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Патент USA US3077691

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Feb. 19, 1963
3,077,681
R. A. PETERSON
LARGE CAPACITY EARTHMOVING SCRAPER .
Filed Oct. 28, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
l
l
m
.p
INVENTOR.
BY RoBe-r‘l; A. Peterson
M K’
ATTORNEYS
1
Feb. 19, .1963
3,077,681
R. A. PETERSON
LARGE CAPACITY EARTI-IMOVING SCRAPER
Filed 001;. 28, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
@
mm
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INVEN TOR.
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BY Robe'r‘b A. Pete-rsqn
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Patented Feb. 19, 1953
2
respect to the ground. A pivoted apron 18 may be low
3,077,681
cred to a position closing the front of the scraper bowl
LARGE CAPAQHTY EARTHMUVENG SQRAPER
Robert
Peterson, San Leandro, Calif., assignor to
Caterpillar Tractor (30., Peoria, Rh, a corporation of
California
Filed Get. 28, race, fz'er. No. 65,698
3 Claims. (Cl. 31-429)
for transporting earth in the bowl and a combination ejec
. This invention relates to earthmoving scrapers and par
which are indicated at 21 and the manner and sequence
tor and small bowl generally indicated at 19 may be
moved forwardly to eject the earth from the bowl when the
apron is open. The apron is raised by a cable and lowered
by gravity and the combination ejector and bowl 19 is
moved forwardly by a cable and returned as by springs
ticularly to a scraper capable of carrying an unusually 10 of these operations will presently be described in detail.
In order to enable complete loading of the main bowl
large load and having means to facilitate the loading of a
large quantity of earth into its bowl.
1%? with the large quantity of earth made possible by its
unusual length, the following procedure is followed. First
There are practical limits to the size of earthmoving
the apron 18 is held in an intermediate position such as
scrapers of conventional design which have tended to dis
courage production of extra large capacity scrapers. Bowl 15 that shown in FIG. 1 to receive earth cut by the edge
17 and prevent it from falling forwardly out of the bowl.
width is limited by shipping requirements and structural
At the same time, the combination ejector and small bowl
strength. Increasing the height or length of the bowl so
increases the power requirement for loading as to be un
19 is held in a forward position as indicated in broken
lines in FIG. 1 and the space between the ejector and apron
of loading a scraper bowl is largely spent on moving the 20 is filled with earth upon forward movement of the scraper
with the cutting edge in the ground. Since the main bowl
earth already in the bowl when it is partially loaded to
is in effect small with the ejector in this position, no
make space to accommodate the balance of the load as
more than ordinary force is required to ?ll it with earth.
it enters. The friction of the earth against the walls of
When it is ?lled, the ejector and bowl 19 is permitted
the bowl causes the expenditure of great effort particularly
during the last part of the loading operation. Efforts have 25 to move rearwardly under the influence of the springs 21
and the force of more earth entering over the cutting edge
been made to increase the scraper bowl sizes by providing
17. This rearward movement is facilitated by rollers
collapsible or telescoping type bowls and providing a small
shown at 23 which engage the bottom 11 of the main
bowl slidable within a large bowl. It has been intended
with such devices to make possible ?rst the loading of the
bowl.
The small bowl 119 has side walls 24 and a rear portion
small bowl and then moving it rearwardly in the large 30
or ejector plate 25 which is inclined rearwardly from its
bowl while the ?nal part of the load was entering and
economical. It has long been recognized that the effort
thus avoid much of the frictional resistance to loading.
lower edge 26 so that the capacity of the bowl is relatively
great for its overall size. Rearward movement of bowl
119 within the main bowl I'll will effect the movement of
35 a large volume of earth without the usual friction between
sitated for manipulation of the small bowl.
this volume of earth and the side walls and bottom of
The present invention is applied to a so-called cable
the main bowl. The small bowl is also provided with
actuated scraper in which the apron is lifted and the in
scraping edges such as shown at 27 in FIGS. 1 and 2 in
jector moved forwardly by a cable wound upon a drum
and powered by a winch. The apron is lowered or closed 40 clined toward very close contact with the walls 12 of the
These efforts have proven impractical because of high con
struction costs and high power requirements often neces
by gravity and the ejector is returned by spring force.
It is the object of the present invention to provide a
large capacity scraper wherein a minimum of extra power
is required for loading and wherein a particular existing
sequence of apron and ejector operation is put to advan 45
tage in making a large scraper of unusually simple design
and low cost.
