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Патент USA US3077529

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Feb. 12, 1963
' G. GUANELLA
3,077,518
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9, 1959
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APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed NOV. 9, 1959
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G. GUANELLA
3,077,518
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9, 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Feb. 12, 1963
G. GUANELLA
‘3,077,518
APPARATUS. FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9. 1959
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Feb. 12, 1963
G. GUANELLA
3,077,518
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9, 1959
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Feb. 12, 1963
G. GUANELLA
3,077,518
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9. 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 6
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Feb. 12, 1963
G. GUANELLA
3,077,518
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9. 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 7
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Feb. 12, 1963
3,077,518
G. GUANELLA
APPARATUS FOR CAMOUFLAGING COMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Filed Nov. 9, 1959
8 Sheets-Sheet 8
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3,077,518
Patented Feb. 12, 1963
2
each additional signal impulse (for example, the impulse
3,077,518
height or the time position of an impulse edge) is in
?uenced in dependence on the properties of a plurality of
APPARATU§ FQR CAMGUFLAGlNG
preceding control signal impulses. Such an additional
CGMMUNICATION SIGNALS
Gastav Guaneila, Zurich, Switzerland, assignor to Patel 5 signal in the form of an impulse is particularly suitable
hold Patentverwertungs- 8: Elektro-Holding A.-G.,
for camou?aging a communication signal, likewise in the
Glarus, Switzerland
form of an impulse, the impulses modulated with the
Filed Nov. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 851,675
communication signal appearing at the same time as the
Claims priority, application Switzerland Dec. 10, 1958
additional signal impulses and being mixed with the latter,
7 Claims. (Cl. 179-1.5)
10 for example, by addition or multiplication.
Mixing by multiplication is particularly suitable for
There are two principally different groups of methods
communication signals which have the form of impulses
for camou?aging communication signals. -In the methods
of variable polarity. The polarity of these impulses is
of the ?rst group, the signal to be transmitted is divided
then reversed in dependence on the polarity of the im
.
elements with directly adjoining frequencies, which are 15 pulses of the additional signal.
Various embodiments of the invention are shown in
then transmitted to the receiver, in an order differing
the accompanying drawings and will be described below
from the original order, Where they are ordered again.
in further detail.
These methods yield only a limited security against un
In the drawings:
cal expenditure; in voice signals to be sure because the
FIGS. 1 and 2 are block schematic diagrams showing
authorized monitoring, despite a relatively great techni
two different forms of communication systems embodying
amplitude ?uctuations, which are characteristic of these
on the transmitter side into successive elements, or into
signals, are maintained. In the methods of the second
group, the signal to be transmitted is mixed on the trans
mitter side with an additional signal to conceal the time
the inventive concept;
signal is then separated again from the additional signal.
various embodiments of the program converter compo
The additional signal can be obtained on the transmitter
and receiver side from one signal source each, which are
nent.
With reference now to the drawings, and to FIG. 1
tional signal, which would facilitate unauthorized moni
(right). This signal is mixed in the camou?age-modu
,
-
.
FIGS. 3 and 4 are graphs showing the method of op
eration of the program converter component of the sys
slope of the communication signal, thus making it un 25 tem; and
FIGS. 5-13 are block schematic diagrams illustrating
recognizable. On the receiver side the communication
synchronized. It is di?icult in this case to maintain the 30 in particular, a communication signal x in the form of
an impulse is to be camou?aged and transmitted from
synchronism in case of transmission trouble. Besides,
the site of transmission (left) to‘ the site of reception
the avoidance of repetitions in the time slope of the addi
lator VM on the transmitter side with the additional sig
grams, and thus a considerable expenditure. The addi 35 nal v, which has also the, form of an impulse, .and the
signal z, resulting from this mixture, is fed to the receiver‘,
tional signal produced on the transmitter side can also
where the communication signal is separated from the
be transmitted to the receiver over a separate channel, it
additional signal v by an identical modulator VMJ The
necessary after camou?aging. Finally, a relatively simple
additional signal v is produced on the transmitter and
control signal can be produced on the transmitter side
and transmitted to the receiver, the complicated additional 40 receiver side by a program converter PW according to
identical rules from the control signal u, which has also
signal being produced by identical means on the trans
the form ‘of an impulse. The control signal originates
mitter and receiver side.
