position will
triple cuts, three elements such as angles 1% (FIG. 1)
be described later.
may be placed in the machine simultaneously. When
A pair of spaced track members 8%, 81 are attached at
crankshaft 14 is turned and the actuator 2d‘ descends to
one end to frame it? by fastening means 84 (FTG. 6)
perform the shearing operation, the cylinders 41 will be
while the other ends of the track members are secured by
caused to move downwardly over their pistons Q24 so that
fastening means as (FIGS. 1 and 4) to a base 9% mounted
fluid under pressure will be forced to flow from chambers
on a foundation block hit so that the members 89, 81
bridge the space between blocks 11 and 914.. The track
136 back to the accumulator. When the out has been com
pleted and ram 29 ascends again, ?uid will return from
the accumulator to the cylinders 41 and cause them to
26 of frame it} and forming a continuous track therewith
move upwardly over their pistons 441 so that the upper
so that the carriage 39 may readily be shifted on this
knife holder 35 will follow the upward motion of the ram
track from the cutting station in frame Iii) onto the mem 25 in engagement therewith. It should be noted that cha1n—
bers 80, 81 and vice versa. For such movements, a driv
bers 132 (H6. 5) in cylinders 41 are connected to the
members have guideways 94 aligned with the guideways
ing mechanism is provided comprising a reversible electric
atmosphere through ports 133 and clearance 134 at the
circumference of the cylinders to allow for free flow of
the base 90; a brake 99 for stopping the mechanism at a
air to and from these lower chambers.
desired instant; a threaded spindle Tilt} rotatable by means 30
To guide knife 34 safely when it approaches knife 64,
of unit 98 and arranged in the space between the track
each or" the upwardly extending portions 6? of the lower
motor 96 attached to a gear unit 98 which is mounted on
members 80, 81; a travelling nut 192 meshing with spindle
100 and engaging guideways liil'3 of the track members;
knife holder has a recess or guideway 1&6 therein as shown
in cross-section in FIG. 8. These guideways cooperate
and a pin 164 secured to the top of nut 162. One end of
with lateral extensions 187 on the upper knife holder 36.
spindle 1%‘ is journalled in the base 9d and the other end 35
During the downward movement of knife 34, the hold
is supported in a bearing 10% which is secured to the track
down pins 69 will engage the angles lilo in conventional
members 8%, 31 at 199 (FIG. 6). The carriage St} has
manner and ?rmly bear thereupon under the pressure of
a rearward extension 110‘ provided with a hole ill? into
their springs as to avoid tilting of the angles. At this stage
which the pin 164 projects. Since the spindle 1% is se
the pins are stopped from further participation in the
cured against axial movement by reason of its attachment 40 downward movement of the upper knife holder and its
to gear unit 98 at 114 and by means such as its shoulder
drive. Therefore, holes 188 (FIG. 3) are provided in
116 (FIG. 1), and since the travelling nut 162 is prevented
ram 2b‘ to accommodate the upper ends of the pins, as
from rotating due to its engagement with guideways itlfz,
well as their nuts 63 which are disengaged from the upper
the nut 10-‘;- and carriage do will be caused to move along
knife holder 36 at this time. When knife 34 starts to move
the track in a selected direction when spindle tea is turned
upwards upon completion of the cut, the pressure exerted
in a corresponding way.
by pins on will counteract any tendency of the angles £34)
To determine the shearing position positively, the car_
to stick to the knife and will be effective to strip the angles
riage 3b is provided with two lateral arms 11% which stop
therefrom as well known in the art. At a predetermined
inward movement of the carriage upon engagement with
point of the upward stroke of knife 34, the nuts 63 are
frame 10. The arms have holes 12o (FIG. 7) therein to
engaged again by knife holder as and the stripper pins are
receive pins 122, secured to the frame. Tapered keys 124
then lifted together with the holder. The shearing opera
provided with eyebolts 125, and keyways 126 in the pins
tion may then be repeated after further material to be cut
serve to lock carriage 3t} releasably in its shearing posi
has been placed on the lower knife.