Further and more speci?c objects and advantages of the
main bowl for cleaning the main bowl and assuring ejec
tion of all of the earth when the ejector plate and small
bowl is moved forwardly. Just prior to the forward move
ment for ejecting the earth from the bowl, the apron 18
is raised to its uppermost position to permit free ejection
from the forward end of the main bowl.
>
The cycle of operation just described is not possible
invention and the manner in which it is carried into prac
tice are made apparent in the following speci?cation
with many conventional cable actuated scrapers because
of the fact that the ejector of such scrapers cannot be
moved to a forward position with the apron in a partially
wherein reference is made to the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
raised or loading position and, therefore, the initial por
tion of the loading cycle cannot be accomplished. The
FIG. 1 is a schematic view in side elevation and par
inability of conventional scrapers to operate in this man
ner may best be understood from FIG. 3 which discloses
vention;
55 the apron and ejector cable system which is well-konwn
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken on the
and previously disclosed in the United States patent to
line ll—1l of FTG. l and illustrating a part of the construc
Gustafson, No. 2,573,765.
tion shown in FIG. 1; and
In FIG. 3, the tubular spreader member 16 and the
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating the manner
draft arms 15 are indicated in simple outline. A cable 3%,
in which cables are employed to obtain a sequence of
one end of which is wound upon a winch drum, not shown,
apron and ejector operation on the scraper of the kind
on the tractor which pulls the scraper, leads over guide
shown in HS. 1.
sheaves 31 and 32 into the spreader where it is trained
The scraper schematically illustrated in FIG. 1 com
over the sheaves in a movable or sliding block 33 and the
prises a long bowl 1t) having a bottom 11 and side walls,
sheaves in a stationary block 34. As this cable is taken in
one of which is shown at 12. It is supported at its rear 65 by the winch drum, it tends to advance the block 33 to
as by a pair of wheels 13 and has pivotal connections,
ward the block 34 with a mechanical advantage deter
one of which is indicated at ill with draft arms 15 sup
mined by the number of strands disposed between the two
ported at their forward ends by a tubular cross member
blocks. After passing through the sheaves on the blocks
33 and 34-, the cable is carried downwardly through one
15 which forms a part of a draft assembly partially shown
connected with a tractor in a conventional manner. The 70 of the draft arms 15 and passes outwardly through the
rear end of the arm over guide sheaves 35 and 36 thence
scraper bowl has a cutting edge 17 adjacent its forward
over a sheave 37. It is then passed through a series of
open end adapted to be lowered into cutting position with
tially in section of a scraper embodying the present in
8,077,681
4
sheaves 38 secured to a rearwardly extending portion of
ejector in such a manner that it also actuates a small bowl
the ejector and a series of sheaves 39 which are secured
with relation to the bowl. The end of the cable is made
and ejector within a large scraper bowl and makes pos
sible the proper and emcient loading of the forward portion of the main bowl before the small bowl is retracted.
Furthermore, in addition to the reduction of friction
effected by the use of the small bowl within the main bowl,
the force of the ejector return springs 21 is employed for
urging the small bowl rearwardly so that additional power
fast as indicated at 40 to an anchor on the bowl. Thus
take-in or pulling on the cable 30 is adapted to shorten
the distance between the sheaves 38 on the ejector and the
sheaves 39 On the bowl so that the ejector will tend to
move forwardly in the main bowl. The apron 18 is raised
by pulling on a cable 42 also shown in FIG. 1 which is
is not required for this purpose.
secured to the apron as by an anchor 41. This cable 42 10
I claim:
is trained over guide sheaves 43, 44 and 45 and has its
1. In a scraper of the character described which has
a main bowl, an apron pivoted with respect to the bowl
Because of the connection thus described, any taking up
for swinging movement to and from a position closing
or pulling on the cable 30 tends to shorten the distance
the forward end of the bowl, a combined ejector and
between the blocks 33 and 34 and thus through the cable 15 small bowl closing the rear end of the main bowl and
42v to raise the apron 18. The same pull on the cable 30
slidable forwardly to eject the contents of the main bowl,
tends to shorten the distance between the sheaves 38 and
and cable controls including a single cable through which
39 and to advance the ejector to discharge the contents
pulling said single cable will ?rst raise the apron until it
of the bowl. Raising of the apron is resisted by gravity
is stopped and then move the ejector and small bowl for
and forward movement of the ejector is resisted by spring 20 wardly, releasable latch means for stopping the apron in
action. Taking into consideration the normal resistance
a partially raised loading position, said cable being op
to the operation of the apron and the ejector and also the
erative to move the ejector and small bowl only after
opposite end secured to the sliding block 33 as shown.
