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Патент USA US3077815

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Feb. 19, 1963
l. o. ROSTAD
Filed Feb. 10, 1961
34 i8
[/QvE/v 0. ROJTAD
“M146” 7 WM
Patented Feb. 1%’ ’ i953
is shown and described by way of illustration and not by
(WEN El’vll)
llrven t). Rostad, Foxholm, N. lltak.
Filed Feb. 1d, 1961, §er. No. $8,474
2 Claims. ((11. Sinai.)
This invention relates to a new and improved wrench;
in particular it concerns a socket wrench adapted to slip
over tubing, shafting, conduit, cable and the like and en
gage ?ttings, bolts, and other fasteners that are generally
mounted coaxially with the member to which they are
Open end ratchet wrenches have heretofore been char
acterized by. complex designs featuring large numbers of
coacting movable elements and close tolerances. Some of 15
them have tiny hidden pawl members actuated by mini
ature springs subject to easy breakage during operation
way of limitation.
Referring to the drawing in which the same characters
of reference are employed to indicate corresponding or
similar parts throughout the several ?gures thereof:
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of the invention;
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation view of the invention
with the cover removed;
FiGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view, partially
in section taken on the line 3-3 of FiGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view
taken on line 4-4 of FIGURE 3; and
FEGURE 5 is a perspective view of the socket member
forming part of the invention.
Referring now to the drawing and, more particularly
to FlGURES 1 and 2 thereof, the invention, indicated in
its entirety by the reference character A, includes an elon
gated body itr having a hand engageable shank l2 and a
and loss during repair. Others incorporate movable
Working end Elli. Working end 14 is characterized by a
hinged jaws to accommodate the socket members result
ing in more parts and less strength. Still other ratchet 20 ‘pair of cooperative circular socket receiving jaws l6 and
13 that are preferably formed integral with body it? and
wrenches of the open end type have socket retaining means
shank 12. As shown in FlGURE l, jaws to and 13 cir
separate from the handle thereof thereby reducing their
cumscri‘oe a central bore 2i} which communicates with the
convenience and lessening the rigidity and strength of the
terminus of working end 14 by means of opening 22 there
unit when it is assembled.
between. Thus in plan view jaws i6 and i3 de?ne a cir
in view of the foregoing, it is an important object of
this invention to provide an open end ratchet wrench that
will overcome the disadvantages described hereinabove.
Another primary object of this invention is to pro
vide an improved open end ratchet wrench.
A further object of this invention is to provide an open
end ratchet wrench that is strong enough for ordinary
usage yet built of a minimum number of parts.
Another object of this invention is to provide an im
proved ratchet wrench of the open end type character
ized by simplicity of design and able to perform satis
factorily for those who need to adjust ?ttings and other
fasteners which are connected to tubing, shafting, con
duit, cable and the like in a coaxial manner.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide an
improved open end ratchet wrench having novel means
for transferring torque from the handle thereof to the
?tting to which it is attached.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
new and improved open end ratchet Wrench that is easy
to manufacture, functional in design and low in cost.
A further object of this invention is to provide new and
improved socket members for use in an open end ratchet
Another object of this invention is to provide new and
cular split enclosure for bore 28} inasmuch as they are
separated at their respective ends by a generally longi
tudinal opening 22. The thickness of working end 14, is
preferably slightly greater than the thickness of shank 12
as shown in FiGURE 2.
A pair of generally radial apertures 24 and 26 extend
through jaws l6 and 18 near their intersection with
shank 12. These apertures, symmetrically arranged on
each side of the longitudinal axis of body It}, permit
the movable extension therethrough of cooperative pawl
members 2-3 and 3%.