from ‘the generator EH installed on the transmitter side
The invention relates also to a system where the addi
and is fed to the transmitter and receiver arrangement
tional signals required on the transmitter and receiver
for which a special transmission channel is used in the
side are obtained from a control signal available at both
toring, requires the use of storage units for long pro
places. The object of the invention is to produce addi
tional signals with a time slope which offers practically
absolute security against unauthorized monitoring, even
represented example.
if the control signal is known, a true-to-form agreement
of the additional signal on the receiver side with the
signal on the transmitter side being ensured, even in the
case of variations of the operating voltages and similar
troubles.
values appearing at certain times in?uence a parameter
of the control signal impulses.
then combined at the transmitting station to form a
erate the additional signal v from the control signal u.
.
,
.
In the-production of the control signal one can start,
for example, from a ‘noise potential .whose instantaneous
In a variation of the arrangement shown in FIG. 1 the
generator EH can naturally also be installed on the re
ceiver side or in any suitable place; it can also be placed
The improved secret signalling apparatus in accordance 55 centrally and provide several ‘communication transmitting
plants simultaneously with the control singal.
_
with the present invention comprises a ?rst pulse series
According to FIG. 2 the signal z, produced by mixing
modulated by an intelligence signal. Means are provided
the communication signal x with the additional signal v,
at the transmitting station for generating a control pulse
is used as a control signal u, if necessary after transforma
series of arbitrarily varying polarity which are there
tion into asequence of modulated impulses. Correspond
after converted by a program converter in the form of
ingly this signal itself is fed to the program converter PW
logical circuit means into an additional pulse series hav
on the transmitter and receiver side.
_ .
ing polarities in dependence upon the polarities of several
The method of operation of the program converterwill
previously occurring pulses of the control pulse series.
be described on thebasis of FIGS. 3 and 4, which gen
The ?rst pulse series and the additional pulse series are
composite pulse series. The control pulse series and the 65 These program converters, built for example, in the man
ner of logical circuits, e.g. digital computers, generate an
composite pulse series are then sent from the transmitting
impulse sequence, one parameter of each impulse depend
station to the receiving station where means identical
ing on the parameters of a plurality of preceding impulses
with those at the transmitting station produce a second
of the control signal. The above mentioned impulse
and identical additional pulse series which is then applied
to the composite pulse series to reconvert the latter into 70 sequence serves directly or after additional transforma
tions as an additional signal. Preferably identical devices
the ‘?rst pulse series. The generation of the additional
are used on the transmitter and receiver side for the gen-'
pulse series is e?ected in this .way that a parameter of
3
3,077,518
4
eration of the additional signal from the control signal.
tional transformation, serves as an additional signal. The
program according to which the generation is etfected is
In FIGS. 3 and 4 it has been assumed that the control
signal u (line a) consists of a sequence of short impulses
of uniform shape whose polarity are changed as a matter
changed at certain times by the computing device RG1,
which in turn is actuated likewise by the control signal 14.
of chance. The output impulse sequence v (line 0) of the CI!
FIG. 7 shows a detailed example for such a program
program converter is also composed, in the represented
converter. The control signal u traverses the delay line
examples, of impulses of uniform shape, Whose polarity is
VE1 of the computing device RG1 and subsequently (as
determined by the polarity of several preceding control
signal 11,,) the delay line VEZ of the program computing
signal impulses.
device RG2 proper. From the impulses a4 to a6 taken
According to FIG. 3 the polarity of the impulses vn
is determined by the polarities of in successive preceding
impulses of the sequence u; in the represented example,
fromthis delay line, the switch element KA2 generates
the impulse sequence b. Reversal of the polarity. is ef
fected at a certain point of the delay line VE2 by a signal
m equals seventeen and in line b the seventeen decisive
s1, a variation of the function mode of KA2, for example,
impulses of the sequence u have therefore been marked by
in the sense of a polarity reversal of the impulses b,
thick lines. Among them are seven positive and ten nega— 15 can be eifected by a signal s2. The signals s1 and s2 are
tive impulses.