When it is necessary to change the knives due to a
Referring now again to the lower knife holder arrange
change in the shape of the material to be handled or for
ment, mechanism for lifting the knife holder ‘66 from its
other reasons, the tapered keys 124 are removed from
rest position comprises a slide 13% (FIGS. 1 and 3)
their pins 122 and the flexible hose 56 is disconnected
mounted for vertical movement in guideways 132 of the
from pipe line ‘52. The halves 54, 55 have built-in check
frame. The slide 13d has a recess 131% at its bottom and
valves 1%, 192 which, upon disconnection of the cou
is provided with an inclined guideway 136 mating with 60 pling, close automatically to seal the cylinders 41 as well
the top of a wedge 14% which is accommodated in the
as the accumulator 58 so that uncontrolled escape of ?uid
recess 134. The wedge having a liner 142 at its bottom
is prevented. The coupling portion 175 positioned on the
is movable on a horizontal face 144 in an opening 146
auxiliary hose 172 and having a built-in check valve
(FIG. 3) which extends through frame lit at right angles
194 is now connected to coupling portion 54, which by
to the path of travel of carriage 363. A pressure-operate ,
reason of the construction of these standard parts will
double-acting cylinder and piston unit 14% is mounted on
result in both check valves 1%, 194 being automatically
frame It} and connected to one end of the wedge to move
pushed to open positions. The manually operated bleeder
the latter. Facing the other end of the wedge is an abut
valve 177 is then opened temporarily with the pump 178
ment member in the form of a threaded rod 158‘ which is
being shut off to release a small amount of ?uid from
supported in a pillow block 152 mounted on frame Til. 70 cylinders 41 so that the upper knife holder 36 will de
Rod 150 is axially shiftable to a selected position relative
scend slightly due to the action of gravity and thus will
to pillow block 152 by means such as a worm drive lo
be disengaged from ram 2%}. Thereafter, hose 172 may
cated at 154 in 2. lug of the pillow block.
be disconnected from the carriage. Slide 139 and Wedge
An auxiliary, relatively long ?exible hose 172 (FIG. 14)
is equipped with a coupling portion 175’ identical with
Mt} should be in their withdrawn positions at this time.
Motor 96 is started to move carriage 34} along track mem
bers 813, 81 from the cutting or shearing station ‘where
the carriage is in the position shown in full lines in FIG. 1,
to a transfer station where the carriage is in the with
drawn position indicated in phantom at 30' in FIG. 1.
Lifting equipment such as a crane is connected to hooks
198 on carriage 3!} to raise the latter from the track
only one single, compact assembly need be shifted as will
be clear from the following description.
Wedge Mil is initially in its withdrawn position shown
in phantom at 149’ in FIG. 3 and, accordingly, slide 136
accommodates pin 104. The cylinders 41 of carriage
is in its lowermost position as shown in phantom at 136’ in
FIG. 3. This initial arrangement of the parts is illus
trated in full lines in FIG. 1 and it will be ‘seen that the
top ‘surface of slide 13% now clears ‘the lower knife
holder as and the carriage 3-3‘ by a predetermined distance
so that the carriage may be moved along its track. At
the same time, the lower knife is in its proper position
for shearing the small angles 13d shown in FIG. 1. For
cutting the larger angles 2%, the threaded rod 15%) is
31 contain a predetermined amount of ?uid and their
moved axially by means of worm drive 154 to a predeter
and move it to a convenient location on the ?oor.
tilt.» of the travel mechanism is readily released from
engagement with hole 112 when the carriage is lifted.
The next carriage 31 having the required knives at
tached thereto ready for operation is then raised by means
of the crane and placed on the track so that its hole 112
position is such that the top of the upper knife holder 15 mined extent, which may be done while the carriage 30
will clear ram 26. Motor 96 is now started in the reverse
is within or outside the frame it}. When the carriage is
direction to move carriage 31 into the shear frame and
in the frame, pressure is admitted to the cylinder and pis
is then stopped and the brake 99 is applied to bring the
ton unit 148 to move the far end of wedge 149 into en
arms 118 of carriage 31 into smooth engagement with
gagement with the adjacent end of rod 15-0 and lift slide
frame it}, whereupon the tapered keys 124 are inserted
130 a corresponding distance. The top of the slide will
in pins 122 to lock the carriage in position. Flexible
thereby engage the bottom of the lower knife holder 65
hose 56 is connected to carriage 31 and thereby both
and shift the latter to the desired level as shown in full
check valves 1%, 192 of the coupling will be automatically
lines in FIGS. 2 and 3. It may be mentioned here that
pushed to open positions so that the cylinders 41 will
the total vertical movement of slide 13%) is somewhat larger
communicate freely with the accumulator 58 and addi
than that of the lower knife holder as there is initial clear
tional ?uid under pressure will enter the chambers 46 to
ance between these parts. Slide 13$) and wedgel‘itl may
bring the upper knife holder 36 of carriage 31 into en
‘be withdrawn by admitting pressure to the return side of
gagement with ram 29. The cylinders 41 will communi
unit 143 whenever required. It will be clear that with
cate continuously with the accumulator while the ?exi
this arrangement small and large angles may be fed to
ble hose 56 remains connected to the carriage. The shear 30 the shear at the same level 2&2 and will be discharged
is now ready again for operation with the lower knife
at the same general level so that it is no longer necessary
holder 66 being in its rest position on shoulders 72,
‘to shift the feeding table and the depressible delivery
73 of carriage 31.