Each pawl member 28, Ed has
an elongated body 32 so constructed and arranged as to
provide a rearwardly extending ?nger engaging leg 34
and a forward extending working member 346.
mediate the ends of legs 34 and members 36 is an en
larged transversely extending shoulder 33 suitably piv
oted, within a shallow recess did that is milled into shank
'12, by means of pins 35;. in operation, pawl members
23 and
function as first class levers, as will be ex
plained. The tooth engaging end all’ of pawl member
23 is characterized by a generally radially disposed con
tact face 42 and a sloping edge 6.13 adapted to ride over
the ratchet teeth. The contact face ‘l2 of pawl member
28 is on the inner side thereof to impart a pulling thrust
has a tooth
improved means for causing positive relative rotary dis 55) against the ratchet teeth. Pawl member
engaging end Kill characterized by a generally radial con
placement between the ?xed and the movable elements.
tact face 45 on the outside thereof adapted to engage
Another object of this invention is to provide novel
ratchet means and novel means for biasing the same in an
open end ratchet wrench.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide an
improved open end ratchet wrench that is easy to ma
nipulate and is sturdy in construction.
Another object of this invention is to provide in an
open end ratchet wrench novel means for retaining and
positioning socket members therein.
Another object of this invention is to provide a new
and improved open end ratchet wrench that may accom
modate different sized removable socket members therein.
Another object of this invention is to provide a light
weight easily handled open end ratchet wrench char
acterized by positive action and a minimum of working
These and other objects and advantages of the invention
will become more fully apparent from the consideration
of the following detailed speci?cation and accompanying
drawings wherein a preferred embodiment of the invention
the ratchet teeth in the same rotational direction as in
nor contact face 42 of pawl member 28 but the thrust
exerted is in the nature of a pushing action imparted
to the ratchet teeth. A sloping surface 47 connects face
45 with the shank of working member 36. Both contact
‘faces 42. and 4:‘; are arranged generally parallel to the
working faces 92 of ratchet teeth $8 in socket 743 so
as to engage the entire surface thereof and distribute the
load evenly thereover.
Pawl members 23 and 3d are biased into working po
sition within be ‘e 2d byrneans of an elongated compres
sion spring
carried within a transverse aperture 5t}
located in shank 12, as shown in PlGURE 3. Spring
48 biases legs 34', of pawl members 28 and 3h apart so
that the rotation thereof about pivot pins 35 causes tooth
engaging ends 4-13’ and 44 to reside in a normally extend
ing position within bore 2% of jaws l5 and 18.
‘Further provided within jaws to and 13 are a pair of
spaced retainer balls 56, 58 which are contained Within
recesses 60, 62 and biased into an extended position
within bore 20 by means of springs 64 and 66. These
balls 56 and 58 serve to releasably hold the socket mem
her in place, as will be explained. An annular shoulder
As indicated by arrow 95 in FIGURE 3, socket 70
and body 10 of my wrench rotate in a single direction
This construction makes my wrench simple in
67 extending slightly within bore 20 is provided on the
design and furthermore otters the very considerable ad
vantage that the wrench may be slipped from one nut
lower edge thereof to provide a lower support for the
socket member, as will be explained.
A light thin metallic or plastic enclosure 69 may be
removably attached to the working end 14 of the wrench
connection along a tube or hydraulic line to another nut
connection or ?tting on the same line without removal
of the wrench from the line. This feature is made pos
sible by the continuous bore 76 of socket 70 which ex
as by screws or recesses suitably milled into the wrench. 10 tends along its entire length and communicates with the
top and bottom edges of jaws 16 and 13 of body 10.
This feature is shown in FiGURE 1.
While a preferred embodiment of the invention has
A socket member 70 is removably carried within bore
20. The socket member 70 may be furnished in a pin
been shown and described, it is apparent that various
modi?cations may be made in the invention without de
rality of di?erent internal sizes to accommodate nuts
and fasteners of varying dimensions. As shown in FIG
URE 5, socket 70 has a generally cylindrical body 72
adapted for rotation within bore 20. An opening 74 in
body 72 corresponds in its peripheral width to the open
ing 22 in working end 14 of the wrench. The bore
parting from the spirit and scope thereof, and it is de
sired, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed
84 or knurling is provided to facilitate the easy removal
of socket 70 from the wrench.