generated by a switch element KA1 which is connected on
According to the embodiment in FIG. 4 the polarity of
the impulses v is determined by the polarities of several
preceding impulses of the sequence a which do not follow
the input side with taps of the delay line VEl and which
is therefore also actuated by the, control signal it. The
above mentioned switch element generates, in the repre
each other immediately, however, and whose selection 20 sented example, a third signal :3 which in?uences the
vand number must not be the same for each impulse'vn.
program of the storage unit SE in the same sense that
In the represented example the polarity of the impulse vn
the sequence of the issuing impulses v no longer agrees
is given by the product of the polarities of the series of
~ with the sequence of the stored impulses b.
fourteen impulses of the sequence u marked in line b by
When designing the switch elements designated by KA
thick lines (eight positive, six negative, vn consequently
positive), the polarity of the impulses vn+1 by the product
25 in FIG. 7 and other ?gures, use can be made of the nu
merous possibilities, known in themselves, of the tech
nology of logical circuits and electronic computers.
of the polarities of the series of thirteen impulses of the
sequence 14 marked in line 0 (eight positive, ?ve'negative,
Some function modes or programs which can be realized
vn+1 consequently negative).
with simple logical circuits, are shown in FIG. 8. Ac
In order to ensure the secrecy of the camou?age, the 30 cording to one of the various programs A to E, output
number of impulses of the sequence 1:, which are deter
quantities b are generated from only two input quantities
minant for the polarity of the impulses v, must be selected
a1, a2 (for example, from the existence and polarity of
su?iciently high. If the determinant group comprise m
two impulses. According to program A, the product
impulses, there are, for example in the method according
‘of the input quantities is formed; according to program
to FIG. 3, 21“ different possible forms for this group. In 35 B, an impulse with the sign of the sum of the input im
order to render unauthorized decoding di?icult, repeti
pulses is formed; according to program C, an output im
tions of the forms should be relatively rare. The prob
of the corresponding polarity is only generated
ability of repetitions drops with the number of possible , pulse
when both input impulses have the same polarity; ac
forms, that is, exponentially with increasing In. A nu
to program D, the output quantity has the sign
merical example will show the suitable order of magnitude 40 cording
of the sum of the input impulses, but if this sum is zero,
for m. For camou?aging a voice signal, an additional
[the output quantity remains at the value it had imme
signal with about 10,000 impulses per second seems ex
diately before (positions M); n‘inally according to pro
pedient. If m equals 30, there are 23° or about 109 di?er
ent forms available for the determinant group. . The one
time course of all these forms takes about 105 seconds or 45
about 28 hours. Only after this time has elapsed can a
repetition of forms be expected with great probability.
FIGS. 5-13 show examples for the construction of
each of which generates an output quantity ‘from two in
program converters PW according to the invention.
In an arrangement according to FIG. 5, which works
according to themethod of FIG. 3, the control signal u
is carried over a delay line VE with several taps at
which the preceding impulses a; to a, can be tapped at
any time. These impulses, which need not necessarily
be, directly adjoining in the control signal, represent the
determinant group for the polarity of the output impulse
gnam E, the output quantity is only polarized by input
impulses of equal polarity; in all other combinations of
polarities of the input impulses, it remains at the value
it occupied before (positions M).
According to FIG. 9, several switch elements KA,
put quantities, can be combined to a program converter
as shown in FIG. 5. Thus inputs a1, a2 generate output
b1 ‘and inputs a3, a4 generate output b2. Outputs b1 and’
b2 are then combined to generate output C. Depending
on the selection of the possibilities for each individual
switch element shown in FIG. 8, there are numerous pos
55 sibilities for the relation of the output quantity 0 with the
v. A ?rst switch element KA forms the signals v1 to vn
from a number of impulses selected from the group a1
to a‘, a second switch element EZ 'forms the signal v
from the impulses v1 to v,,. .In a-simpler version, the 60
switch element EZ may be dispensed with, the switch
element KA forming directly the signal v.
'
‘If such an arrangement is to work according to the
input quantities al to (14.
The number of possibilities
can be further increased, for, example, by the application
of coincidence circuits.
These can be so designed that
output impulses can only appear or change their sign
when the input impulses have a certain sign combination.