table upon a change in the angle size.
While operation of the shear is resumed after a mini
The removal of a carriage assembly from the shear
mum of down time and proceeds without interruption, a 35 and the replacement thereof by another completely as
knife change may be performed on the withdrawn car
sembled carriage can be achieved very rapidly. Oper
riage 30 in accordance with the requirements of the pro
ation of the machine is interrupted for a brief period of
duction program. After the upper and lower knives
time only since the upper knife holder 36 is not fastened
have been changed, they can be completely aligned with
to its actuator 20 and is disengageable therefrom simply
each other in the withdrawn carriage which is outside
by operating the cylinder and piston units 49. Rod 15%
the shear on the ?oor where the parts are easily accessible.
may be preset while the exchange of carriages takes place
For this purpose, the auxiliary hose 172 may be con
so that wedge 140 and slide 13% can be actuated to bring
nected to pipe 52 on carriage 3t) and the upper knife
the lower knife to the desired level as soon as the re
holder of this withdrawn carriage may then be recipro
spective carriage is locked to frame 10. On a large
cated with the aid of bleeder valve 177 and pump unit
shear built according to the invention and capable of
178 to perform idle movements, that is, to simulate the
exerting a shearing force of 700 tons, the changeover
shearing motion. This renders it possible to check ‘the
‘has been carried out within seven minutes. As compared
alignments of the parts outside the shear frame. Be
therewith, a complete change of upper and lower knives
fore the auxiliary hose 172 is disconnected from the
including alignment causes ?ve hours down time in one
withdrawn carriage, the cylinders 41 thereof are partly 50 conventional type of shear while eight hours ‘are required
but not entirely ?lled with ?uid by means of pump unit
in another type.
178 so that the upper knife holder 36 of this carriage
is in the proper position to clear ram 2%‘ when carriage
3t} is moved into the shear again upon withdrawal of
carriage 31.
The reason for the movable arrangement of the lower
knife holder 66 will be best understood from a compari
son of FIGS. 1 and 2. In FIG. 1, the lower knife holder
is in its rest position to shear the relatively small angles
180 which are advanced to the shear on a feeding table
and then received on a depressihle delivery table, the nor
mal level of the tables being indicated in chain lines at
It should be noted that as the upper knife holder is not
rigidly connected to the ram but is guided in the carriage,
no appreciable eccentric forces will be transmitted to the
ram which has a beneficial effect upon‘ the operation
of the shear drive. Further, the resilient pressure exerted
by the cylinders 41 will practically eliminate: play between
the reciprocating parts so that they will operate smoothly.
As will be understood, the embodiment described
herein does not illustrate all the ways in which the broad
invention may be employed. In case of a relatively sim
ple production program, for example, it may not be nec
essary to make the lower knife movable relative to car
2G2. In the case of larger angles 2% (see FIG. 2) the
riage 39 or 31. The basic advantages of the carriage
legs thereof extend further downwards. Therefore, in
conventional shears having the lower knife in a ?xed ver 65 will be obtained regardless of whether the lower knife
is rigidly or movably mounted thereon, though the latter
tical position, it is necessary to make the feeding and de
arrangement is superior where a large variety of different
livery tables vertically shiftable and lower the tables when
shapes is to be handled.
larger angles are handled, so that the inner contour of the
Other possible modi?cations relate to the hydraulic
angles will properly register with the top of the lower
knife. As the feeding and delivery tables are relatively
long and heavy and, moreover, the delivery table is de
pressible, shiftable supports for such tables are cumber
some and relatively expensive. The movable arrange
ment of the lower knife eliminates these drawbacks since
means. A bleeder or control valve may be provided
on the upper knife holder proper so that the latter may
be lowered readily without connecting the auxiliary hose
172 thereto.