mechanical advantage that is obtained by the cable 30
raising of the apron has been stopped by said latch means
passing over the blocks which control the operation of
whereby the ejector and small bowl will move forwardly
these members, the system is balanced so that the apron 25 to reduce the capacity of the main bowl during the initial
will raise more easily or with less force applied to the
part of the loading cycle.
cable 30 than is required for advancing the ejector. Con
2. In a scraper of the character described which has
sequently, when a pull is applied to the cable 30 the
a main bowl, an apron pivoted with respect to the bowl
block 33 wil be advanced toward the block 34 to raise the
for swinging movement to and from a position closing
apron to its uppermost position before a continued pull 30 the forward end of the bowl, a combined ejector and small
on the cable is effective to advance the ejector.
bowl closing the rear end of the main bowl and slidable
With the foregoing understanding of the manner in
forwardly to eject the contents of the main bowl, and
which the apron and ejector are actuated by pulling upon
cable controls including a single cable through which
a single cable, it becomes apparent that, with this con
pulling said single cable will ?rst raise the apron until
ventional structure, it is impossible to raise the apron to
it is stopped and then move the ejector and small bowl
an intermediate or loading position and then to advance
forwardly, releasable latch means for stopping the apron
the combination ejector and small bowl to the forward
in a partially raised loading position, said cable being
position shown in broken lines in FIG. 1 for the pur_
operative to move the ejector and small bowl only after
pose of completely ?lling the short forward part of the
raising of the apron has been stopped by said latch means
main bowl and thereafter permitting the ejector and
whereby the ejector and small bowl will move forwardly
small bowl to move rearwardly while ?lling of the large
to reduce the capacity of the main bowl during the initial
bowl is completed. To make this operation possible the
present invention includes a latch shown at 50 in FIG. 1
which is pivotally supported with respect to the draft
part of the loading cycle, and resilient means for urging
the ejector and small bowl rearwardly when tension on
said cable is released.
assembly of the tractor and adapted to engage any one of
a-number of spaced pins 51 supported on the forward
part of the apron. This latch is actuated toward a release
position by movement of a piston in a slave cylinder 52
3. In a scraper of the character described which has
a main bowl, an apron pivoted with respect to the bowl
for swinging movement to and from a position closing
the forward end of the bowl, a combined ejector and small
which is connected as by a line 53 with a master cylinder
bowl closing the rear end of the main bowl and slidable
54 disposed within convenient reach ‘of the operator’s 50 forwardly to eject the contents of the main bowl, and
station on the tractor which pulls the scraper, a portion
cable controls including a single cable through which
of which is schematically shown at 55. A hand lever 56
pulling said single cable will ?rst raise the apron until
controls a conventional piston in the cylinder 54 to
it is stopped and then move the ejector and small bowl
transmit pressure of ?uid therein to the cylinder 52 for
forwardly, releasable latch means for stopping the apron
55 in a partially raised loading position, said cable being
releasing the latch 50.
operative to move the ejector and small bowl only after
In operation of the latch mechanism just disclosed,
upward movement of the apron through the cable system
raising of the apron has been stopped by said latch means
illustrated in FIG. 3 will be interrupted by engagement
whereby the ejector and small bowl will move forwardly
oftthe latch with one of the pins 51. The lever 56 may
to reduce the capacity‘ of the main bowl during the initial
be manipulated to effect engagement with any one of 60 part of the loading cycle, resilient means for urging the
the several pins to regulate the height of the apron de
ejector and small bowl rearwardly when tension on said
pending upon the depth of cut to be made. With the
cable is released, and means to engage said latch means
upward motion of the apron thus interrupted, the ejector
for stopping the apron at different positions.
and small bowl Will be moved forwardly by a continued
References fitted in the file of this patent
movement of the cable 30 and the parts are brought into 65
position for the initial portion of the. loading cycle of the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
main bowl. When the bowl is completely loaded in the
2,112,105
LeTourneau _________ __ Mar. 22, 1938
manner hereinabove described, release of the latch 50 en
2,207,016
Le Bleu ______________ __,July 9, 1940
ables complete raising of the apron and forward move
2,251,307
Washbond ____________ _.. Aug. 5, 1941
ment of the ejector and small bowl to discharge the con~
2,305,481
Le Bleu _____________ __ Dec. 15, 1942
tents of the main bowl. Thus, a very simple mechanism
2,852,870
Kimsey et al. ________ __ Sept. 23, 1958
has been provided for enabling the use of a conventional
2,984,027
Beck _______________ __ May 16, 1961
and very convenient means for actuating an apron and
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