A continuous belt of ratchet teeth 88 are machined
into the outer surface of socket '70 intermediate top 82
and the lower edge 90 thereof. Teeth 38 are charac
teriorly of said socket wrench member and parallel to
the axis thereof, said rachet teeth being centrally disposed
thereon as are set forth in the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In an open end ratchet wrench, a body including a
76 of socket 70 has internal nut engaging ribs 78 which 20 handle, a pair of spaced arcuate jaws joined to an end
extend throughout its length and may ?t any size nut
of said handle, a hollow split socket wrench member ro
according to the radial dimension 30 thereof. A com
tatably carried within said jaws, said socket wrench meme
ber being split along its length a distance generally
plete size range of removable sockets can be provided
equivalent to the spacing between‘ said jaws, said socket
for use with the wrench.
Socket 70 is further characterized by a thin ?at an~ 25 wrench member being separable from said jaws and hav
ing an inner work engaging surface in communication
nular ?ange 82 which rests upon the upper surface of
jaws 16 and 18 as shown in FIGURE 2. External teeth
with both ends thereof, uni-directional ratchet teeth ex
on said socket wrench member, each of said jaws hav
ing an aperture therein, a pawl member pivotally mounted
on said body rearwardly of each of said jaws, each
terized by generally radially disposed thrust surfaces 92
of said pawl members being pivoted intermediate their
connected by sloping generally tangential surfaces 94.
ends and having a workin end passing through the aper
The width of teeth 88 is slightly greater than the width " tures in said jaws into engagement with said ratchet
of the working ends 36 of the spring loaded pawls 28
teeth, the working end of one of said pawl members
and 30.
having a generally radially disposed outer contact face
A shallow continuous recess 96 is cut into the lower
operable to impart a pushing thrust to said ratchet teeth,
part of body 72 between ratchet teeth 88 and lower edge
working end of the other of said pawl members hav
90. This recess is provided to receive the portion of 40 ing a generally radially disposed inner contact face op
retainer balls 56 and 53 that extend into bore 20 from
erable to impart a pulling thrust to said ratchet teeth,
recesses 60 and 62. The spring loading behind these balls
the working ends of said pawl members being spaced
permits the insertion and removal of socket 70 within the
apart a greater distance than the width of the opening
wrench without di?iculty. Inasmuch as pawls 28 and 30 45 de?ned by the split in said socket wrench member, and
are continuously biased into contact with the teeth 88
a compresson spring carried by said handle normal to
on socket 70 it is entirely possible to omit the recess
its axis for simultaneously biasing the working ends of
96 and associated retainer structure from the device.
The retainer means described allows one to disengage
said pawl members into driving engagement with said
ratchet teeth.
both pawls from the socket without danger of losing
2. The open end ratchet wrench of claim 1 wherein
the socket in the event the wrench is turned over. The
said socket wrench member is provided at its upper end
annular shoulder 67 on the lower edge of bore 20 serves
with an annular ?ange exteriorly of its central bore.
to support socket 70 and also prevents the insertion of
the socket from the wrong side in case the wrench is
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
provided with the ball retainer structure.
‘The torque transmitted from shank 12 to the fastener
through socket 79 is carried simultaneously through both
pawls 28 and 30, except during the time when opening
74 of socket 70‘ is in register with one of the pawls.
The distance between pawls 23, 30 is greater than the
corresponding distance between the peripheral limits of
opening 74 to provide continuous engagement of at least
one pawl with the ratchet teeth 83 during rotation of
socket 70. To reverse the direction of rotation it is
only necessary to turn the wrench over 180°.
Richardson __________ __ June 16,
Bonneville ___________ __ Nov. 26,
Camern et al ___________ __ Dec. 6,
Fish ________________ _.. Dec. 18,
Fish __________________ __ July 5,
Zeckzer _____________ __ Sept. 16,
Great Britain ________________ -- 1900
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