FIG. 10 shows, from the great number of possibilities,
a combination of switch elements, each of which works
in ‘accordance with the fed letter A, B or E according to
method in FIG. 4, where the number of impulses and
the program with the same letter. Each switch element
their position within the determinant group is not con— 65 uses two input quantities for each output quantity. Al
stant, switch elements can be provided which are also
together six output signals bl to 56 are generated according
actuatedby the control signal it and which permute the
to dilferent programs vfrom twelve input signals a1 to an.
connections between the taps of the delay line VB and
The input signals can be obtained by means of a delay
the ?rst switch element KA according to any ?xed pro
line from the control signal; the output signals can be
gram. The number of taps can also be greater in this
combined inv any desiredmanner with ‘the additional sig
case than the number of inputs of the ?rst multiplier.
nal, ‘for example, in this way that the signal b4 takes over
In general, such a method of operation can be de
the part of signal'b in FIG; 7 and the other signals the
scribed on the basis of the block diagram in FIG. 6.
parts of the signals s in FIG. 7.
The program computing device RG2 generates, from the
Another example for a program conventer is shown in
controlsignal, the signal v which, if necessary after addi
75
FIG. 11. The, control signal u traverses the delay'line
3,077,518
5
impulses of SE3 and SE; yield ?nally, by forming the sign
products in the switch elements KAg to KAm, the code
signals v1, v2, v3. By storing the impulses again by vary
ing'time-s in SE3 and SE4, a further increase of the coding
security is achieved.
line are fed as input quantities a1 to as, to the switch
elements KA1, KA2 and KA3. The output quanti?es of
the above mentioned switch elements reach over per
muting switches PS2 and PS4 additonal switch elements
KA4, KA5, and ICAG and KAm, KAn and KA12 re
spectively. To the last mentioned permuting switches
are also fed additional signals d1, d2, 113, f1, f2, f3, which
originate from the switch elements KA4, KA5 and KAG
and from the switch elements KAI], KAs and KA9, re
spectively which are connected with them over the per
muting switch PS3. The impulse sequence v1, v2 and 113
thus depend according to different adjustable programs
The construction of a storage device can be seen from
FIG. 13. The signals ql to q, and :15 to qg can be inter
changed selectively in permuting switches PS and lead
then through the ferrite cores K with rectangular mag
netization curve.
magnetization appears at the same time in a horizontal as
One of the impulses
q; to q.,, in connection with one of the impulses <15 to qg
produces a magnetic reversal of one of the eight cores K.
In the common secondary circuit of all cores, a corre
15 well as in a vertical exciter line.
sponding positive or negative output impulse r1 is then
generated.
Additional secondary circuits, (not repre
sented) are laid through the cores partly in opposite di
rection, so that at the same time additional output im
pulses rl to r3 are formed which are associated with the
individual cores with partly di?erent signs. Instead of
the magnetic storage elements, other storage elements
switch PS1. The latter exchanges the signals according
which are known in themselves can naturally also be
provided and numerous variations and additions are natu
to a pre-arranged program and yields, for example, six
signals (17': to F12)
The magnetic reversal of the cores is
effected only when an impulse acting in the direction of
on the control signal u and is further combined by the
switch element EZ to form the additional signal v.
In the program converter according to FIG. 12, the con
trol signal it approximately in the form of FIG. 3, tra
verses the delay line VE1 which is composed of n steps.
The storage time of each step corresponds to an impulse
interval. At the output of the individual steps are tapped
signals which are thus delayed by an integral multiple of
an impulse interval; these signals are fed to the permuting
signals (pi to ps). The control signal an, which is delayed
in VE1, reaches a second delay line VEZ. The permuting
switch PS2 generates from its output signals likewise six
6
and KA; as well as the storage devices SE3 and SE4 in a
manner which has already been described, and the output
VB. Over permuting switches PS1, which can be ad
justed by hand or automatically according to the given
program, the signals u tapped from the taps of the delay
rally possible in the combination of the various circuits.