Further, a single source of pressure and
suitable control valves may replace the two separate hy
draulic systems and bleeder valve shown in the drawings
as will be readily clear to those skilled in the art. Struc
tural details may likewise be changed in that, for example,
the pistons 44 ‘may operate in bores of the upper knife
holder proper'though the use of separate cylinders is
preferable, or the pistons may be attached to the upper
knife holder and the cylinders may then be supported
on‘ the carriage. Various other modi?cations and
changes may be made without departing from the scope
of the invention as de?ned in the appended claims.
Having described my invention, what I claim and de 10
sire to secure by Letters Patent is:
frame for reciprocation ‘along a substantially vertical
axis, operating means on said frame for reciprocating said
actuator, a substantially horizontal guide means inter
secting said axis, an assembly movable on said guide
means independently of said actuator between a cutting
station in said frame and a transfer 'ation remote
therefrom; said assembly including a carriage, an upper
knife holder mounted in said carriage for substantially
vertical movement, an upper knife secured to said holder,
biasing means supported on the carriage and operative
at the cutting station to urge said upper knife holder re
1. A vertical shear for cutting billets, beams and the
siliently towards said actuator for effective engagement
frame for reciprocating said actuator, substantially hori
zontal guide means intersecting said axis and extending
movement relative thereto, and abutment means on the
therewith, a lower knife for cooperation with said upper
like, comprising a source of fluid under pressure, a frame,
knife, a lower knife holder supporting said lower knife
an actuator mounted in said frame for reciprocation along
a substantially vertical aids, operating means on said 15 and mounted in said carriage for substantially vertical
from a cutting station in said frame to a transfer station
carriage for supporting said lower knife holder in a lower
rest position, said assembly being removable from said
guide means at the transfer station as a unit; and posi
remote therefrom, an assembly movable on said guide
tioning means mounted on said stationary frame and
means independently of said actuator between said cut 20
engageable with the lower knife holder for lifting said
ting and transfer stations; said assembly including a car
lower knife holder from its lower rest position and re
riage, an upper knife holder mounted in said carriage for
turning it thereto; whereby said assembly may be re
substantially vertical movement, an upper knife secured to
placed by another carriage assembly interchangeable
said holder, 21 lower knife arranged on said carriage for
therewith at the transfer station and said lower knife
cooperation with said upper knife, and cylinder and
holder with the lower knife thereon may be shifted to a
piston means supported on said carriage and connectible
selected level at the cutting station prior to a cutting
to said source, said cylinder and piston means being oper
able at the cutting station to urge said upper knife holder
5. A shear as speci?ed in claim 4, in which said posi
resiliently towards said actuator for engagement there
tioning means include a slide mounted in said frame for
with; and a valve for releasing a selected amount of fluid
from said cylinder ‘and piston means to disengage said
substantially vertical movement, and said carriage has a
upper knife holder from its actuator prior to withdrawal
lower knife holder, said slide being arranged to enter said
of the carriage from the cutting station; said assembly
downwardly open slideway therein accommodating the
slideway and to engage said lower knife holder when said
being removable from said guide means at the transfer
carriage is at the cutting station, power-operated, actuat
station as a unit whereby said assembly may be replaced
ing means being supported on said frame for causing said
by another carriage assembly interchangeable therewith.
slide to shift said lower knife holder at predetermined
2. A shear as speci?ed in claim 1, including conduit
means connecting said source to said cylinder and piston
means and establishing continuous communication there
between while said carriage is at the cutting station.
3. A shear as speci?ed in claim 1, including conduit
and valve means operable when said carriage is outside
said frame to introduce fluid under pressure into said
cylinder and piston means and then to withdraw ?uid
therefrom to perform idle movements of the upper knife
holder and knife.
4. A vertical shear for cutting billets, beams and the
like, comprising a frame, an actuator mounted in said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Morse _______________ __ June 23,
Nyman ______________ __ Feb. 22,
Altrater _______________ __ Dec. 8,
Wales _______________ __ Sept. 10,
Lindsay et al. _________ __ July 30, 1940
Wales _______________ __ Aug. 8, 1944
Taylor ______________ __ Aug. 28, 1956
Без категории
Размер файла
983 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа