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Патент USA US3077318

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Feb. 12, 1963
1'. A. ROZSA ETAL
3, 77,303
PROCESS or moments AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL maospm
amass! mm PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS ~ "
THROUGH ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
Filed March 14, 1956
'
6 She?ets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
7750/? A EOZ5A
"�505 G/Q?CZ?
/ ARA/N 5? H4420
WWW?!
4770/? E75
Feb- 12, 1963
3,077,308
1'. A. ROZSA ETAL
PROCESS OF maoucmc AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL ENDOSPERM
PARTICLES AND PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS
moucu ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
Filed March 14, 1956
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
I
INVENTORJ
7750/? ,4. �54
Feb- 12, 1963
'r. A. ROZSA ETAL
3,077,303
PROCESS OF REDUCING AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL ENDOSPERM
'
PARTICLES AND PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS
THROUGH ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
Filed March 14, 1956
H6./2
INVENTORS
7/50? 4. 1902.577
PEZfOE 6/??CZ/4
ARA/N 5. MP0
wi�/lwww WW
Feb. 12, 1963
"
?
'r. A. ROZSA ETAL
3,077,308
PROCESS OF? REDUCING AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL ENDOSPERM
PARTICLES AND PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS
THROUGH ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
IN VEV TOR)?
7/50,? A. �571
?�505 6,9462%?
14/?! ml 5. 144420
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Feb. 12, 1963
T. A. ROZSA ETAL
3,077,308
PROCESS or REDUCING AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL mospm
PARTICLES AND PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS
THROUGH ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
Filed March 14, 1956
Feb. 12, 1963
1: A, ROZSA ETAL
3,077,308
PROCESS OF REDUCING AND SURFACE TREATING CEREAL ENDDSPERN
PARTICLES AND PRODUCTION OF? NEW PRODUCTS
'
THROUGH ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
Filed March 14, 1956
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United States Patent 0 "ice
1
'
3,077,308
PROCESS OF REDUCING AND SURFACE TREAT
ING CEREAL ENDOSPERM PARTICLES AND
PRODUCTION OF NEW PRODUCTS THROUGH
ATTENDANT SEPARATIONS
Tibor A. Rozsa,>Minneapolis, Minn, Arlin B. Ward,
Spring?eld, Ill., and Rezsoe Gracza, Minneapolis,
31,077,308
Patented Feb. 12, 1963
2
.
whole starch granules encrusted with a surrounding
sheathing or surface layers of their own structure and/or
by that of adhering protein and other matter naturally
going with the protein.
Of all the cereal grains, the hard wheats, including
durum, are the most difficult to grind and reduce by pres
ent commercial milling processes. In such grinding, the
Minn., assignors to The Pillsbury Company, a corpo
hard
endosperm portions, through the shearing and press
ration 'of Delaware
ing action of roller mills, or by the splitting and impact
Filed Mar. 14, 1956, Ser. No. 571,477
10 action where ?ing-impact grinds are employed, disinte
6 Claims. (Cl. 241-41)
grate into a greater percentage of ?chunks? or endosperm
This invention relates to the reduction or comminution,
cell parts, as distinguished from the endosperm portions
and to the dry-surface dressing and treatment, of the
of softer grains. The particles now commercially milled,
endosperm fragments of cereal ?our stocks to change and
of hard wheat endosperm, are characterized by rather
enhance the properties thereof for commercial use. The 15 regularly de?ned edges (see FIG. 2) with the protein
endosperm fragments or particles are treated in accord
matrix covering the starch granules and extending to and
ance with our processes after the outer layers, hull, bran,
de?ning the actual edges of the particles as contrasted with
aleurone, and most of the germ have been removed from
commercially milled particles from soft wheat (see FIG.
the natural grain.
?
1) and other relatively soft grains where the starch gran
The instant application and the discoveries set forth 20 ules protrude characteristically from the protein matrix
herein, in several respects, have relation to the processes
and de?ne scalloped edges. In other words, the cohesion
and inventions disclosed in copending application, Serial
and/or other properties- relating to the strength or elas
Number 470,244 which was assigned to our assignee,
ticity of the hard wheat endosperm protein matrix em
Pillsbury Mills Co.
bedding its starch granules is higher than that of the soft
At the present time, break and reduction grinding of 25 wheat endosperm.
cereal grains are almost universally accomplished through
To the best of our knowledge, prior to our inventions
roller mills with, in some instances, ?ing-impact machines
and discoveries, it has not been possible to grind, reduce
being employed in one or more stages. Roller mills pro?
or surface-treat through dry methods, endosperm portions
duce disintegration of the stock fed therethrough mainly
and particles of cereal grains to produce any substantial
through application of crushing pressure and shearing 30 release or shelling-out of whole starch granules without
forces. Impact grinders split or fracture the whole grain
bursting, mangling or seriously damaging the same or, in
or grain particles by intense impact forces producing
fact, to produce any comminution of hard wheat particles
splits along lines of least resistance or natural cleavage.
which, even through subsequent sieve separation, will re
In both types of grinding, the particles of the ?our pro
sult in ?ours well suited for use in baking batter-type prod
duced differ tremendously in shape and size, ranging from 35 ucts such as cakes, cookies, angel food and griddle cakes.
about two microns to two hundred microns in greatest
It has heretofore, to our knowledge, been impossible in
length. There are also differences in the density of the
the grinding and reduction of either hard wheat or soft
various particles produced. While roller mills are ade
wheat endosperm fragments to release or shell-out any
quate to produce flour in the 50 to 150 micron particle
proportion of the myriads of smaller starch granules (less
size range, they are entirely inadequate to produce, through
than 22 microns in major diameter) without mangling or
close setting of the rolls, reground, very ?ne particle size
otherwise seriously damaging the same.
?ours having the speci?c surface area, the viscosity and
Today it is well known that the harder type cereal
hydration properties desired. Fine regrinding by com
grains, such as hard wheat, generally contain higher pro~
mercial roller mills produces excessive heat and neces
sarily results in the shattering and bursting or bodily dam
tein and are more desirable for dough-type ?ours, where
aging of the starch granules, and change of protein prop
erties, and also produces ?aky stock which will sift only
starch, are more readily grindable into a ?ne particle size,
and are much better adapted for commercial. use in ?ours
with di?iculty.
as soft cereal grains such as soft wheat contain more
and mixes for the production of baked products of the
Natural cereal grains such as soft and hard wheat,
barley, corn and rye are heterogeneous, containing many
layers of branny, cellulose and aleurone material which 5.0
surround the endosperm portions. The endosperm por
tions themselves are heterogeneous, containing in each
grain or berry thousands of endosperm cells, each of
which is made-up of an amorphous matrix of protein 55
hardness and protein content and grindability, in accord
ules disposed in closely spaced relation and varying sub
largely determined geographically by the sources of the
grain reasonably available to the particular mill. Thus,
material wherein are embedded many whole starch gran
batter type.
As a consequence, ?our millers have se
lected and obtained grain such as wheat from various
geographical locations which produce grain varying in
ance with a particular type of commercial ?our desired
(dough making or batter-type ?our). In fact, the types
of ?our produced in most commercial ?our mills are
stantially in major diameters from 2 to 50 microns. Most
of such starch granules, by weight, exceed 20 microns in
most mills located in areas where soft wheat is grown,
cells in which smaller or larger ellipsoid-like whole starch
granules are found embedded in a matrix of the carrier
protein material. Some of the particles produced are
cult.
It is an object of our invention to produce novel and
produce ?ours well adapted for the production of batter
major diameters, by microscopic examination.
60 type baked products, while mills located in the hard
Most of the endosperm particles produced and sepa
wheat belts produce largely high protein ?ours well
rated otf from the particles of the outer and branny
adapted for dough mixing and the production of bread.
layers of the cereal grain by presently used commercial
Crops vary from year to year in the same localities
milling processes, are themselves heterogenous, consist
as to hardness and protein content. Uniformity and con
ing in many ?chunks? or reduced portions of endosperm 65 trol of commercially produced ?ours is, therefore, diffi
relatively ?ne, consisting mainly of the disintegrated pure
protein matrix fragments and of protein matrix fragments 70
which enclose the smallest size starch granules of the
endosperm in question. Some of the particles constitute
commercially successful processes for grinding, reduc
tion, and dry-surface treatment of endosperm particles
of cereal grains which will make possible the production
of various types of ?our, to desired speci?cations, regard
less of the hardness or original protein content of the
8,077,308"
.
.
3
of particles of hard vwheat endosperm-which has been
wheat or cereal grain utilized, and regardless of ?crop
commercially produced through conventional roller mills;
variations from year to year in the areas from which
FIGURE 3 is a view similar, and under similar mag
ni?cation, to FIGURE 1 of, the same endosperm or ?our
the grain is purchased.
Another object is the improvement of the baking quali~
ties of ?ours used- for the production of batter-type prod
ucts.
'
"
'
'
'
'
?
,
stock after it. has been treated, dressed and reduced
through the employment ,of ournovel process; .-
c
_5
FIGURE 4 is, a viewj'similar to ?FIGURE 3,?*sh?ow1ng
A further object is the provision of dry-surface treat
the hard wheat flour stock illustrated in FIGURE -2 after
ing and ?ne? reduction processes wherein all cereal ?our
it had been treated, dressed'and reduced"'through?frthe
stocks, including the hard wheat stocks,'may be reduced
and treated'to release in whole, undamaged form, a very 10 employment
FIGURE 5ofisour
a view?
novel
similar
process;
to FIGURESB
I? ?
V
V an: {and
I
substantial proportion of the starch granules produced
on a similar scale of magni?cation showing the?gidentical
by roller mill or impact mill grinding, with attendant
?our stock (soft wheatlendospe?rm) of ?FIGURE 1, re
comminution of the protein matrix or mass in which
duced and reground to' ?ne particle size (generallybe
?such starch granules are naturally embedded in the grain.
Another important'object of the invention is the dry 15 tween 15 and 6.0 micron range) obtained through'un
usually close setting and provision for greater pressure?
surface treatment of cereal endosperm particles to en
and shearing action ?of the conventional rolls of a mill,?
hance the characteristics thereof for 'producing?lbetter bak
and showing typical starch fracture and damage;
ing results to the end that the speci?c surface areas ex
FIGURE 6 is-a view similar to FIGURES, showing?
posed in the resultant products is very substantially in
creased, and to the further and very important end that 20 the identical ?hard ?wheat flour stock ?of FIGURE ?2 re
duced and reground to substantially :?ne ?particle size (be
the substantial portion of released whole starch granules
are treated and dressed mechanically and/or thermally
tween 15 and 80 microns) through the use of close-set
in different degree by certain air handling. This air
conventional roller ?mills;
1
1
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'
"
'
~
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary, cross-sectional view?illus-T'
handling, consisting of mechanical rubbing action, heat-v
ing and drying in travel, loosens and strips and/or re 25 trating diagrammatically opposing, particle-contacting
wall surfaces of inner and outer members of a mill or
moves certain surrounding layer and/or sheath material ?
treating apparatus which is adapted for carrying out the
method steps of our invention and also diagrammatically
from the outer surface of the starch granules in such a
way as to materially increase water imbibition.
Another important object ,is the provision of a novel
and commercially successful process which makes possi-' 30
ble the production of various types? of flour to desired
speci?cations with wide spread in protein and? starch con
tent offractions produced from various ?our stocks
through the close combinative relation of newly ?discov
ered effect and novel grinding and reduction with sub 35
sequent air separation at selected critical cuts. In this
connection, the peculiar type of reduction or grinding
and its effect upon the very heterogeneous endosperm
particles makes possible fractionation of flour obtained
illustrating turbulence paths of the ?uid medium and a
variety of curved paths and passes in the ?travel of en
dosperm particles which are reduced, treated and dressed
through the ?employment of'our novel method;
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary, cross-sectional view of
another type of mill or apparatus, also well adapted for
carrying out the method steps of our novel invention and
employment of a rotor 'having a multiplicity of more-or
less radial walls, partitions or blades (only one pair there'-v
of being illustrated) together with a generally cylindrical,
stationary housing and providing together opposing, pary
therefrom by e?icient air separation to ends and pur 40. ticle-contacting wall'portions, said ?gure'also diagram
matically illustrating turbulence-paths of the medium and
poses never before attained.
a variety of curved paths and passes as well as (in heavy
Another object is the provision and processes of the
class described to prevent smearing of the fats from germ
and other lipid'containing matter upon the flour particle
surface.
A still further object is, the provision of novel reduc 45
tion and dry-surface treatment processes for cereal ?our
stocks which produces particles having quite different
physical characteristics from those produced by present
~
invention;
?
'
_
FIGURE ?9'is a cross-section of a third type of appara
tus which is capable, under proper conditions, velocities
and other adjustments, of carrying out our process, and
wherein he rotary or movable? parts in the mill proper are
employed, but, through a plurality of high-pressure jet in
jections of ?uid, a multiplicity and variety of generally
commercial milling methods and which new physical
characteristics make such particles susceptible to frac
tionation through critical cut air separation to obtain
fractions heretofore unknown.
broken lines?) one substantially complete circuitous? path
in the travel of endosperm particles processed by ?our
circuitous ?uid paths are set up or generated, affecting the
particles treated and resulting in a wide variety of turbu
lence-paths which include curved passes resulting in the
>
Another object is the provision, in close combinative
of endosperm particles substantially freed' of
relation, of novel reduction and dry-surface dressing proc 55 production
the branny, germ and other, portions of the natural cereal
esses through which various fractions having remarka
berries or seeds;
?FIGURE 10 is a view drawn from microphotographs
like FIGURES l to 6, inclusive, and, at the same mag
ble new physical and chemical characteristics may be
obtained, with spread of protein, concentration of pro
tein and undamaged starch, removal of lipids and en
hancement of moisture imbibition qualities.
Another object is the production of cereal ?ours and
fractions thereof having novel physical and chemical
ni?cation, illustrating the extent of gelatinization and
hydration of the same soft wheat ?our stock shown in
FIGURE 1 after the same has been subjected for a period
of twenty-eight minutes to a surplus of water at a tem
characteristics and having improved baking qualities, par
ticularly in the production of batter-type baked products.
These and other objects and advantages of our inven
tion will more fully appear from the following descrip
tron, made in connection with the accompanying draw
perature of approximately 75 degrees F.;
FIGURE 11 is a view similar to FIGURE 10, showing
65 the identical hard wheat? ?our stock illustrated in FIG
mgs, wherein like reference characters refer to similar
parts throughout the several views and in which:
URE 2 after it has been subjected to a surplus of water at
a temperature of approximately 75 degrees F., for a
period of three minutes;
FIGURE 12 is a similar view showing the identical re
FIGURE 1 is a plan view on a highly magni?ed (ap
and treated soft wheat, endosperm particle stock
proximately 270 times) scale showing typical particles of 70 duced
after processing by our invention and as illustrated in FIG
endosperm from roller milled soft wheat having been
drawn from microphotographs of actual roller milled ?our
stocks;
FIGURE 2 is a similar view showing typical fragments 75
URE 3, after the same have been subjected to an excess
of water for a period of six minutes at a temperature of
approximately 75 degrees F.;vv
FIGURE 13 is a view similar to FIGURE 12, show?
3,077,303
.
6
5.
ing the endosperrnlparticle stock of hard wheat as illus
trated in FIGURE 4 (having been processed and treated
through the steps of our invention) and after it has been
rubbing of said spinning particles along and against said,
hard wall surfaces and with very frequent, multiple-oblique
impacts of said particles against said wall surfaces while
spinning. Our novel endosperm reduction or grinding,
subjected to a surplus of water for a period of three and
one-half minutes at a temperature of approximately 75
for brevity, will hereafter be referred to as ?turbo"
degrees F.;
grinding.
,
'
FIGURE 14 is a diagrammatical ?ow sheet showing a
The application of our discoveries, particularly those
seven sub-sieve size fractionation of a commercially
which combine our novel reduction and surface-treatment
roller-milled straight Montana wheat wherein the com
steps with critical air separation, has been facilitated and
mercial ?our has been subjected to six stages of critical 10 made standard after our development of a novel method
air separation in accordance with the processes and in
of unit measurement for the ?uid dynamic characteristics
vention disclosed in our copending application, Serial
of the various particles of cereal ?ours expressed in ?F-D?
I No. 470,244, for the purpose of obtaining maximum pro
units. A full description of this method of unit measure
tein spread;
rnent is fully set forth in our copending application,
FIGURE 15 is a ?ow sheet wherein an aliquot parent 15 Serial Number 470,244, entitled ?Cereal Flour Fractiona
?our stock as is employed in the processing illustrated in
tion Processes and Products Derived Therefrom.?
FIGURE 14 is ?rst rather intensively ground inaccord
'It is to be understood that the discoveries and inven
ance with the invention referred to as ?turbo-grinding?
tions set forth in the instant patent application relate to
of this application, and thereafter subjected to six stages
processes employed upon, and the new products obtained
of critical air separation to obtain optimum protein shift? 20 from, endosperm particles (including the so-called
ing through the combination of the steps;
?chunks") of the many various sizes which have been
FIGURES 16a and 16b present diagrammatical illus
previously separated out from the branny material,
trations of the protein distribution in the seven sub-sieve
aleurone portions and outer layer portions of whole cereal
size fractions produced by the steps of reduction and six
grains, as well as from the germ.
air classi?cations; as diagrammed in FIGURES 14 and? 25 In our novel process, endosperm particles are reduced
' 15, respectively;
for the most part to extreme ?neness. The terminology
?sub-sieve? size is used herein to denote a size of particles
which readily will pass through the ?ne commercially
known test sieve such as the test sieve manufactured by
FIGURE 17 is a diagram or ?ow sheet showing a com
mercial application of our process including the novel
reduction and air classi?cation steps in combination, as
described in Example 11, made a part of this speci?cation; 30 W. S. Tyler Company having 325 meshes to the linear inch
FIGURE 18 is a graph illustrating alkaline water
(105,625 meshes to the square inch) and/or expressed
retention capacity in the function of temperature of the
in ?ow-dynamic units (F-D units) as de?ned in our co
flours referred to in Example 7b and which were proc~
pending application, Serial Number 470,244, as approxi
essed in accordance with the step diagrammatically illus
mately 71 F-D.
trated in ?ow sheet, FIGURE 15;
'
35
In FIG. 7, we diagrammatically illustrate one type of
FIGURE 19 is a graph on semi-logarithmic paper
showing percentage increase in alkaline water-retention
capacity per unit temperature in the function of the tem?
perature, thus showing rate of hydration at different
apparatus by which our novel turbo-grinding: and particle
starch damage and fracturing of starch granules through
FIG. 7, where angulated, curved and opposing wall sur
faces are produced to form, in general, an enlarged, multi
facet chamber of oval or cylindrical shape in cross-section
at most points transverse to the axis thereof.
treating process may be successfully carried out in com
mercial use to attain the ends of our invention within the
' desired critical speci?ed ranges hereinafter de?ned. In its
40 simplest form, this apparatus may comprise a stationary
temperature levels;
reduction chamber formed from two shell members X and
FIGURE 20 is a view illustrating, in frontielevation
and side elevation and in greatly magni?ed scale, typical
Y, and having a cross-sectional shape, as illustrated in
the conventional employment of roller mills in disinte
gration of endosperm particles; and
FIGURE 21 is a view including front elevations and
Endosperm particles previously substantially freed from
side elevations of two typical starch granules which have
been surface-dressed by employment of our novel proc
bran, germ and the other enveloping layers of the grain
ess, the upper granule g being where intensive turbo
berries, outside of the endosperm, are fed into the en
grinding has been carried out and the lower granule f 50 trance E, being suspended by air or other gaseous medium
illustrating typical surface treatment where ordinary turbo
which is introduced at various points in said entrance in
grinding has been carried out.
the direction of the large arrows A at high velocity. The
We have discovered that the very heterogeneous
entering particles and air, because of the multi-facets,
?chunks" and particles of cereal endosperm (substantially
pockets and wall portions-formed on the opposing, cir
free of hull or bran substances and aleurone and varying
cumferential portions of the reduction chamber, pass
very substantially in size and shape) may be subjected
through a great multiplicity of very high speed turbulent
to certain novel, ?uid-actuated, surface-dressing, rubbing
and multiple-oblique-impact steps ,and treatment to suc
circulations, a number of which are indicated by the
cessively rub down, peel otf, knock out and reduce protein
portions of the endosperm with simultaneous shelling-out
curved lines, such velocitiesofair and particles in said
turbulence-paths reaching maximums preferably in excess
60 of 20,000 feet per minute, resulting in the very rapid
and release of the ellipsoid starch granules (even the
smallest, below 22 microns in major diameters) .in whole
and substantially undamaged state. In such processing
rubbing of said spinning particles obliquely and along
numerous of the hard wall surfaces and a great multi
and treatment, the starch granules, even the smallest
plicity of oblique impacts of the particles against wall
spinning of the particles on their own respective axes, the
sizes, are surface-dressed and affected by air and heat to 05 surfaces with, of course, a large amount of attendant at
change the hydration properties thereof for the produc
tion of better baking results.
trition of spinning?particles against spinning particles.
The reduced material in the ?ow_ of the gaseous medium
Our discoveries, including the ?nding and speci?cation
outwardly through the outlet 0 has been treated by said
of critical range, air separation steps include and com
multiplicity of rubbing and spinning contacts with the
prise the suspension or partial suspension of said endo 70 walls and by the great multiplicity of oblique impacts to
sperm materials in a ?uid medium constantly moved
cause corners of the heterogeneous endosperm particles
through circuitous general paths of travel at very high
to be rubbed off and to cause a very substantial propor
velocities, with the attendant and cooperating provision of
tion (even in hard wheat) of the individual starch
related hard wall surfaces and with the imparting to said
granules to be shelled out of the previously adhering or
particles in travel of high velocity spinning with resultant 75 enveloping protein matrix while that' protein material
8,077,808
has been successively reduced in said reduction chamber
drawing), the discharge area being indicated in dotted
to a relatively very ?ne state.
lines as D.
While the ?rst conception of the apparatus of diagram
7 described is a simple, single reduction chamber, the
same principle with addition of centrifugal force and
generally vortex flow of the actuating and particle-sus
pending fluid such as high pressure air jets 24, communi
Various means may be utilized to set up 'a high speed,
segment and member X is a circumferentially arranged
stator with a plurality of pockets having multi-facet walls
cating at an acute angle with the interior of the annular
?ow chamber 20 at a plurality of circumferentially spaced
points. The effect is to create very high velocity, general
vortex ?ow while simultaneously producing, at the areas
Coriolis forces may be obtained if member Y is a rotor,
the portions shown in the drawing representing only one
related to the corresponding number of pockets in the 10 of the high pressure, entering ?uid, high speed turbulent
currents which produce high velocity spinning of the
rotor Y, said rotor being rapidly driven and revolved upon
endosperm particles within the mill in multi-directional;
an axis concentric with the curved line A-A of the outer
but nevertheless generally circuitous, paths to thereby
part X. ?
produce frictional, multi-oblique impact and rubbing of?
In FIG. 8, aportion of a satisfactory reduction or
grinding mill employing our turbo-grinding discoveries, is 15 the particles against the hard abrasive surface of the
illustrated with only a segment of the rotor and stator
annular ?ow passages.
being shown. The mill comprises a plurality of surface
conditioning and reduction chambers C constituted 'or
Our discoveries have proven that, regardless? of the
speci?c apparatus utilized, certain combinations of steps
de?ned by a multi-bladed rotor R revolving on an? axis A
and common characteristics are essential for producing
and having the blades B radially arranged, said chambers 20 our desired results on the very heterogenous and widely
variant endosperm particles. These may be summarized
being further de?ned by a generally cylindrical rotor hous
as follows:
ing H, the interior wall of said housing, as well as said
(1) The endosperm particles must be suspended, or at
blades B, being preferably constructed from hard and/ or
least partially suspended, and moved in a ?uid medium
abrasive material to furnish abrasion and impact. Any
suitable ?uid medium such as air is introduced and rapid 25 (preferably a gaseous medium such as air). _
(2) The endosperm particles must be actuated and
ly circulated through the mill or system, generally in an
carried by the ?uid medium at high velocity and caused
axial direction from end to end, and through the in?uence
to rapidly move through a variety of generally circuitous
of said rotor, producing a general exterior vortex (relative
paths which include a multiplicity of high velocity turbu
to the rotor) in an orderly or systematic ?ow pattern.
Endosperm particles such as commercial ?our stocks or 30 lence travels and a number of curved passes or travels
located along contact or reducing surfaces. The velocity?
middlings previously substantially freed from branny
portions, germ, aleurone and the other layers encircling
range in the faster travels of said particles is preferably
the endosperm cells of the grain is fed peripherally of the
rotor into housing H at one or more locations adjacent the
above 20,000 feet per minute.
substantially suspended by the very rapidly circulating air,
on their own independent axes.
(3) Throughout the variety of travel paths of the
air intakevof said housing. The endosperm particles are 35 particles, rapid individual spinning thereof is imparted
?
(4) Along the multiplicity of curved line passes or
travels of the endosperm particles, a great multiplicity
of impacts of particles against contact'or reducing sur
rects the travel of the various and very widely variable
40 faces at oblique angles and in combination with spinning
endosperm particles.
_
of the particles together with attrition, occur, thereby
The general directional travel of most of the endosperm
rubbing off surfaces and-corners, peeling and jarring off
particles within any one of the chambers C is along
the less cohesive parts of the particles and unexpectedly
variable circuitous paths, of which the path indicated by
shelling-out and releasing free starch granules of all sizes,
the heavy dotted lines a, b, c, d, e, f and a? is exemplary.
The ?ne lines and arrows on FIG. 8 indicate a large 45 including the ?ner starch granules of less than 20 microns
in major diameter. These same functions or steps simul
number of variable passes, mostly curved passes, through
taneously ?nely comminute the less cohesive protein
which the particles travel in their circuitous general travel
matrix portions.
about and within the various chambers C of this ap
In the selection and use of apparatus for carrying out
paratus. The velocities of the particles in the turbulent
circulation and in the circuitous paths is preferably main 60 the reduction and dressing steps of our process, an ap
paratus which is provided with a plurality of chamber
tained above 20,000 feet per minute as essential to pro
forming walls to produce, in operation, a multiplicity of
duce the desired, spinning, abrasive, attritional and shell
interwall general vortices is preferred, such as, for exam
ing-out and granule-treatment results desired.
ple, the apparatus, a portion of which is illustrated in
The circuitous paths a, b, c, d, e, f and a? are typical of
a substantial number of the millions of individual particles 55 FIG. 8. It is desirable that, in apparatus of the general
type of FIGS. 8 and 9, the endosperm particles to be
treated and while, sometimes, an individual particle is
disintegrated and treated be fed into the machine periph
subjected to more than one of said circuitous paths in
and the air in the various vortices, turbulent currents and
circuitous paths and passes, of course, in?uences and di
erally of the rotor in machines such as shown in FIG. 8,
an individual reduction'chamber C, more often, in the
and tangentially to the interior of the housing ?of FIG. 9,
rapid revolution of the rotor, the same particle upon com
pletion of one of said paths goes through a somewhat 60 as contrasted with axial feeding.
analogous circuitous path in the adjacent chamber which
IMPORTANT UNEXPECTED RESULTS
has moved into receiving position from the point a? on
It
is
to be understood that our inventions and dis
the inner peripheral wall of the stator.
coveries consist in the employment of our peculiar type
In FIG. 9, another type of reduction or grinding ap
paratus is shown which, with proper adjustment and 65 of grinding, reduction and surface treatment or dressing
with and without the combinative steps of critical air
velocity of ?uid ?ow and without relative rotation of
separation upon cereal endosperm particles or fragments
parts, is capable of carrying out the novel reduction steps
previously substantially freed from the other substances
of our process. Here a generally circular jet-apparatus is
or layers of the kernels or grains such as hull portions,
shown having an intermediate, enlarged, generally cylin
drical particle-contact wall 20 into which endosperm 70 branny layers, aleurone layers and a large part of the
particles are fed in _ a somewhat tangential direction
cereal germ. As applied to such endosperm fragments
or particles, a number of very valuable and wholly un
through an elliptical opening in the top portion thereof,
expected results have been discovered and obtained,
diagrammatically illustrated by the dotted line 0. The
among which the following are outstanding:
discharge of this mill is axial, preferably through the top
thereof (the top being removed in the single view of the 76 (1) A very substantial proportion of all of the starch
3,077,308
'10
granules, including the smaller granules having major
will be noticed that some small proportion of the rela
diameters below 22 microns and even down, in instances,
to below 10 microns, are released and shelled~out in sub
released or almost released from adhering portions.
stantially whole and undamaged state and simultaneously
modi?ed mechanically to produce better or improved bak
ing qualities.
'
(2) The foregoing results are accompanied with a very
tively large starch granules (of ellipsoid shape) have been
However, most of the smaller starch granules are still
agglomerated or embedded in matrix protein portions.
In FIG. 2, conventional roller milled hard wheat ?our
is shown with substantially none of the whole starch
?ne ?sub-sieve? particle size disintegration of the protein
granules being totally released. This is typical of all
constituents and matrix, making available, through sub
presently milled commercial hard wheat flours.
sequent criticalv air separation steps, protein spreads and 10 In FIG. 3, the identical soft wheat ?our stock of FIG.
concentrated starch and protein fractionation never here
tofore attained.
(3) A tremendous increase in the free-uncoated aggre
1 is illustrated after treatment and reduction through the
employment of our'novel process steps to produce par
ticle size and distribution having a 9.8 Fisher value.
gate surface of starch granules (indexed by speci?c sur
Here, the substantial release of whole, undamaged starch
face) is produced through the previously mentioned shell 15 granules in discrete form is well illustrated (particles of
ing-out of starch granules of all sizes and, further, by
generally ellipsoid shape). These whole starch granules,
mechanical dressing and surface treatment of the starch
granules in our noivel steps of grinding and reduction.
readily distinguishable in FIG. 3, range in size from below
10 microns in major diameters to granules above 40
(4) Substantial elimination of the pressure-smearing
microns in major diameter. The smaller, irregularly
of freefats and lipids from particles of germ or from 20 shaped particles illustrated in FIG. 3 are, for the most
other lipids contained morphologically in those substances
part, free protein particles and, in some ?instances, con
(including protein) which surround the starch granules
stitute agglomerates of protein and smallest starch
granules.
proper.
In FIG. 4, the identical ?our stock of FIG. 2 (hard
Re: Point 1 (substantially all starch granules, including
25 wheat) is shown after it had been processed and reduced
the smallest-?shelled-out)
Exhaustive microscopic examination of the very ?ne
through?the novel steps of our invention to a Fisher
value of 10.25. Here again the ovoid and ellipsoid par
endosperm particles produced through our novel reduc~
ticles illustrated are starch granules in substantially whole
tion and grinding steps, shows that, even in the case of
and, in many instances, discrete form ranging in size from
the harder cereal grains, such as hard wheat, a very sub 30 below 10 microns in major diameter to 45 microns (in
stantial proportion of all starch granules including the
the case of the very largest). The contrast between par~
smallest, in many instances below 10 microns in major
ticle size, presence of free starch granules and release and
diameter, are released in substantially whole, undamaged
reduction of the protein matrix matter in the particles
state without cleavage, shearing or bursting thereof. Such
illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 4 is truly signi?cant.
release or freeing of discrete, undamaged starch granules, 35 Furthermore, it will be noted from the illustrations
to our knowledge, was unknown before our discovery.
Conventional roller mill grinding or ?ing-type impac
(FIGS. 1, 3 and 4) that, unexpectedly, hard wheat, when
processed through our invention, is reduced and physi
tion upon the softer cereal grains such as soft wheat has,
cally changed to resemble in particle distribution presence
in the past, resulted in release of some small proportion
of discrete protein particles and discrete whole starch
of the larger starch granules, usually above 30 microns 40 granules to be generally quite similar to those character
in major diameter. Attempts to intensify roller mill
istics typical in soft wheat. This unexpected result makes
grinding to obtain ?ner particle size by very closely spac
possible, with efficient subsequent fractionation such as
ing the rolls and attempts to similarly decrease particle
by critical cut air separation, fractions from hard wheat
size in ?ing-type impaction through higher peripheral
speeds and increase in the number of passes or. operation,
which are well suited for cake ?ours or mixes and for
?ours for preparation of other batter products.
has caused serious mangling, cutting, cleaving and burst 45
In FIGS. 5 and 6 are illustrated typical particles ob
ing of substantially all such granules where an ultimate
tained from the identical roller milled ?our stock of
particle size was obtained below a 16 Fisher value on
hard wheat and below a 12 Fisher value on soft wheat.
With our process, the reduction may be carried out to
FIGS. 1 and 2 where a reduction to ?ner particle size
has been accomplished through intensive roller mill re
peated regrinding steps where the rolls have been set
produce ?ne particle size, for example, down to approxi 50 closer together in an endeavor to aproximate particle
mately 8 Fisher value on hard wheat and a 7 Fisher value
distribution and ?ne particle size of the products of our
on soft wheat without mangling,?bursting, cleaving or
invention illustrated in FIGS. Sand 4. In. FIG. 5, the
otherwise mechanically damaging the starch granules of
identical soft wheat ?our stock of FIG. 1 was intensively
all sizes.
55 and repeatedly reground by close-set roller mills obtaining
The disintegration in our novel grinding steps is not
a particle distribution and size of 7.9 Fisher value. In
believed due to any absolute pressure differences between
the inside of the endosperm particles or the outside pres
sures, nor has such disintegration to do with high intensity
FIG. 6, particles of hard wheat similarly reduced through
intensive close-set roller mill regrinding are illustrated,
having a Fisher value of 7.4.
.
Contrasting the illustrations of FIGS. 5 and 6 with
Such unexpected results make available ?ours for the 60 FIGS. 3 and 4, it will be noted that, in the particles of
production of batter-like products such as layer cake and
FIGS. 5 and 6, comparatively few of the smaller starch
angle food cake which have improved baking qualities
granules are released and that, in most instances, the
since the ?ner particle size and whole, undamaged starch
starch granules which are released have been fractured,
granules (leaving out the advantages from the unexpected
?bust
or segments cleaved therefrom, all in contrast to the
results in point 3, supra) provides much greater exposed
typical
release in whole, vundamaged state of starch
or speci?c surfaces which inherently improve the hydra
sonic vibrations.
tion characteristics of the particles during making of the
granules of all sizes, including the smallest, through the
employment of our novel process.
Further illustrations of the substantial damage to starch
In FIGS. 1 to 6 of the drawings, views made from
microscopic* pictures and microscopic studies of hard 70 granules which occurs in roller mill grinding or ?ing
batter and during baking.
..
and soft wheat, the foregoing unexpected results, as
enumerated in point 1, are well illustrated. In FIG. 1,
soft wheat conventionally roller milled is shown, and it
?Magni?cation 260 times.
impact grinding when such grindings are intensi?ed to
produce a ?ne particle size, even remotely comparable
by Fisher values to our improved ?turbo? grinding and
reduction steps, may be observed from consideration of
75 FIG. 20. FIG. 20 illustrates in greatly magni?ed scale,
8,077,808
11
typical and generally characteristic damage and fractur
12
in FIG. '4 (hard wheat), a more intensive reduction
32 microns in major diameters when regrinding by closely
set rolls of roller milling is employed. The drawings
through our novel process steps was utilized, resulting in
a Fisher value of 10.25, reduced from 20.4 Fisher, for the
relatively large sample obtained. In both cases, the re
were made after intensive microscopic study had been
completed on the part of the applicant Gracza with
Gracza's sketches of many starch granules observed
size.
ing of starch granules within a size range between 16 and
leased, whole starch granules of the largest size and most
all of the remaining agglomerates were of the sub-sieve
In FIGS. 3 and 4, a number of the? protein matter
particles of irregular shape are indicated by the letter p,
ber of which were disposed substantially normal to the 10 many of them being in discrete form and some still ad
hering to a starch granule or granules. These very small
line of vision. From the many sketches, ?ve typical
particles, as was disclosed in pending application, Serial
particles identi?ed by the letters a, b, c, d and e, arere�
No. 470,244, may be withdrawn by critical air separa
produced here, the left hand column of views being plan
tion with, of course, the smallest whole starch granules
views, or where the particle is disposed substantially
normal to the line of vision (position of maximum sta 15 to obtain, in the combination of our reduction and dress
ing steps and subsequent critical air separation steps, pro
bility), and the right hand column illustrating the same
tein spreads and concentrated starch and protein frac
particles, a to e inclusive, taken in side elevation or
tions never heretofore obtained. In this connection,
turned 90 degrees from their position shown in the left
during subsequent low critical air separation, a small
hand column. Starch granule a, it will be noted, is
cleaved almost diametrically on its major axis. ' Starch 20 amount of the agglomerates will be broken down, freeing
additional protein particles from starch granules. We
granule b is split or cut on a plane substantially normal
have found, as will be shown in several of the samples
to the major axis. Starch granule c has had a sector
hereinafter given (Examples 7a and 7b) that, heretofore,
cut or cleaved therefrom which is very typical. Starch
unknown protein spread is possible without regard to the
granule d has been centrally fractured with a more-or-less
circular peripheral portion removed therefrom. This was 25 protein content of the natural grain employed, and that
fractions of higher starch and protein content respectively
very typical of many particles of hard wheat carefully
are attainable with our process including the reduction,
inspected under the microscope. Starch granule e has
dressing and subsequent air separation steps. (See
had a generally segmental portion removed therefrom,
FIGS. 16a and 16b.)
extending through half of its thickness and in an irregu
larity at its central portion. It will be understood that 30 Re: Point 3 (surface dressing and treatment of starch
any combination pf the (a -to e type) damage vmay be
granules)
' through the microscope, a number of which granules
were disposed edgewise to the line of sight, and a num
present.
'
In FIG. 21, two starch granules, f and g, are illustrated
in plan and side elevation, which were picked from many,
many particles carefully inspected by the applicant,
Gracza, by viewing and projecting with great magni?ca
Through the employment of our novel grinding reduc
tion and surface treatment or dressing upon cereal endo
35 sperm particles or fragments of both hard and soft wheat
characteristics, truly unexpected and substantial increase
- in the free, uncoated aggregate surface (as indexed by
tion by microscopes. The granule f is typical of a great
speci?c surface) of starch granules is produced. In
many whole, discrete starch granules shelled-out, released
and dressed by employment of our improved process. 40 FIGS. 1 to 3, the comparison between the relative num
ber of whole starch granules found in commercially
The light, more-or-less concentric lines indicating, as
milled (roller- ground) soft wheat and in the particles
shown in the microscope, some slight separation or de
produced through our novel process is well illustrated.
formation, we believe of layers or strata of different
A much larger percentage of the starch granules above 22
molecular structure within the starch granule itself. Such
microns in major diameters is obtained through our novel
characteristics are typical of the starch granules, large
and small, released and dressed through our novel proc 45 grinding and reduction but, moreover, the proportion of
small starch granules under 22 microns in major diam
ess where the ?turbo" grinding is not intensi?ed.
eters and down to diameters as low as 10 microns, is very
Starch granule g of FIG. 2, in an abstract way, typi?es
released, whole starch granules obtained through the
substantial through the use of our process, as illustrated
and the advantages thereof to improve baking qualities,
tion or by intensifying or repeating ?ing-impact grinding,
the starch granules resulting therefrom, as characteristi
in FIG. 3. The comparison is more pronounced in
employment of our novel process where the reduction
steps are intensi?ed to produce particle distribution and 50 favor of our products obtained through so-called ?turbo?
grinding, as seen in FIGS. 2 and 4 (hard wheat). In
size as low as a 7 Fisher value.- Here it will be noted, in
all instances, the aggregate or total of all uncoated or free
addition to the typical light concentric lines observable
starch granule surf-aces was tremendously increased as
on starch granules such as f, very light cracks or short
compared with any now used commercial methods of
?ssures radially extending at the very peripheral edges of
grinding or reduction of cereal endosperm particles.
the granules are present. The factors and functions of
If, to ?attain a ?ner particle size or Fisher value, an
our process responsible for the dressing and physical
attempt is made to regrind intensively by roller mill ac
changes of the starch granules, as illustrated in FIG. 21
will be fully brought out in accordance with our knowl
edge and beliefs, hereafter.
Re: ?Point 2 (subsieve particle size disintegration of pro
tein constituents)
60 cally shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, are badly damaged, a still
comparatively small proportion of free starch granules
is obtained as compared with the results of our novel
process. In fact, even with such intensi?ed grinding by
roller mill or ?ing-impact, which is commercially im
In employing our grinding, reduction and particle 65 practical, very few of the smaller starch granules below
dressing steps, the endosperm, fragments, chunks and
25 microns in major diameters are released. Further
particles previously substantially freed from the other
moreyas well illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, most of the
portions of the cereal kernels or grains, are reduced to
starch granules which are released,? of "the larger sizes,
?sub-sieve? size even in the case of hard grains such as
still have protein portions or other matter adhering.
durum (of a size which will easily pass through com 70 They are not uncoated.
mercial test sieves having 325 meshes to the linear inch).
With our process steps of reduction and dressing, the
In the case of the particles illustrated in FIG. 3 (soft
protein matter and other matter closely adhering to the
wheat), the Fisher value of the large sample obtained by
starch granules proper, is loosened and/or peeled and/or
relatively moderate ?turbo" grinding was 9.8 (reduced
removed. With it, other matter such as the lipids are
from 11.0 Fisher). In the case of the particles illustrated 75 also removed. A very large proportion of the discrete
3,077,308
13
starch granules obtained through our process are whole
and substantially undamaged and are substantially un
coated.
I
These surface treated or dressed starch granules are
more susceptible to imbibition of water within certain
temperature range than starch granules found in any of
the commercially milled endosperm products produced
14
treating of the individual starch granule surfaces occurs,
to the end that immediately adhering protein matrix and
the other substances including lipids which are PfeSFnt
with protein in the said coating or surrounding material,
is loosened and/or peeled and/or removed and the starch
granule-surfaces aerated, controllably heated and OXI
dized. Since the starch granules are relatively elastic the
commercially at this time by means of dry method.
mechanical travels and treatments subject them to an
The ?starch concentrated fractions obtained throughour
elastic deformation, cooperating with the, other phenom
novel process steps have been found to have materially 10 ena to we believe, produce molecular structural changes
altered baking qualities as evidenced by the extensive
especially affecting the inner strata of the granules in
tests and proofs we have made, some of which hereafter
which the less resistant, complex, crystalline starch ma
will be set forth in the examples appended. The altered
terial is by nature deposited.
baking qualities of said fractions are particularly favor
To visually, through microscopic examination, com~
able for production of baked products from certain of
pare hydration properties of the original parent ?our
the batter-dough.
stocks with the products of our improved process in con
We believe and there are proofs which show that the
nection with the grinding, reduction and surface-treating
novel surface treatment and dressing of starch granules
steps, FIGS. 10 to 13 of the drawings are included in
through employment of our improved process and which
this application.
'
is responsible for the changed and improved baking 20 FIG. 10 illustrates with intensive microscopic enlarge
qualities and hydration properties referred to, is due to
ment, at 260 times, the appearance of many particles of
several factors working together, to Wit, (a) the me
the identical soft wheat ?our stock illustrated in FIG. 1
chanical abrasion, rubbing, spinning, attrition and oblique
after having been subjected to a surplus of water for a
impact of the particles in their circuitous movements and
period of 28 minutes at a temperature of 75 degrees F.
in their many turbulence paths through general circuitous 25 It will be noted by comparative study of FIG. 1, show
paths between walls of the apparatus; (b) the very sub
ing the same soft wheat ?our stock before being subjected
stantial aeration and treatment of the particles by rela
to moisture, that the starch granules of FIG. 10 have en
tively dry, gaseous medium (preferably air) during their
larged only slightly if any, have not produced ?ssures or
great multiplicity of travels and paths, causing fast dry
show the appearance of moisture-absorption to any sub
ing of the exterior surface of the granules; (c) the factor 30 stantial degree. ,
of heat at controlled, elevated temperatures produced
FIG. 11 shows the same hard wheat ?our stock as is
through the rapid and manifold travels of air current and
illustrated in FIG. 2 of the drawing, after it has been
particles. Within the scope of our invention, such con
trolled temperatures may be still further elevated or sup
plemented by introduction of heat from outside source, 35
including exothermic source.
subjected to a surplus of water at a temperature of 75
degrees for a period of three minutes or slightly in ex
cess thereof. It will be noticed by comparison of the
1
particles illustrated in FIG. 11 with the particles shown
in FIG. 2 of the drawings, that only a very slight change
Note: Both of the last mentioned treatments (b) and
has
occurred in the size and expansion of the said starchy
(c) (aeration 'and heat under control) produce fast ac
tion drying of the surfaces of the starch granules and 40 particles. The hard Wheat starch granules in FIG. 11
have not to any substantial extent produced ?ssures,
also oxidation of chemical compounds of the particles.
burst or enlarged in size as compared with the dry starch
It is also believed that the heat has effect upon the lipids
granules
of FIG. 2, showing that in the three minute pe
in the protein and starch particles.
riod for water imbibition only a very slight imbibition
Depending on the degree of the above factors and the
has been effected.
time involved, ?ner or thicker exterior strata of the starch 45
In FIG. 12, the same soft wheat ?our stock having
granules becomes dry to a degree to produce local tension
been ?processed with our novel so-called ?turbo? grinding
by shrinkage through local moisture loss. Such stresses
steps has been subjected to an excess of water at a tem
effect the starch granules and/or lipid complexes of the
perature of 75 degrees F.,? for a period of six minutes.
dried strata, producing small ?ssures or disturbance of
the material continuity of the starch-granules-surfaces 50 By comparison of the particles of FIG. 12 with the par
ticles shown in FIG. 10 of the drawings and also with
such as is illustrated abstractly in FIG. 21 (granules f
the particles of FIG. 3 of the drawings, it will be noted
and g), in contrast with the character of cleaving or
that in FIG. 12, the starch granules have swollen and
starch damage illustrated in FIG. 20� (granules a to e,
have
produced ?ssures near the peripheral edges thereof
inclusive) which exemplify starch granules reduced by
and clearly indicate the absorption of a substantial
commercial milling procedures.
55 amount of moisture.
After the steps of our grinding and treatment have
In FIG. 13, particles of hard wheat endosperm, after
been applied and completed, the dried layer or strata of
reduction through out novel processes of grinding, reduc
the starch granule surface regains at least partly its mois
tion and surface treatment have been subjected to a sur
ture content, absorbing some moisture from the interior
of Water for a period of three and one-half minutes,
of the granule, i.e., from the inside crystalline complex 60 plus
at a temperature of 75 degrees F. These starch granules
substances. As the exterior layer regains moisture con
tent the local surface tension decreases and with it the ?s
sures disappear or substantially decrease, becoming at
least partially invisible under high microscopic exami
from hard wheat ?our stock have absorbed a substantial
amount of water, being swollen and ?enlarged as con
trasted with the identical stock without moisture, shown
in FIG. 4.
a
nation.
85
By
comparison
the starch granules illustrated in FIG.
The above phenomena would seem to of necessity pro
13 (?turbo? ground) with those shown in FIG. 11
duce changes in the molecular structure of the starch
(merely roller mill ground), it will be seen that the water
granules along the ?ssure-surface, which we believe re
imbibition indicated by swelling, partial bursting and pro
duces the more complex molecular chains into less com
of ?ssures of particles dressed andreduced by our
plex molecular chains. De?nitely a mechanical-physical 70 ducing
novel
process,
is very substantially increased, as con
modi?cation of the granule occurs.
When the three factors previously mentioned-?(a) me
chanical action; (b) drying by aeration; and (c) con
trasted with the slight imbibition of the starch granules
illustrated in FIG. 11 (merely roller milled hard wheat
?our stock).
trolled heat effect are simultaneously applied in the car
In making the careful microscopic examinations and
rying out of our novel process, the previously recited 75
tests from which FIGS. 10 to 13, inclusive, of the draw
8,077,808
16
15
with a Fisher value of 17.0. The ?ne fraction (KT-4389)
of the same classi?cation procedure, representing 9.4% of
the reground stock, had a protein content of 19.9%, ash
ings were obtained, the hydrating medium for the par
ticles under slides comprise a 1% aqueous solution of
Congo red. Visually through the microscopic hydration
content .733 % with a Fisher value of 4.2.
More intense regrinding by our process in a second
case produced a ?our (XI-4353) with a Fisher value of
of the starch particles could be observed through the red
color of the solution appearing within the granules.
The increase of shade or color in the granules appeared
substantially parallel with the increase in the minute ?s
sures of the starch-granule-surface, as depicted in FIGS.
10 to 13 inclusive. By_hydration the almost invisible
?ssures imparted by our novel grinding and dressing 10
treatment became more and more visible as hydration
9.2. Succeeding air separation performed at critical cut
of 13 FD unit produced a coarse fraction (XT-4386)
representing 87.9% of the reground stock, having a pro
tein content of 7.7%, ash content 323% with a Fisher
value of 10.8. The ?ne fraction (XI-4387) of the same
classi?cation procedure representing 12.1% of the re
proceeded in time.
ground stock had a protein content of 22.3%, ash content
Speci?c hydration characteristics of our ?turbo? ground
.750% ,?with a Fisher value of 3.45.
endosperm particles (speci?cally ?our) is shown with the
increasing heat conductivity index running parallel with 15 In comparing the above two regrinding cases, the more
intense regrinding from a Fisher value of 19.4 to 9.2 pro
the increasing intensity of grinding, as fully set forth and
duced more protein shifting (22.6%) after classi?cation
explained in Example No. 9, which follows in the speci
than did the slight regrinding (protein shifting 18.5%)
?cationl. Such heat conductivity index and its derivative
characterises the hydration properties as a function of
from a Fisher value of 19.4 to 16.0.
time.
Example 2
This example is presented in order to show characteris
tic di?erences on products if processed by conventional
milling methods in comparison to our novel ?turbo? grind
ing, using microscopic observations and the descriptive
.
In another example set forth herein, to wit, Example
No. 10, another speci?c hydration characteristic of
?turbo? ground endosperm particles is shown in its in
creased changing rate in alkaline water-retention capacity
with the increasing degree or intensity of our ?turbo?
.
method of morphology. .
grinding, speci?cally the change in alkaline water reten
More speci?cally, our exhaustive tests have shown that
tion by temperature unit increases.
with our novel disintegration and surface dressing steps a
EXAMPLES
hard wheat stock may be processed to obtain therefrom
In the following examples the ash, protein, moisture, 80 ?our of similar morphology and similar baking character
istics to a ?our made from soft wheat.
fat, diastatic activity (maltose) were all run according to
The above statement is well demonstrated by com
standard methods as set forth in ?Cereal Laboratory
Methods," ?fth edition, 1947. The protein, ash and malt
parison of FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 4 where respectively drawings
ose- ?gures hereinafter quoted were thereafter adjusted
made from microphotographs of soft wheat parent, hard
to a uniform 14% moisture basis. The cake baking 35 wheat parent, soft wheat turbo-ground, and hard wheat
turbo-ground ?ours are presented all in 240 times mag~
tests hereinafter quoted were carried out under standard
ni?cation. Visual consideration of said drawings clearly
show that the particle size and shape characteristics of the
hard wheat,'turbo-ground ?our (FIG. 4) are similar in
many respects to the soft wheat parent flour stock (FIG.
1) and to the soft wheat, turbo-ground ?our (FIG. 3).
In addition to the above gained visual impressions, the
ized baking tests at substantially similar pH values, and
the results tabulated in accordance with the previously
identi?ed authority. The hereinafter quoted Fisher values
were arrived at with constant porosity of 0.465 in accord
ance with the standardized method described in the pub
lication of B. Dubrow, ?Analytical Chemistry," volume
25, 1953, pp. 1242 to 1244. (Fisher Scienti?c Co., Pitts
burgh, Pa., ?Directions for Determination of Average
Particle Diameters, etcf?) .
The alkaline water-retention values hereinafter quoted
were arrived at through the recognized AWR?capacity
test as described in the publication ?Cereal Chemistry? of
May 1953, vol. 30, #3, and these values are regarded as
v a measure of water imbibition capacity.
following suggestions will facilitate speci?c comparison:
(a) Observe oblong shaped particles (endosperm
45 chunks) with clear de?nite edges and sharp corners (in
FIG. 2) versus inde?nite contour irregularly shaped par
ticles (endosperm chunks) with inde?nite, lacerated edges
in FIGS. 1, 3, and 4.
(b) Observe presence (in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4) and ab
50 sence (in FIG. 2) of starch granules protruding from the
The units of measurement referred to as ?F-D? units
endosperm chunks.
_
-(c) Observe frequency order of shelled out free starch
granules (FIGS. 1, 2 and 4 vs. FIG. 2).
(d) Observe frequency order of clean uncoated starch
application, S.N. 470,244, and incorporated hereinafter. 55 granules,twhere no protein matrix is adhering to the starch
granule (FIGS. 3 and 4 vs. FIGS. 1 and 2).
Example 1
(2) Observe frequency order of free protein matter
particles (FIGS. 3 and 4 vs. FIGS. 1 and 2).
This example is presented in order to show our re
utilized to evaluate particle size distribution through a
method of centrifuge sedimentation are in accord with
the method fully set forth and explained in co-pending
ducing, surface treating and dressing endosperm particles
through the employment of our novel process, increasing 60
materially the opportunities for protein shifting in flour
fractionation by sub-sieve size separation.
Example 3
This example shows how progressively more intense
reduction and surface treatment through our novel proc
esses increase the cake baking capacity of a ?our.
A commercially milled long patent ?our out of a blend
by our process to two different granulations expressed 65 of 85% northern Indiana soft wheat and 15% Michigan
soft white wheat has ben processed by subsieve size air
by Fisher value (speci?c surface). Reground samples
separation and extremely light regrinding which pro
have been air separated into coarse and ?ne fractions.
duced a parent ?our (KT-5196) having a protein con
, The protein content of the parent ?our (XT-4350) was
tent of 7.6%, moisture of 11.2%, ash content of 354%,
9.51%, ash content, 356%, with a Fisher value (measur
ing average granulation by speci?c surface of 19.4). Re 70 with a Fisher value of 11.55, maltose value of 89, and
AWR (alkaline water retention) of 55.1%. Approxi
grinding in the ?rst case produced a ?our (XT-4352) with
mate processing of this long patent flour comprised an air
a Fisher value of 16.0. This ?our has been air separated
A parent A grade flour commercially milled out of
straight Nebraska hard winter wheat has been reground
at a critical cut of 20.5 FD unit producing a coarse frac
separation step performed at critical cut of approximately
19.5 FD unit. The coarse fraction of this separation
and had a protein content of 9.1%, ash content 352%, 75 with very slight regrinding is the parent ?our. 'Fine frac
tion (XT-4388), representing 90.6% of reground stock,
8,077,808
17
18
tion (KT-5198) representing approximately 5% of the
Water imbibition capacity increased with increasing de
long patent ?our had a protein content of 20.54%, mois
ture of 10.0%, ash content of .443%, with a Fisher value
gree of applied ?turbo" regrinding.
of 3.95. Parent ?our (XI-5196) has been reground by
sidered unsuitable for production of ?ours capable of
being into commercially satisfactory high sugar ratio
I
Heretofore to our knowledge, hard wheat has beenv con
our process individually to decreasing Fisher values ac
cording to the following tabulation at the left; layer cakes
cakes of adeqaute volume and light texture. The fore
going data shows that very satisfactory layer cakes and
at 115% sugar level and at 140% sugar level and angel
food cakes were baked from each of the tabulated stocks
home baked cakes may be obtained through the use of our
novel process.
including the parent stock (XT-S 196). The volumes of
the cakes baked respectively appear in the columns at 10
the right:
Low ratio High ratio
X'l? N0.
Example N0. 50
This example is presented to compare baking tests for
layer cake and angel food cake wherein the batters were
prepared respectively from ?ours disintegrated and treated
>
Fisher
Malt
Alk.
WR
Angel
layer cake layer cake (00d ht ,
115% sugar 140% sugar inches
v01., 00.
vol., cc.
89
104
110
56. 3
63. 5
55. 1
2, 416
2, 448
2, 336
115
66.8
. 2,480
15 by our novel process as contrasted with commercially
available roll reground ?ours. Soft wheat.
A commercially milled soft wheat patent ?our pro
2, 197 3540-3540
2, 197
39in
306
39?
duced from a blend of 85% northern Indiana soft wheat
and 15% Michigan white wheat, has been selected for a
37/16
20 parent ?our (XT-8443), having a protein content of
As tabulation shows, with more intense treatment by
use of our process as expressed by increasing speci?c
7.95%, moisture of 12.3%, ash content of .295 %, with a
Fisher value of 11.8, maltose value of 108, AWR of
49.0%, and MacM viscosity of 63, baking a 140% sugar
layer cake of 2137 cc. volume, an angel food cake of
2,352
.r,
surface (lower Fisher), cake volumes increased in the
115% and 140% sugar cake formulas, similarly increased
height of angle food cakes. Tabulation indicates in
creasing water imbibition capacity with increased degree
39116" in height.
-
Above parent ?our has been submitted individually
to regrinding by peerless cut rolls, applying increasing
intensity of regrinding-sample #XT-8476 with slight
of regrinding.
- regrinding, XT-'8477 with medium regrinding, and XI?
30 8476 with most intensive regrinding within the scope of
Example 4
this test. Increased regrinding by commercial roll proce
This example is presented in order to show that re
duction and surface dressing by our process of a hard
dure is indicated by slightly decreasing Fisher values
wheat ?our improved cake baking performance.
A commercially milled hard wheat patent ?our out of
and by substantially increasing maltose ?gures.
tion shows, increasing degree of said ?turbo? regrinding
reduction or regrinding procedures was set apart and under
as expressed in increased speci?c surface (decreasing
optimum conditions, a number of 140% sugar layer
Fisher value) improved cake baking performance of the
cakes were baked from each, as well as a number of angel
?gures of three di?ercnt types of cake, 115% sugar layer,
140% sugar layer and Home Bake, which were baked
The following tabulation demonstrates testing data of
the above presented ?ours:
Same parent ?our (XT-8443) was individually sub?
straight Nebraska winter wheat has been reground by our 85 mitted to increasing intensity of regrinding by use of our
process-sample #XT-8490 with slight regrinding, XT
process individually to decreasing Fisher values, means
8446 with medium regrinding, and XT-8574 with most
increasing ?neness of reduction and increased degree of
intense regrinding (within the scope of this test). De
surface handling. Above parent ?our (XT-4923) had a
creasing Fisher values (increasing speci?c surface) indi
protein content of 10.1%, moisture of 10.2%, ash con
cate increasing intensity of turbo regrinding procedure.
tent of 361%, with a Fisher value of 17.5, maltose value
Samples from the flour produced from each of said
of 164, and AWR of 58.7%. As the following tabula
hard wheat parent ?our as demonstrated by the volume 45 food cakes.
High ratio
x'r No. Fisher Prot.
Moist.
Ash
Malt.
AWR
MacM
140%
Angel
sugar
toodcake
vol.,ee.
inc es
vise. layercake height.
rmutsweknm 8443.....-
11.8
7.05
113
.205
108
49.0
03
2.187
a?.
R0llregronnd...- s47o..--.
8477---...---
11.0
10.8
10.7
7.7
7.70
7.73
11.0
10.7
10.4
.278
.m
.287
139
173
230
52.0
07.0
03.5
03
07
07
2,170
2,231
2,170
(3m;
Turboreground.- 8490.--..
8446"---
11.4
10.70
8.1
7.8
10.;
10.7
.275
.286
117
120
52.2
53.8
47
as
2,192
2.247
am
391.
0.
7.4
7.0
.277
115
60.8 ...... .-
2,302
am
394.
3%?
3950
ss74.---.
under optimum conditions from ?ve different ?grinds,? in-
cluding the parent stock (KT-4923):
XT No.
Fisher
Malt
Alk.
Low ratio High ratio
115% sugar 140% sugar
WB
layer cake
layer cake
vol., cc
v0l., cc.
17. 5
13. 15
11. 16
9. 65
164
180
210
234
68. 7
65. 2
62. 6
66. 7
8. 55
266
70. 0
2, 082
2, 176
2, 224
2,428
2, 302
Above data are averages of two runs on the speci?c
testing in question.
Cake baking capacity of parent ?our improved only
1, 987
2, 146
2, 192
2, 271
2, 334
Home
b tke
vol ., 00
2, 682
2, 730+
2, 761+
2, 777+
2, 891+
slightly when the medium intense (within the scope of
this test) roller mill regrinding procedure has been ap
plied. Compare 140% sugar cake volume produced by
XI??8443 parent ?our, which is 2137 cc., with the volume
of the cake produced by XT-8463, which is 2176 cc.
Compare Angel Food cake height of parent ?our XT
8443, which is 3556", with the height of Angel Food cake
produced by XT-8463, which is 3-3946".
With most intensive roll regrinding within the scope of
3,077,308
'
'
19
,
this test, both the layer and angel food cake baking
properties of the same parent stock of flour were substan
tially inferior to the moderately roll reground ?our as
well as slightly inferior to the cake baking qualities of the
parent ?our. .
20
(b) Simultaneous production in early stages of a siza
ble, very high protein fraction.?
?
(1) A commercially milled soft wheat parent ?our
(XT-7104) milled from a blend of 85 % northern Indi
ana soft wheat and 15 % Michigan white wheat, having
a: protein content of 7.8%, ash content of .325% with
:1 Fisher value of 11.55, Maltose value of 82 and AWR
.
Cake baking properties of parent ?our improved sig
ni?cantly more if the most intense (within the scope of
this test) regrinding by our process was applied. Com
pare 140% sugar cake volume produced by parent ?our
XT-8443, which is 2137 cc., with volume of 140% sugar
of 47.4%, Bulk Density .521, pH 5.64 has been proc
essed as follows:
?
First stage air separation performed at critical cut of
cake produced by X?I?-8574, which is 2302 cc. Compare
Angel Food cake height produced by parent ?our XT
8443, which is 3956", with height of Angel Food cake
approximately 17.5 FD unit produced a coarse fraction
(XT-7109) representing 91% of the parent stock, hav
ing a protein content of 6.4%, ash content of 305%
with
a Fisher value of 13.75, Bulk Density .606, pH 5.84.
The ?gures in the tabulation clearly indicate increased
cake volumes in the cases of turbo regrinding, and color, 15 Fine fraction (XI-7110) produced by the same separa
tion, representing 9% of the parent stock, had a protein
texture (by subjective judgement) were improved sig
content of 22.4%, ash content of .496% with a Fisher
ni?cantly also.
value of 3.6, Maltose value of 157, and AWR 89.2%,
The McMichael viscosity values prove also the unique
?
ness of our process. Roll regrinding produced higher vis 20 Bulk Density .291.?
(2) First stage coarse fraction has been primarily re
cosity values. Our process lowered the viscosity of the
ground by ?turbo" grinding procedure from 13.75 Fisher
parent ?our.
value to a Fisher value of 11.63 (XT-7119), Bulk Density
SUMMARY
"produced by XT-8463, which 3%g-3?g".
.550, pH 5.83.
.
Above example indicates that regrinding by roller mill
"(3)
This
primarily
reground
stock
has
been
procedure does not improve signi?cantly cake baking ?25 to second stage air separation at a critical cut ofsubmitted
approxi
, properties of a ?our. If regrinding of?a ?our is performed
by our novel process, signi?cant improvement of cake
baking capacity occurs.
mately 17 FD unit, producing a second coarse fraction
grinding by conventional polished rolls in mills deteri
(XT-7l40) representing 10% of the parent stock, hav
(XT-7139) representing 80.6% of the parent stock, hav
ing a protein content of 5.23%, ash content of .299%
with a Fisher value of 14.15, Maltose value of 76, and
Example No. 5b ,
30 AWR of 52.1%, Bulk Density .683, pH 5.82. The same
This example is presented to show how extreme re
second stage air separation produced a ?ne fraction
orates cake baking capacity of soft wheat ?our and in
ing a protein content of 22.6%,籥sh content of .476%,
contrast, how extreme regrinding or disintegration and
with a Fisher value of 3.65, Maltose value of 160 and
surface dressing of our novel process improves the cake 85 AWR of 98%, Bulk Density .325, pH 5.71.
~
baking capacity of the same parent soft wheat ?our.
Note: Fromvthe foregoing, itwill be noted that the
A parent short patent ?our (XT-8706) milled out of
two ?ne fractions obtained, if blended, amount to 19%
a blend of 85% northern Indiana ?soft wheat and 15%
of the weight of the total parent stock and have an un
Michigan white wheat having a protein content of 8.0%, . usually high protein content of at least 22.53%, as calcu
moisture content of 9.85%, ash content of 313%, with a
lated. Such product is of substantial value in enriching
Fisher value of 11.0, maltose value of 94, and AWR of
other ?ours for bread making and constitutes a premium
product.
?
51.8%, has been reground by polished rolls, ten con
secutive times to a Fisher value of 7.4, resulting in an
(4) The second stage coarse fraction has been sub
over-ground ?our, XT-9603. The same parent ?our has
mitted to a third stage air separation at critical cut of
been reground by intensive application of our process
approximately 24.5 FD unit producing a coarse fraction
(turbo grinding) once to a Fisher value of 9.45 (XT
(XT-7146) and (XI-7152) representing 65.7% of the
9930) and with the same intensive turbo grinding pro
parent stock, having a protein content of 4.28%, ash
cedure twice to a Fisher value of 8.7 (XI-9TH).
content of 289% with 3. Fisher value of 16.9, Maltose
140% sugar layer cakes and angel food cakes were
value of 70, and AWR of 51.9, Bulk Density .761, pH
baked under optimum conditions from all of the reground 50 5.82. Third stage ?ne fraction (XT-7147) and (XT
?our stock produced and from the parent soft wheat ?our
7153) representing 14.9% of the parent stock, having
before regrinding.
'
protein content of 10.32%, ash content of 384%, with
The following tabulation compares cakes baked of the
a Fisher value of 7.0, Maltose value of 133, and AWR
four ?our samples:
of 91.4%, Bulk Density .4_50, pH 5.66.
XT No.
Fisher
Prot.
Moist.
Ash
Malt
AWR
Vol. of
140%
sugar
Order of
Ht. of
angel
food
preference,
seors
on 140%
cake,
cake,
sugar
ccm.
inches
lost
cake
. 313
04
140
3?10'35'16
3
0603, parent polished rolls reground ..... .-
7. 4
8.0
6. 76
.313
600
68. 2
1, 887
21946-21910
4
9930, parent turno reground _____________ ._
9981, parent turbo reground ............. __
8706, parent soft wheat ?our ____________ __
11. 0
9. 45
8. 7
8. n
7. 6
7. 55
'
6. 3
5. 1
9. 85
. 311
. 310
105
102
63- 7
61. 1
2. 224
2, 318
3%?
2
1
As tabulation and records show, volume, grain, color
sl?ered by intense polished roll regrinding; volume, grain
. and color improved by intense turbo-regrinding.
Example 6
This example shows:
(a) Production of extremely low protein ?ours desira
ble for use in cake making and other speci?c batter
dough bake products.
'
51. 8
(5) The third stage coarse fraction has been second
arily reground by our novel grinding steps from 16.9
Fisher value to 16.0 Fisher value (XT-7158), pH 5.74.
70 (6) Product of the second regrinding step has been
submitted to the fourth step of air separation at critical
cut of approximately 21 FD unit producing a coarse frac
tion (KT-7167) representing 62.2% of, parent stock, hav
ing a protein content of 3.8%, ash content of .287%, with
?l6 a Fisher value of 16.2, Maltose value of 73, and AWR of
?
22
21
51.9%, Bulk Density .773, pH 5.69. The ?ne fraction
of the same (fourth stage) air separation (XT-7l68)
representing 3.5% of parent stock, had a protein content
Examples 7a and 7b
a
The following Examples 7a and 7b are presented to
show the materially improved ability of our novel proc
ess to obtain substantial protein shifting in the combina
tion of our endosperm disintegrating and critical air sep
Density .398.
'
.
aration steps as contrasted with air separation alone of
(7) The coarse fraction of the fourth stage air separa
the same parent ?our stock commercially roller milled.
tion has been submitted to the ?fth stage air separation
Reference is made to FIGS. 14 and 15 of the drawings
performed at critical cut of approximately 31 FD unit
producing a coarse fraction (XT-7173) representing 10 which are ?ow sheets diagrammatically showing the sub
ject matter of Examples 70 and 7b respectively.
53.7% of parent stock having a protein content of 3.7%,
(7) Protein shifting possibilities with air separation
ash content of .272%, with a Fisher value of 19.2,
alone.?-(1) A parent A grade ?our commercially
Maltose value of 69, and AWR of 53.5%, Bulk Density
milled out of straight Montana spring wheat (XT-7886)
.777, pH 5.50. The ?ne fraction of the same (?fth
having
a protein content of 14.15%, moisture content
stage) air separation (XT-7174) representing 8.5% of
of 16.5%, ash content of .585%, with a Fisher value of
4.6, Maltose value of 256 and AWR of 103.27%, Bulk
15 of 13.0%, ash content of .410%, with a Fisher value of
parent stock had a protein content of 6.56%, ash con
tent of .342%, with a Fisher value of 9.55, Maltose value
23.1, Maltose value of 267 and 'AWR of 80.6%, Bulk
Density of .613, pH 5.72, has been submitted to a ?rst
stage sub-sieve size air separation performed at a critical
of 116, Bulk Density of .555, pH 5.81.
(8) The coarse fraction of the ?fth stage air separa
tion has been submitted to a sixth stage air separation 20 cut of approximately 32 FD unit producing a coarse
fraction (XT-7899) representing 93% of parent ?our,
performed at critical cut of approximately 38 FD unit
having a protein content of 13.6%, moisture content of
producing a coarse fraction (XT-7183) representing
12.6%, ash content of .408% with a Fisher value of
36.5% of parent stock, having a protein content of
21.3, Maltose value of 247 and AWR of 68.3%, Bulk
4.36%, ash content of 289%, with a Fisher value of
18.65, Maltose value of 67, and AWR of 48.9%, Bulk 25 Density .665, pH 5.78. The same ?rst stage air ?separa
tion produced a ?ne fraction (XT-7900) representing
Density .848, pH 5.52. The ?ne fraction of the same
7% of parent ?our, having a protein content of 19.8%,
(sixth stage) air separation (XT-7184) representing
moisture content of 10.2%, ash content of .647%, with
17.2% of parent stock, had a protein content of 2.6%,
a Fisher value of 4.5, Maltose value of 566, and AWR
ash content of .257%, with a Fisher value of 15.3,
of 67.5%, Bulk Density .256, pH 5.67.
Maltose value of 81 and AWR of 57.4%, Bulk Density
(2) The ?rst stage coarse fraction has been submitted
.754, pH 5.57.
. '
to a second stage air separation performed at a critical
cut of approximately 35 FD unit producing a coarse
, (9) The sixth stage coarse fraction has been sub?
mitted to a seventh stage air separation performed at
critical cut of approximately 42 FD unit producing a
fraction (XT-7939) representing 87% of parent ?our,
coarse fraction (KT-7253) representing 18.9% of parent 35 having a protein content of 13.7%, moisture content of
11.9%, ash content of 395% with a Fisher value of
stock, having a protein content of, 5.5%, ash content of
21.2, Maltose value of 249,?and AWR of 66%, Bulk
.287% with a Fisher value of 20.4, Maltose value of 61
Density .693, pH 5.77. Same second stage air separa
and AWR of 45.1%, Bulk Density .835, pH 5.49.
tion produced a ?ne fraction (XT-7940) representing
To compare fraction of extremely low protein content
to commercially available wheat starch (i.e., dry proc 40 6% of parent ?our, having a protein content of 17.9%,
essed wheat starch versus wet processed wheat starch)
moisture content of 8.6%, ash content of .612% with a
test bakes have been run on cakes where respectively
Fisher value of 5.0, Maltose value of 600 plus, and AWR
20, 40 and 50% of conventional soft wheat parent ?our
of 104.2% and Bulk Density of .291, pH 5.84.
have been substituted by our novel dry processed wheat
(3) The second stage coarse fraction has been sub
starch and by conventional wet processed wheat starch. 45 'mitted to a third stage air separation performed at a
Parent
Wet
soft
wheat
proe.
wheat
140%
Proteln
Ash
Flsher
flour, starch.
percent percent
100
80
60
.____
20
40
50
50
7. 9
6. 4
4. 8
4. 1
. 318
. 277
. 239
. 264
11. 6
12. 15
12. 85
13. 46
115%
Angel food
sugar
sugar
cake , cake
Score
of
vol.
pref.
vol.
pref.
Ht.
Pref.
pref.
2,160
2, 176
2, 007
2, 176
2. 318
2, 239
2, 255
3M0
3910
31% a
6
4
2
2, 255
3134s
1
1
2
3
4
Dry
proc.
wheat
starch,
percent
100
-__._
7. 9
. 318
11. 6
2, 160
2, 318
3710
__.
___
80
60
60
20
40
50
100
t1. 8
5. 8
5. 3
2. 12
. 296
. 2B8
. 295
. 243
12. 4
13. 5
13. 75
18. 0
2, 097
2, 192
192
2, 018
2, 271
2, 271
2, 239
2, 287
3910
31916
3915
4
2
1
2
3
3
2
1
4
The ?ne fraction of the same (seventh stage) air sepa~
critical cut of approximately 43 FD unit producing a
ration (XT-7254) representing 17.6% of parent stock 65 coarse fraction (XT~8046) representing 79% of parent
had protein content of 2.12%, ash content of 343%,
?our, having a protein content of 13.85%, moisture con
with a Fisher value of 18.0, Maltose value of 63 and
tent of 11.3%, ash content of .391%, with a Fisher value
AWR 56%, Bulk Density .805, pH 5.42.
of 24.0, Maltose value of 214, and AWR of 64%, Bulk
SUMMARY
Density .723, pH 5.73. Same third stage air separation
Turbo-regrinding and subsequently applied sub-sieve 70 produced a ?ne fraction (XT-8047) representing 8% of
size air separation has repeatedly in progressive steps
parent ?our, having a protein content of 10.9%, moisture
produced ?ours with extremely low protein content.
content of 9.0%, ash content .479% with a Fisher value
Data indicated that such a ?our fraction had similar
of 8.55, Maltose value of 562,.and AWR of 97.4%, Bulk
properties to that of wet processed (unmodi?ed) wheat
starch commercially available on the market.
'
Density .442, pH 5.89.
75
(4) The third stage coarse fraction has been sub
8,077,808?
24
regrinding and surface dressing by our novel ?Turbo?
mitted to a fourth stage air separation performed at a
critical cut� of approximately 60 FD unit, producing a
process, producing a reground parent ?our- (KT-8512)
having a protein content of 14.0%, moisture content of .
coarse fraction (XI-8083) representing 70% of parent
?our, having a protein content of 14.4%, moisture con
6.5%, with a Fisher value of 10.3, Maltose ?value of
tent of 11.0%, ash content of .378%, with a Fisher value
331, and AWR of 78%, Bulk Density .543, pH 5.85. ,
Reground parent ?our has been submitted to a ?rst
of 25.3, Maltose value of 177, and AWR of 62.9%, Bulk
Density .741, pH 5.75. The same fourth stage air sepa
stage SSS air separation performed at a critical cut of
ration produced a ?ne fraction (XI-8084) representing
approximately 17 FD unit producing a coarse fraction
9% of parent ?our, having a protein content of 8.9%,
(XT-8520) representing 89% of reground parent .?our,
moisture content of 11.0%, ash content of .430%, with 10 having a protein content of 12.5%, moisture content of
a Fisher value of 13.25, Maltose value of 410, AWR of
6.2%, ashcontent of 380%, with a Fisher value of 13.1,
73.9% and- Bulk Density .587, pH 5.91.
Maltose value of 305, and AWR of 68.3%, Bulk Den
(5) The fourth stage coarse fraction has been sub
sity of .603, pH 5.74. Same ?rst stage air separation
mitted to a'?fth stage air separation performed at a criti
produced a ?ne fraction (XT-8521) representing 11%
cal cut of approximately 72 FD unit, producing a coarse 15 of reground parent ?our, having a protein content of
fraction (XI-8095) representing 61% of parent ?our,
24.2%, moisture content of 5.3%, ash content of .690%,
having a protein content of 14.75%, moisture content of
with a Fisher value of 3.65, Maltose value 0fs475, and
10.9%, ash content of .361% with a Fisher value of
AWR of 126.4%, pH 5.96.
29.3, Maltose value of 174, and AWR of 63%, Bulk
The ?rst stage coarse fraction has been submitted to
Density .755, pH ?5.72. Same ?fth stage air separation 20 a second stage air separation performed at a critical
produced a ?ne fraction (XT-8096) representing 9% of
cut of approximately 28 FD unit, producing a coarse
parent ?our, having a protein content of 12.2%, moisture
fraction (XT-8548) representing 72% of reground par
content of 10.7%, ash content of .468% with a Fisher
ent ?our, having a protein content of 11.8%, moisture
value of 16.8, Maltose value of 333, and AWR of
content of 6.9%, ash content vof 346%, with a Fisher
77.0%, Bulk Density .635, pH 5.98.
value of 16.8, Maltose value of 257,- and AWR of 53.5%,
(6) The ?fth stage coarse fraction has been submitted
Bulk Density .624, pH 5.73. The same second stage
to a sixth stage air separation performed at a critical cut
air separation produced a ?ne fraction (XT-8549) rep~
of approximately 83 FD unit, producing a coarse fraction
resenting 17% of reground parent ?our, having a. protein
(XT?8129) representing 53% of parent ?our, having a
content of 14.8%, moisture content of 6.5%, ash con
protein content of 14.4%, moisture content of 10.8%, 30 tent of .481%, with a Fisher value of 6.7, Maltose value
ash content of .37l%, with a Fisher value of 28.9,
of 530, and AWR of 113.5%, Bulk Density .424, pH
Maltose value of 148, and AWR of 74.4%, Bulk Density
5.98.
'
.764, pH 5.68. Same sixth stage air separation pro
duced a ?ne fraction (XT�30) representing 8% of
The second stage coarse fraction has been submitted
to a third stage air separation performed at a critical
parent ?our, having a protein content of 14.9%, moisture 35 cut of approximately 34 FD unit, producing a coarse
fraction (XT-8570) representing 64% of reground par
ent ?our, having a protein content of 12.3%, moisture
content of 10.9%, ash content of .464%, with a Fisher
value of 20.3, Maltose value of 173, AWR of 70.3% and
Bulk Density .659, pH 5.84.
Drawing FIGURE 16a_ presents a diagrammatic illusp
tration of protein distribution in the seven SSS fractions
of parent ?our produced by the above described frac
tionation procedure (by air ?separation alone). Small
est and largest size range fractions have higher protein
content than the parent ?our, meaning protein matter is
concentrated in these fractions." Protein is shifted in
positive direction as related to the parent ?our. Medi
um size range fractions have lower protein content than
parent ?our meaning fractions are depleted in protein
content of 7.25%, ash content of 353%, with a Fisher
value of 16.95, Maltose value of 238, and AWR of
60.3%, Bulk Density .717, pH 5.78. The same third
stage air separation produced a ?ne fraction (XT-857l)
representing 8% of reground parent ?our, having a pro
tein content of 8.6%, moisture content of 7.3%, ash
content of 359%, with a Fisher value of 9.7, Maltose
value of 374 and AWR of 80.6%, Bulk Density .567,
pH 5.98.
The third stage coarse fraction has been submitted to
a fourth stage air separation performed at a critical
cut of approximately 43 FD unit producing a coarse
matters. Protein is shifted in negative direction as re
lated to parent ?our.
50 fraction (KT-8588) representing 47% of reground par
Since percentages of the fractions are proportionally
illustrated along the abscissa and protein content propor
tionately illustrated on the ordinate, the shifted areas
as illustrated in FIG. 16a are proportionate to the shift
ing of protein matter into the fractions as related to
parent ?our. Naturally, the amount of protein matter
shifted in positivev direction has to be equal to the amount
of protein matter shifted in negative direction in case
no loss of protein matter occurred during the fractiona~
tion procedure, due to imperfections of apparatus and/or
procedures utilized.
Amount of protein shifting expressed as the percentage
ent ?our, having a protein content of 13.4%, moisture
content of 7.9%, ash content of 346%, with a Fisher
value of 18.45, Maltose value of 196, and AWR of
60.3%, Bulk Density .743, pH 5.69. The same fourth
stage air separation produced a ?ne fraction (XT
8589) representing 17% of reground parent ?our, hav
ing a protein content of 6.9%, moisture content of 8.2%,
ash content of 312%, with a Fisher value of 17.4, Mal
tose value of 213, and AWR of 63.8%, Bulk Density
.678, pH 5.92.
The fourth stage coarse fraction has been submitted
to a ?fth stage air separation performed at 'a critical
cut of approximately 50 FD unit producing a coarse frac
of the total protein matter contained in the parent ?our
represents an indication of how much protein matter
tion (XT-8601) representing 33% of reground parent
was available to be shifted by sub-sieve size fractiona 65 ?our, having a protein content of 13.7%, moisture con
tion. This index, in case the parent ?our was a com
tent of 7.8%, ash content of .336%, with a Fisher value
mercially milled hard wheat ?our, was 12.1% by a real
of 21.8, Maltose value of 156. The same ?fth stage air
measurement using planimeter.
separation produced a ?ne fraction (XI-8602) represent~
(7b) Protein shifting with our improved process (see
ing 14% of reground parent ?our, having a protein con
FIG. 15).-A parent A grade ?our commercially milled 70 tent of 7.65%, moisture content of 7.9%, ash content
out of straight.Montana Spring wheat (XT-8511) hav
of .312% with a Fisher value of 14.2, Maltose value of
ing a protein content of 14.0%, moisture content of
172 and AWR of 56.0%, Bulk Density .696, pH 5.87.
12.9%, ash content of .414%, with a Fisher value of
The ?fth stage coarse fraction has been submitted
20.6, Maltose value of 214, and AWR of 72.4%, Bulk
to a sixth stage air separation performed at a critical
Density .613, pH 5.76 has been submitted to intense 75 cut of approximately 57 FD unit producing a coarse
8,077,308
26
fraction (KT-8605) representing 21% of reground par
separation at critical cut of 45-50 FD units. Fine frac
tion goes to 0 step operation.
ent ?our, having a protein content of 14.6%, moisture
content of 7.7%, ash content of 336% with a Fisher
M. In operation step M, coarse fraction of step L air
value of 22.1, Maltose value of 161, andppAWR of 61.2%,
separation or coarse fraction of step L air separation plus
Bulk Density .788, pH 5.66. The same sixth air sep
coarse fraction of step F air separation is/are subjected
aration produced a ?ne fraction (XT-8606) representing
to roll grinding using special roll surface and roll setting.
12% of reground parent ?our having a protein content
N. In operation step N, product of step M (roll grind
of 12.9%, moisture content of 7.8%, ash content of
ing) is subjected to intense turbo-grinding.
359%, with a ?Fisher value of 17.0, Maltose value of
0. In operation step 0, ?ne fraction of step H air sepa
224, and AWR of 60.6%, Bulk Density .733, pH 5.78. 10 ration plus ?ne fraction of step L air separation are sub
In FIG. 16b of the drawings, a diagrammatic show
jected to further air separation at critical cut of 18-25
ing of protein distribution in the seven sub-sieve size
FD unit. Fine fraction of this operation step is part of
fractions produced after intensive ?turbo? regrinding, is
a commercial product; high protein ?our or concentrate.
presented. Like FIG. 16a, the smallest and largest size
P, Q and R. In operation step P,Q,R, coarse fraction
range fractions are of higher protein content than the 15 of step G air separation, coarse? fraction of step 0 air
separation, and product of step N turbo-grinding are
parent ?our. Where the combination of steps of re
grinding by intensive use of our disintegration and sur
individually subjected to special conditioning operations.
face dressing steps with several stages of critical air sep
aration has been applied, it will be seen that the protein
premium product; improved low protein ?our, excellent
After conditioning, the mixture of which is a commercial
shifting ?gure (the addition of negative and positive 20 for production of cakes and certain other baked batter
dough products.
protein shifting) is increased to 31.8% (FIG. 16b) as
Summarizing the advantages of the operations of the
contrasted with only 12.1% where the same commercially
foregoing example and the modi?cation thereof which is
milled hard wheat ?our was used in both instances.
hereafter to be described, we obtained in the ?ne fraction
Example 8
25 produced after air separation operation G and air separa
tion operation 0, a concentrate or ?our of very high pro
This example is presented in order to show how our
process steps of ?turbo? grinding and air classi?cation
combined with other commercially known process steps
tein content and a fraction of higher extraction as con
trasted with the extraction of protein concentrate product
disclosed in our copending application, Serial Number
are integrated into a practical, commercial process, pro 30 470,244. This product has a high market value for blend
ducing premium products. Flow sheet of FIG. 17 of
ing with other ?our streams and for other uses, to produce
the drawings shows the principles of an actual installation.
bread dough strength.
The mill streams of a parent ?our commercially milled
The coarse fraction obtained from the steps and pro~
out of a blend of 85% Northern Indiana and 15% Michi
cedure of preceding Example 8 and enhanced by the addi
gan white wheats are selected into two stream groups 35 tional treatment speci?ed in the modi?cation to be here
approximating short-patent and ?rst clear ?ours.
after described and constituting a blend of the coarse frac
A. In operation, step A, short patent ?our is subjected
tion obtained from air separation operation 0, air sepa
to air separation at a critical cut of 42-48 FD units. Fine
ration operation G and the turbo-grinding operation N is
fraction to step G.
an excellent high premium cake ?our (angel food, cookies
B. In operation step B, coarse fraction of step A air 40 and the like). The quality of this cake ?our is substan
separation isvsubjected to another air separation at 42-48
tially better than the comparable starch concentrate frac
FD unit critical cut. Fine fraction to step G.
tions disclosed in our pending application S.N. 470,244
C. In operation step C, coarse fraction of step B air
and in a commercial mill, will give an extract or yield
separation is subjected to roll regrinding using special
roll surface and roll setting.
D. In operation step D, the product of C step rolling
of substantially 88% ?t of the total parent ?ours utilized
45 and oftentimes will have a low protein content below 6%
(particularly if the following additional modi?cations are
employed).
operation is subjected to sieve sifting in a rebolting opera
tion by llXX sifter cloth. Overs to low grade rolls of
As a modi?cation to the embodiment of our process
commercially applied as diagrammed in the ?ow sheet of
E. In operation step E, the throughs of D step, rebolting 50 FIG. 17 and described in the preceding operation steps
operation are subjected to intense turbo-grinding.
A to O inclusive, the ?nes from air separation operations
F. In operation step F, the product of stey E turbo
A, B and H of FIG. 17 before e??rcient air separation in
grinding is subjected to air separation at 45-50 FD unit
operations G and O are ?rst subjected to rather intense
critical cut. Coarse fraction to step L or M.
turbo grinding and surface treatment and dressing, thereby
G. In operation step G, ?ne fraction of step F air 55 shelling out a considerable additional proportion of the
separation plus ?ne fractions of step A and B air separa
?ner whole starch granules and producing a substantial
tions are subjected to air separation at 18-25 FD unit
addition of the substantially pure protein-matter-particles.
critical cut. The ?ne fraction of this operation step is
This may be accomplished in the ?ow sheet by conducting
part of a commercial premium product; high protein
both the short patent ?ne stream from operation A and
?our or concentrate.
60 the ?rst clear ?ne stream from operation H. to a common
H. In operation step H, ?rst-clear is subjected to air
turbo grinder, the output of which may go to the e?icient
air separator in operation G at a critical cut of from 18
to 25 FD. The larger coarse fraction ?from this air sepa
ration has a very high concentration of surface treated and
separation at 42-48 FD unit critical cut. Fines to opera
tion step 0.
I. In operation step I, coarse fraction of step H air
separation is subjected to roll regrinding using special 65 dressed starch granules while the ?nes in the smaller frac
roll surface and roll setting.
I. In operation step I, the product of step I rolling
operation is subjected to sieve sifting in a rebolting?opera
tion by llXX sifter cloth. Overs to low grade rolls of
the mill.
70
K. In operation step K, throughs of I step rebolting
operation are subjected to intense turbo-grinding.
L. In operation step L, product of step K turbo-grind
ing or product of step K turbo-grinding plus coarse frac
tion of step F air separation is/are subjected to air
tion from said air separation (at critical cut of 18 to 25
FD) has a large proportion of discrete protein-matter
particles, such productattaining protein proportions where
soft wheat is the parent ?our, up to 29%.
The foregoing modi?cation to the operations of example
8 illustrated in FIG. 17 has been in recent months, in
stalled and commercially utilized with high successful re
sults, in a large ?our mill, thereby increasing the yield or
extract of the previously recited premium products from
76 the original parent stock as contrasted with the products
8,077,808
27
>
obtained through operations A to 0 inclusive as dia~
grammedinFIG. 17.
28
As tabulation shows, intensive polished roll reg?rind
ing decreased speed of thermal conductivity within the
H
Example 9 -
This example shows the hydration characteristics of
?ours intensely reground by conventional smooth rolls
as contrasted with the improved hydration characteristics
of ?ours intensively reground by use of our improved
process. The hydration characteristics in each instance
primitive dough, i.e., thermal conductivity factor
K=B.t.u./(hr.) (sq. ft.) (癋/ft.) decreased. ?Tabula
iton similarly shows that intense turbo grinding procedure
on the ?our increased speed of thermal conductivity of
primitive dough made thereof, i.e., thermal conductivity
factor K increased.
_
are measured by a heat'conductivity test and indicated
Above shifting in thermal conductivity index is at
are described by the variables of time and temperature
(heat) with the use of only limited hydrating water.
source, which develops within the primitive dough while
in heating procedure and which is recognized as being
by the actual speed of hydration. Hydration phenomena 10 least partly due to some (more or less) additional heat
In this example typical hard and soft wheat parent
?ours have been selected from the comparative hydration
tests. The hard wheat parent ?our, XT-85ll, was com
mercially roller milled out of Montana spring wheat.
The soft wheat parent ?our, XT-8706, was commercially
or roller milled from a blend of 85% Northern Indiana
soft wheat and 15% Michigan soft white wheat. Both
the hard and soft wheat parent ?ours were individually
subjected to intensive or extreme polished roll regrind
ing procedure, resulting in reground ?ours identi?ed re
spectively as XT-9550 and XT-9603.
Same hard and soft wheat parent ?ours have been
individually subjected to intense turbo grinding procedure
resulting in reground ?ours, respectively XT-85l2 and
XT-993l.
.
Data of these six test ?ours are presented in the fol
lowing tabulation (?AWR? signi?es alkaline water re
tentron):
XT No.
exotherm heat.
The hydration of crystalline starch is instantaneous. If
hydrating water has access to larger zones or areas of
crystalline starch, more exotherm heat of hydration (sec
ondary heat source) is produced, which in addition to
the primary heat supply has been recorded in this exam
ple. If hydrating water has to penetrate a more or less
water .repellent starch granule surface, fewer or more
water molecules reach the crystalline starch zones within
the interior of the starch granules and less or more heat
of hydration is produced. Since the water permeability
of starch granules surface is a function of temperature,
and also of its surface treatments, physical and chemical
condition, etc. by adjusting water permeability of the
starch granule surface through our novel surface treating
process, hydration properties of a ?our along tempera
ture rise or drop can be controlled (for example in the
30 baking oven).
Description
Prot., Moist ,
perper-
cent
cent
Ash 1
Hard wheat parent...._.__
14. 0
12. 9
Hard wheat roll regr-.. ._
Hard wheat turbo reg! -_
13v 9
14. 0
3. 5
6. 6
Soft wheat parent _____ _.
Soft wheat roll regr...... ..
8. 0
8. 0
. 420
______ __
9. 85
. 313
6. 76
. 313
Soft wheat turbo regn- .--
7. 55
5. 1
Fisher
. 414
Malt.
20. 6
214
R. 0
10. 3
11. 0
7. 4
331
94
600
8. 7
102
. 310
AWR
72. 4
72. 1
78. 0
51. 8
68. 2
G1. 1
Example 10 (refer to FIGS. 18 and 19 of the drawing)
This example shows how regrinding of commercial
ables in limited amount of water as following described.
?our through the novel disintegrating and surface treat
DESCRIPTION OF SIMPLE HYDRATION TEST
ing steps of our process increases the hydration char
The ?our in each instance was hydrated at reasonable 45 acteristics of the ?our. In this example the hydration
The foregoing 6 samples have been subjected to a primi
tive hydration test involving time and temperature vari
constant room temperature with distilled water in rela
tion of 41.7% ?our and 58.3% water on a dry basis.
phenomena are described and measured by the amount
of water retained after hydration in excess of the water
and by the temperature variable.
Dough was mixed by a low speed mixer for six minutes.
A parent ?our (XT-8511) commercially milled out
Within. the following two. minutes, 600 gram dough was
placed into a stainless steel receiver cup, and was subjected 60 of hard Montana spring wheat having a protein content
of 14.0%, moisture content of 123%, ash content of
to high vibration shaking for one minute. After nine
.414%, with a Fisher value of 20.6 and maltose value
minutes from the addition of water to the flour, the stain
of 214, was selected for hydration tests.
less steel receiver cup containing the primitive dough was
The above parent ?our was reground by intensive turbo
placed in a water bath of constant temperature (boiling),
representing a primary heat source.
66 grinding procedure producing a reground ?our (XT
.
A thermometer with a minimum on one square centi
meter bulb surface was placed in the center of the cup
containing the primitive dough, whereby the tempera
8512) having a protein content of 14.0%, moisture con
- tent of 6.5%, with a Fisher value of 10.3, and maltose
value of 331.
ture difference between the thermometer bulb and the pri
Tests were run on the above ?ours to measure hydra
mary heat source was secured uniformly. The tempera 00 tion characteristics by water imbibition (Alkaline Water
ture was recorded in time and plotted. The following
tabulation presents the required time for the center of the
Retention Test as Speci?ed in the Cereal Chemistry, vol.
primitive dough to reach 40, 50, 60, and 70 centigrades:
room temperature at which hydration phenomena of ?our
X?I?
No.
Time required to reach
(minutes)
Description
40� 0. 50� 0. 60� C. 70� 0
8511.-.. Hard wheat parent ?our-.-_-.-_
9550.-. Hard wheat ?our roll re
-
14
25
32. 5
39. 5
21. 2
28. 5
13. 2
l7. 5
22. 5
8706... Soft wheat garent ?our
_.
14
20. 2
27. 7
9603.... Soft wheat
_.
16.0
24.0
33.8
9031-.. Bolt wheat flour turbo regr .... --
12. 0
18. 5
25. 2
8512.-. Hard wheat turbo ragr.
I By extrapolation.
our roll regr ____
14. 7
19. 3
30.1
36. 6
1 50
33. 9
30, N0. 3, May 1953). Above testing method speci?ed
occur in excess of water. Instead of running tests at
05 room temperature level, ?ve different temperature levels
(30�, 40�, 50�, 55�, and 60� C.) were selected. At 70? C.
temperature level, imbibition capacity reached such high
values that no excess of alkaline water was left in the
70 tube to be drained. Flour hydrations were performed at
the above ?ve temperature levels provided by constant
temperature water bath.
The following tabulation shows how water imbibition
or water withholding capacity of the two ?our samples
75 changed at different temperature levels:
ve reduction
32 microns in major diameters when regrinding by closely
set rolls of roller milling is employed. The drawings
through our novel process steps was utilized, resulting in
a Fisher value of 10.25, reduced from 20.4 Fisher, for the
relatively large sample obtained. In both cases, the re
were made after intensive microscopic study had been
completed on the part of the applicant Gracza with
Gracza's sketches of many starch granules observed
size.
ing of starch granules within a size range between 16 and
leased, whole starch granules of the largest size and most
all of the remaining agglomerates were of the sub-sieve
In FIGS. 3 and 4, a number of the? protein matter
particles of irregular shape are indicated by the letter p,
ber of which were disposed substantially normal to the 10 many of them being in discrete form and some still ad
hering to a starch granule or granules. These very small
line of vision. From the many sketches, ?ve typical
particles, as was disclosed in pending application, Serial
particles identi?ed by the letters a, b, c, d and e, arere�
No. 470,244, may be withdrawn by critical air separa
produced here, the left hand column of views being plan
tion with, of course, the smallest whole starch granules
views, or where the particle is disposed substantially
normal to the line of vision (position of maximum sta 15 to obtain, in the combination of our reduction and dress
ing steps and subsequent critical air separation steps, pro
bility), and the right hand column illustrating the same
tein spreads and concentrated starch and protein frac
particles, a to e inclusive, taken in side elevation or
tions never heretofore obtained. In this connection,
turned 90 degrees from their position shown in the left
during subsequent low critical air separation, a small
hand column. Starch granule a, it will be noted, is
cleaved almost diametrically on its major axis. ' Starch 20 amount of the agglomerates will be broken down, freeing
additional protein particles from starch granules. We
granule b is split or cut on a plane substantially normal
have found, as will be shown in several of the samples
to the major axis. Starch granule c has had a sector
hereinafter given (Examples 7a and 7b) that, heretofore,
cut or cleaved therefrom which is very typical. Starch
unknown protein spread is possible without regard to the
granule d has been centrally fractured with a more-or-less
circular peripheral portion removed therefrom. This was 25 protein content of the natural grain employed, and that
fractions of higher starch and protein content respectively
very typical of many particles of hard wheat carefully
are attainable with our process including the reduction,
inspected under the microscope. Starch granule e has
dressing and subsequent air separation steps. (See
had a generally segmental portion removed therefrom,
FIGS. 16a and 16b.)
extending through half of its thickness and in an irregu
larity at its central portion. It will be understood that 30 Re: Point 3 (surface dressing and treatment of starch
any combination pf the (a -to e type) damage vmay be
granules)
' through the microscope, a number of which granules
were disposed edgewise to the line of sight, and a num
present.
'
In FIG. 21, two starch granules, f and g, are illustrated
in plan and side elevation, which were picked from many,
many particles carefully inspected by the applicant,
Gracza, by viewing and projecting with great magni?ca
Through the employment of our novel grinding reduc
tion and surface treatment or dressing upon cereal endo
35 sperm particles or fragments of both hard and soft wheat
characteristics, truly unexpected and substantial increase
- in the free, uncoated aggregate surface (as indexed by
tion by microscopes. The granule f is typical of a great
speci?c surface) of starch granules is produced. In
many whole, discrete starch granules shelled-out, released
and dressed by employment of our improved process. 40 FIGS. 1 to 3, the comparison between the relative num
ber of whole starch granules found in commercially
The light, more-or-less concentric lines indicating, as
milled (roller- ground) soft wheat and in the particles
shown in the microscope, some slight separation or de
produced through our novel process is well illustrated.
formation, we believe of layers or strata of different
A much larger percentage of the starch granules above 22
molecular structure within the starch granule itself. Such
microns in major diameters is obtained through our novel
characteristics are typical of the starch granules, large
and small, released and dressed through our novel proc 45 grinding and reduction but, moreover, the proportion of
small starch granules under 22 microns in major diam
ess where the ?turbo" grinding is not intensi?ed.
eters and down to diameters as low as 10 microns, is very
Starch granule g of FIG. 2, in an abstract way, typi?es
released, whole starch granules obtained through the
substantial through the use of our process, as illustrated
and the advantages thereof to improve baking qualities,
tion or by intensifying or repeating ?ing-impact grinding,
the starch granules resulting therefrom, as characteristi
in FIG. 3. The comparison is more pronounced in
employment of our novel process where the reduction
steps are intensi?ed to produce particle distribution and 50 favor of our products obtained through so-called ?turbo?
grinding, as seen in FIGS. 2 and 4 (hard wheat). In
size as low as a 7 Fisher value.- Here it will be noted, in
all instances, the aggregate or total of all uncoated or free
addition to the typical light concentric lines observable
starch granule surf-aces was tremendously increased as
on starch granules such as f, very light cracks or short
compared with any now used commercial methods of
?ssures radially extending at the very peripheral edges of
grinding or reduction of cereal endosperm particles.
the granules are present. The factors and functions of
If, to ?attain a ?ner particle size or Fisher value, an
our process responsible for the dressing and physical
attempt is made to regrind intensively by roller mill ac
changes of the starch granules, as illustrated in FIG. 21
will be fully brought out in accordance with our knowl
edge and beliefs, hereafter.
Re: ?Point 2 (subsieve particle size disintegration of pro
tein constituents)
60 cally shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, are badly damaged, a still
comparatively small proportion of free starch granules
is obtained as compared with the results of our novel
process. In fact, even with such intensi?ed grinding by
roller mill or ?ing-impact, which is commercially im
In employing our grinding, reduction and particle 65 practical, very few of the smaller starch granules below
dressing steps, the endosperm, fragments, chunks and
25 microns in major diameters are released. Further
particles previously substantially freed from the other
moreyas well illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, most of the
portions of the cereal kernels or grains, are reduced to
starch granules which are released,? of "the larger sizes,
?sub-sieve? size even in the case of hard grains such as
still have protein portions or other matter adhering.
durum (of a size which will easily pass through com 70 They are not uncoated.
mercial test sieves having 325 meshes to the linear inch).
With our process steps of reduction and dressing, the
In the case of the particles illustrated in FIG. 3 (soft
protein matter and other matter closely adhering to the
wheat), the Fisher value of the large sample obtained by
starch granules proper, is loosened and/or peeled and/or
relatively moderate ?turbo" grinding was 9.8 (reduced
removed. With it, other matter such as the lipids are
from 11.0 Fisher). In the case of the particles illustrated 75 also removed. A very large proportion of the discrete
3,077,308
13
starch granules obtained through our process are whole
and substantially undamaged and are substantially un
coated.
I
These surface treated or dressed starch granules are
more susceptible to imbibition of water within certain
temperature range than starch granules found in any of
the commercially milled endosperm products produced
14
treating of the individual starch granule surfaces occurs,
to the end that immediately adhering protein matrix and
the other substances including lipids which are PfeSFnt
with protein in the said coating or surrounding material,
is loosened and/or peeled and/or removed and the starch
granule-surfaces aerated, controllably heated and OXI
dized. Since the starch granules are relatively elastic the
commercially at this time by means of dry method.
mechanical travels and treatments subject them to an
The ?starch concentrated fractions obtained throughour
elastic deformation, cooperating with the, other phenom
novel process steps have been found to have materially 10 ena to we believe, produce molecular structural changes
altered baking qualities as evidenced by the extensive
especially affecting the inner strata of the granules in
tests and proofs we have made, some of which hereafter
which the less resistant, complex, crystalline starch ma
will be set forth in the examples appended. The altered
terial is by nature deposited.
baking qualities of said fractions are particularly favor
To visually, through microscopic examination, com~
able for production of baked products from certain of
pare hydration properties of the original parent ?our
the batter-dough.
stocks with the products of our improved process in con
We believe and there are proofs which show that the
nection with the grinding, reduction and surface-treating
novel surface treatment and dressing of starch granules
steps, FIGS. 10 to 13 of the drawings are included in
through employment of our improved process and which
this application.
'
is responsible for the changed and improved baking 20 FIG. 10 illustrates with intensive microscopic enlarge
qualities and hydration properties referred to, is due to
ment, at 260 times, the appearance of many particles of
several factors working together, to Wit, (a) the me
the identical soft wheat ?our stock illustrated in FIG. 1
chanical abrasion, rubbing, spinning, attrition and oblique
after having been subjected to a surplus of water for a
impact of the particles in their circuitous movements and
period of 28 minutes at a temperature of 75 degrees F.
in their many turbulence paths through general circuitous 25 It will be noted by comparative study of FIG. 1, show
paths between walls of the apparatus; (b) the very sub
ing the same soft wheat ?our stock before being subjected
stantial aeration and treatment of the particles by rela
to moisture, that the starch granules of FIG. 10 have en
tively dry, gaseous medium (preferably air) during their
larged only slightly if any, have not produced ?ssures or
great multiplicity of travels and paths, causing fast dry
show the appearance of moisture-absorption to any sub
ing of the exterior surface of the granules; (c) the factor 30 stantial degree. ,
of heat at controlled, elevated temperatures produced
FIG. 11 shows the same hard wheat ?our stock as is
through the rapid and manifold travels of air current and
illustrated in FIG. 2 of the drawing, after it has been
particles. Within the scope of our invention, such con
trolled temperatures may be still further elevated or sup
plemented by introduction of heat from outside source, 35
including exothermic source.
subjected to a surplus of water at a temperature of 75
degrees for a period of three minutes or slightly in ex
cess thereof. It will be noticed by comparison of the
1
particles illustrated in FIG. 11 with the particles shown
in FIG. 2 of the drawings, that only a very slight change
Note: Both of the last mentioned treatments (b) and
has
occurred in the size and expansion of the said starchy
(c) (aeration 'and heat under control) produce fast ac
tion drying of the surfaces of the starch granules and 40 particles. The hard Wheat starch granules in FIG. 11
have not to any substantial extent produced ?ssures,
also oxidation of chemical compounds of the particles.
burst or enlarged in size as compared with the dry starch
It is also believed that the heat has effect upon the lipids
granules
of FIG. 2, showing that in the three minute pe
in the protein and starch particles.
riod for water imbibition only a very slight imbibition
Depending on the degree of the above factors and the
has been effected.
time involved, ?ner or thicker exterior strata of the starch 45
In FIG. 12, the same soft wheat ?our stock having
granules becomes dry to a degree to produce local tension
been ?processed with our novel so-called ?turbo? grinding
by shrinkage through local moisture loss. Such stresses
steps has been subjected to an excess of water at a tem
effect the starch granules and/or lipid complexes of the
perature of 75 degrees F.,? for a period of six minutes.
dried strata, producing small ?ssures or disturbance of
the material continuity of the starch-granules-surfaces 50 By comparison of the particles of FIG. 12 with the par
ticles shown in FIG. 10 of the drawings and also with
such as is illustrated abstractly in FIG. 21 (granules f
the particles of FIG. 3 of the drawings, it will be noted
and g), in contrast with the character of cleaving or
that in FIG. 12, the starch granules have swollen and
starch damage illustrated in FIG. 20� (granules a to e,
have
produced ?ssures near the peripheral edges thereof
inclusive) which exemplify starch granules reduced by
and clearly indicate the absorption of a substantial
commercial milling procedures.
55 amount of moisture.
After the steps of our grinding and treatment have
In FIG. 13, particles of hard wheat endosperm, after
been applied and completed, the dried layer or strata of
reduction through out novel processes of grinding, reduc
the starch granule surface regains at least partly its mois
tion and surface treatment have been subjected to a sur
ture content, absorbing some moisture from the interior
of Water for a period of three and one-half minutes,
of the granule, i.e., from the inside crystalline complex 60 plus
at a temperature of 75 degrees F. These starch granules
substances. As the exterior layer regains moisture con
tent the local surface tension decreases and with it the ?s
sures disappear or substantially decrease, becoming at
least partially invisible under high microscopic exami
from hard wheat ?our stock have absorbed a substantial
amount of water, being swollen and ?enlarged as con
trasted with the identical stock without moisture, shown
in FIG. 4.
a
nation.
85
By
comparison
the starch granules illustrated in FIG.
The above phenomena would seem to of necessity pro
13 (?turbo? ground) with those shown in FIG. 11
duce changes in the molecular structure of the starch
(merely roller mill ground), it will be seen that the water
granules along the ?ssure-surface, which we believe re
imbibition indicated by swelling, partial bursting and pro
duces the more complex molecular chains into less com
of ?ssures of particles dressed andreduced by our
plex molecular chains. De?nitely a mechanical-physical 70 ducing
novel
process,
is very substantially increased, as con
modi?cation of the granule occurs.
When the three factors previously mentioned-?(a) me
chanical action; (b) drying by aeration; and (c) con
trasted with the slight imbibition of the starch granules
illustrated in FIG. 11 (merely roller milled hard wheat
?our stock).
trolled heat effect are simultaneously applied in the car
In making the careful microscopic examinations and
rying out of our novel process, the previously recited 75
tests from which FIGS. 10 to 13, inclusive, of the draw
8,077,808
16
15
with a Fisher value of 17.0. The ?ne fraction (KT-4389)
of the same classi?cation procedure, representing 9.4% of
the reground stock, had a protein content of 19.9%, ash
ings were obtained, the hydrating medium for the par
ticles under slides comprise a 1% aqueous solution of
Congo red. Visually through the microscopic hydration
content .733 % with a Fisher value of 4.2.
More intense regrinding by our process in a second
case produced a ?our (XI-4353) with a Fisher value of
of the starch particles could be observed through the red
color of the solution appearing within the granules.
The increase of shade or color in the granules appeared
substantially parallel with the increase in the minute ?s
sures of the starch-granule-surface, as depicted in FIGS.
10 to 13 inclusive. By_hydration the almost invisible
?ssures imparted by our novel grinding and dressing 10
treatment became more and more visible as hydration
9.2. Succeeding air separation performed at critical cut
of 13 FD unit produced a coarse fraction (XT-4386)
representing 87.9% of the reground stock, having a pro
tein content of 7.7%, ash content 323% with a Fisher
value of 10.8. The ?ne fraction (XI-4387) of the same
classi?cation procedure representing 12.1% of the re
proceeded in time.
ground stock had a protein content of 22.3%, ash content
Speci?c hydration characteristics of our ?turbo? ground
.750% ,?with a Fisher value of 3.45.
endosperm particles (speci?cally ?our) is shown with the
increasing heat conductivity index running parallel with 15 In comparing the above two regrinding cases, the more
intense regrinding from a Fisher value of 19.4 to 9.2 pro
the increasing intensity of grinding, as fully set forth and
duced more protein shifting (22.6%) after classi?cation
explained in Example No. 9, which follows in the speci
than did the slight regrinding (protein shifting 18.5%)
?cationl. Such heat conductivity index and its derivative
characterises the hydration properties as a function of
from a Fisher value of 19.4 to 16.0.
time.
Example 2
This example is presented in order to show characteris
tic di?erences on products if processed by conventional
milling methods in comparison to our novel ?turbo? grind
ing, using microscopic observations and the descriptive
.
In another example set forth herein, to wit, Example
No. 10, another speci?c hydration characteristic of
?turbo? ground endosperm particles is shown in its in
creased changing rate in alkaline water-retention capacity
with the increasing degree or intensity of our ?turbo?
.
method of morphology. .
grinding, speci?cally the change in alkaline water reten
More speci?cally, our exhaustive tests have shown that
tion by temperature unit increases.
with our novel disintegration and surface dressing steps a
EXAMPLES
hard wheat stock may be processed to obtain therefrom
In the following examples the ash, protein, moisture, 80 ?our of similar morphology and similar baking character
istics to a ?our made from soft wheat.
fat, diastatic activity (maltose) were all run according to
The above statement is well demonstrated by com
standard methods as set forth in ?Cereal Laboratory
Methods," ?fth edition, 1947. The protein, ash and malt
parison of FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 4 where respectively drawings
ose- ?gures hereinafter quoted were thereafter adjusted
made from microphotographs of soft wheat parent, hard
to a uniform 14% moisture basis. The cake baking 35 wheat parent, soft wheat turbo-ground, and hard wheat
turbo-ground ?ours are presented all in 240 times mag~
tests hereinafter quoted were carried out under standard
ni?cation. Visual consideration of said drawings clearly
show that the particle size and shape characteristics of the
hard wheat,'turbo-ground ?our (FIG. 4) are similar in
many respects to the soft wheat parent flour stock (FIG.
1) and to the soft wheat, turbo-ground ?our (FIG. 3).
In addition to the above gained visual impressions, the
ized baking tests at substantially similar pH values, and
the results tabulated in accordance with the previously
identi?ed authority. The hereinafter quoted Fisher values
were arrived at with constant porosity of 0.465 in accord
ance with the standardized method described in the pub
lication of B. Dubrow, ?Analytical Chemistry," volume
25, 1953, pp. 1242 to 1244. (Fisher Scienti?c Co., Pitts
burgh, Pa., ?Directions for Determination of Average
Particle Diameters, etcf?) .
The alkaline water-retention values hereinafter quoted
were arrived at through the recognized AWR?capacity
test as described in the publication ?Cereal Chemistry? of
May 1953, vol. 30, #3, and these values are regarded as
v a measure of water imbibition capacity.
following suggestions will facilitate speci?c comparison:
(a) Observe oblong shaped particles (endosperm
45 chunks) with clear de?nite edges and sharp corners (in
FIG. 2) versus inde?nite contour irregularly shaped par
ticles (endosperm chunks) with inde?nite, lacerated edges
in FIGS. 1, 3, and 4.
(b) Observe presence (in FIGS. 1, 3 and 4) and ab
50 sence (in FIG. 2) of starch granules protruding from the
The units of measurement referred to as ?F-D? units
endosperm chunks.
_
-(c) Observe frequency order of shelled out free starch
granules (FIGS. 1, 2 and 4 vs. FIG. 2).
(d) Observe frequency order of clean uncoated starch
application, S.N. 470,244, and incorporated hereinafter. 55 granules,twhere no protein matrix is adhering to the starch
granule (FIGS. 3 and 4 vs. FIGS. 1 and 2).
Example 1
(2) Observe frequency order of free protein matter
particles (FIGS. 3 and 4 vs. FIGS. 1 and 2).
This example is presented in order to show our re
utilized to evaluate particle size distribution through a
method of centrifuge sedimentation are in accord with
the method fully set forth and explained in co-pending
ducing, surface treating and dressing endosperm particles
through the employment of our novel process, increasing 60
materially the opportunities for protein shifting in flour
fractionation by sub-sieve size separation.
Example 3
This example shows how progressively more intense
reduction and surface treatment through our novel proc
esses increase the cake baking capacity of a ?our.
A commercially milled long patent ?our out of a blend
by our process to two different granulations expressed 65 of 85% northern Indiana soft wheat and 15% Michigan
soft white wheat has ben processed by subsieve size air
by Fisher value (speci?c surface). Reground samples
separation and extremely light regrinding which pro
have been air separated into coarse and ?ne fractions.
duced a parent ?our (KT-5196) having a protein con
, The protein content of the parent ?our (XT-4350) was
tent of 7.6%, moisture of 11.2%, ash content of 354%,
9.51%, ash content, 356%, with a Fisher value (measur
ing average granulation by speci?c surface of 19.4). Re 70 with a Fisher value of 11.55, maltose value of 89, and
AWR (alkaline water retention) of 55.1%. Approxi
grinding in the ?rst case produced a ?our (XT-4352) with
mate processing of this long patent flour comprised an air
a Fisher value of 16.0. This ?our has been air separated
A parent A grade flour commercially milled out of
straight Nebraska hard winter wheat has been reground
at a critical cut of 20.5 FD unit producing a coarse frac
separation step performed at critical cut of approximately
19.5 FD unit. The coarse fraction of this separation
and had a protein content of 9.1%, ash content 352%, 75 with very slight regrinding is the parent ?our. 'Fine frac
tion (XT-4388), representing 90.6% of reground stock,
8,077,808
17
18
tion (KT-5198) representing approximately 5% of the
Water imbibition capacity increased with increasing de
long patent ?our had a protein content of 20.54%, mois
ture of 10.0%, ash content of .443%, with a Fisher value
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