The various delay devices VE mentioned above can
30 also be obtained by using magnetic storage units, the re
The switch elements KAl to KA4, which have three
inputs each and four outputs, are so designed that, de
pending on the sign combination of the simultaneously
spective stored binary quantity being fed to the next stor
age unit by special control impulses which appear at the
same time as the impulses of the variation signal. In
stead, the individual units can also be formed from‘ de
appearing input impulses, one output impulse is generated
pendent sweep circuits whose switching state is fed from
on one of the output lines. The storage units SE1 to SE4, 35 step to step. Between the individual steps can be pro
which have each two groups of four inputs each, contain
vided reversing circuits Whose control is effected by the
several storage elements, of which one is excited depend
separately produced auxiliary signals s mentioned above.
ing on the combination of the two impulses arriving si
The delay can ?nally also be effected by means of delay
multaneously in one group each. The individual storage
devices with moving carriers which are known in them
elements of each storage unit are thus excited successively
selves, for example, with uniformly magnetic sound car
in irregular sequence. The excited state is maintained in
riers, which are arranged rotatably opposite a recording
each element until the next excitation. Each of the out
head, several pickup heads and an erasing head. The
put lines r1 to r3 is conducted through all storage elements
delay time can then be varied at will in a simple manner
of storage unit SE1, so that a new excitation of each stor
age element effects a positive or negative output impulse 45
on this line. The three output lines r1 to r3 are associated
with the individual storage elements with di?erent polar
ity, so that a certain excitation of the mth storage element,
for example, yields positive output impulses on the lines
r1, r2 and a negative output impulse on the line r3. The
outputs r1 to re of storage units SE1 and SE2 are fed to
the switch elements KA5 to M7, whose output quantities
by shifting the pickup heads.
I claim:
1. Secret signaling apparatus comprising a ?rst pulse
series modulated by an intelligence signal, means gen
erating at a transmitting station a control pulse series of
arbitrarily varying polarity, means converting said con
trol pulse series into an additional pulse series at said
transmitting station comprising logical circuit means with
output pulses having polarities in dependence upon the
s1 to 5;; correspond to the sign product of the input im
polarities of several previously occurring pulses of said
pulses. The control voltages are now fed to the various
control pulse series, means combining said ?rst pulse se
steps of the delay line VEZ, for example, in the manner 55 ries with said additional pulse series of varying polarity
represented in FIG. 7. Thus, for example, the feeding of
at said transmitting station to form a composite pulse
the impulses from the ?rst to the second step in VE2 can
series, means for transmitting both said control pulse se
be stopped temporarily by the control impulse 51. But it
is also possible, for example, to reverse the polarity of the
impulse signal fed to the ?fth step by s2. These control
signals thus effect a change in the impulse sequence pro~
ries and said composite pulse series from said transmit
tlng station to a receiving station, means at said receiv
ing station identical with those at said transmitting sta
tron for producing a second and identical additional pulse
gressing in the delay line VE2. Because of the impulse
series, and means applying said second additional pulse
storage appearing in storage units SE1 and SE2, impulses
series to said composite pulse series at said receiving sta
of the fed control signal it are determinant for these addi
tron to reconvert the latter into said ?rst pulse series.
65
tional changes which precede the input signal an of VE2
2. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim‘ 1
in time by a great and constantly varying number of im
wherein said control pulse series and said additional pulse
series are pulse series with equidistant pulses of different
pulse intervals. The output signals v, ?nally obtained by
polarity but with equal amplitude.
the further camou?aging process, depend therefore, in
3. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim 1
contrast to the dependence shown in FIG. 3, on many vari 70
wherein said logical circuit means comprise an electronic
ation impulses preceding far in time, as it was shown by
digital computer.
way of example in FIG. 4. The secrecy is thus consider
4. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim 1
ably increased by the additional effect of these control sig
wherein said means for converting said control pulse se
nals. The further processing of the permuted tap signals
127 to p12 of VB, is effected over the switch elements KA3 75 ries into said additional pulse series comprise a delay line
3,077,518
7’
8‘
'having a plurality of taps and which is connected/tn said;
generating means for Said control pulse series, and Cir-r
cuit components connected to said taps for forming said
additional pulse series.
'
5. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim 4 5
and which further includes permuting switches in the lines
from the taps on said delay line.
6. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim 4 and
which further includes a storage unit in the lines from the
taps on said delay line.
' 7. Secret signaling apparatus as de?ned in claim 4 and
which further includes pcrmuting switches and storage
units in the lines from the mpg on said delay 1ineS_
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
21405500
Guanena ————————————— —— Aug‘ 6’ 1946
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