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Патент USA US3078728

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Feb. 26, 1963
3,078,727
J. M. SLATER ETAL
REVERSING GYROSCOPE
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed April 12, 1952
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Feb. 26, 1963
J. M. SLATER ETAL
3,078,727
REVERSING GYROSCOPE
Filed April 12, 1952
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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FIG.3
INVENTORS
JOHN M. SLATER
WILLIAM M. SCARBOROUGH
By
JOSEPH C. BOLTINGHOUSE
DARWIN L. FREEBAIRN, JR.
MAM Km
ATTORNEY
Feb. 26, 1963
3,078,727
J. M. SLATER ETAL
REVERSING GYROSCOPE
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Filed April 12, 1952
FIG.5
BY
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Feb. 26, 1963
J. M. SLATER ETAL
3,078,727
REVERSING GYROSCOPE
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Filed April 12, 1952
FIG.8
INVENTORS
JOHN M. SLATER
WILLIAM M. SCARBOROUGH
JOSEPH (LBOLTINGHOUSE
BY DARWIN L. FREEBA|RN,JR.
FIG. ll
Wm /M
ATTORNEY
United States Patent O??ce
3,078,727
‘Patented Feb. 26, 1963
1
2
3,078,727
temperature stability as a result of its approximately con
stant power consumption. The gyroscope reverses within
the required ?ve minute period with ease. The gyroscope
is conically shaped to save space and to ?t compactly
REVERSING GYROSCOPE
John M. Slater, Fullerton, William M. Scarborough,
Whittier, Joseph C. Boltinghouse, Los Angeles, and
Darwin L. Freehairn, Jr., Sunset Beach, Calif., assign
ors to North American Aviation, Inc.
Filed Apr. 12, 1952, Ser. No. 282,058
18 Claims. (Cl. 74-5)
within a sphere in combination with ?ve other properly
‘oriented gyroscopes. The radius of the sphere is ad
justed to the gyroscope. The gyroscope is of a minimum
size consistent with the exposure of an adequate surface
area to allow rapid heat dissipation.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide
This invention concerns a single degree of freedom 1O
a gyroscope with optimum characteristics for use in the
electrically-driven gyroscope, and in particular a gyro
gyro apparatus disclosed in patent application Serial No.
scope which is especially designed for use in gyroscopic
200,234 ?led December 11, 1950, in the names of Darwin
apparatus of the type disclosed in patent application Serial
L. Free‘bairn and John M. Slater, for “Self-Compensat
No. 200,234 ?led December 11, 1950, in the names of
ing Gyro Apparatus.”
Darwin L. Freebairn and John M. Slater, for “Self-Com
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
pensating Gyro Apparatus.”
The requirements of a self-compensating gyro apparatus
scope capable of repeated rapid reversals.
It is another object of this invention to provide a com
as applied to missile guidance‘ are very complex. Normal
guidance gyroscope con?gurations of three gyroscopes are
pact gyroscope con?guration of three, four, or six gyro
not adequate to'satisfy the self-compensating'gyro ap
scopes.
paratus. Six gyroscopes are needed for the self-compen
sating gyro apparatus-two upon each axis. For best op
‘
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
scope with a high ratio of surface area-to-mass.
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
eration of a self~compensating gyro apparatus the acceler
scope whose moment of inertia and motor characteristics
ration ?eld surrounding the gyroscopes should ‘be approxi
mately the same during the entire reversing cycle. Cer 25 are such that reversals may be accomplished without
greatly increasing the instantaneous power consumption
tain missile applications of a self-compensating gyro ap
paratus require that the orientation of the rotor axis of
above the average power consumption of the gyroscope.
each pair of gyroscopes be turned relative to the accelera
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
tion of gravity in accordance with earth rotation and mis
scope which may be arranged in a con?guration which
sile movement. The change in orientation of the rotor 30 avoids error torques due to thermal unbalance about the
axis of each gyroscope relative to the acceleration of grav
output axis of said gyroscope.
.
ity could conceivably be of the order of 45 degrees perv
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
hour or more. In order to keep surrounding acceleration
scope with the ‘precession or output axis constrained
?elds approximately the same during the entire reversing
by low friction bearings.
cycle of the gyroscopes, it is necessary to make the reverse 35
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
ing cycle very short. Certain types of disturbances of
scope with the precession or output axis constrained
the autonavigator, of which the gyroscope assembly forms
by flexure pivots.
‘
a part, will cause the autonavigator to oscillate ‘by pendu
It is another object of this invention to provide a minia
lum action with a period of approximately 84 minutes.
ture ?otation gyroscope with a conically-shaped rotor,
The period of reversal of the gyroscopes in the self-com 40 a spherically-shaped rotor support, a conically-shaped
rotor housing, low friction output axis bearings, and a
pensating gyro apparatus must be a small fraction of the
conically-shaped housing for use as a reversing gyro—
84-minute period to avoid exciting this natural oscilla
tion frequency of the autonavigator. A reversal time of
scope.
It is another object of this invention to provide a gyro
the order of ?ve minutes is small enough ‘to satisfy the re
quirements of the self-compensating gyro apparatus and 45 scope with a conically-shaped rotor housing which is con
strained by low friction bearings mounted in re-entrant
to achieve effective compensation. Because of space limi
cavities at either end of the rotor housing about its preces
tations in a missile the six required gyroscopes must be
nested in as compact a con?guration as possible. Power
sion or output axis.
devices nested in a compact con?guration introduce prob
It is another object of this invention to provide an elec
lems of heat dissipation which may be very serious with 50 trically driven gyroscope whose rotor comprises two
gyroscopes because of mass shift due to thermal insta
identical frustums of right circular cones rigidly attached
bility.
together at the small end of the frustums.
Standard precision guidance gyroscopes have serious
‘Other objects of invention will become apparent from
disadvantages when used in a self-compensating gyro
the following description taken in connection with the ac
apparatus for missile purposes. The size of standard 55 companying drawings, in which
gyroscopes is prohibitively large. Standard gyroscopes
FIG. 1 is a view of six reversing gyroscopes assembled
are designed primarily for optimum gyroscopic efficiency
in a typical self-compensating gyro apparatus con?gura
without regard for optimum packaging considerations.
tion;
In order to reverse a standard gyroscope which has a very
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken at 2-2 in FIG. 1
high moment of inertia it is necessary to use an excessive 60
of a reversing gyroscope, with certain elements in eleva
amount of power with a corresponding temperature rise.
To require standard gyroscopes to reverse in a period of
the order of ?ve minutes would not only cause serious
tion;
quired for the self-compensating gyro apparatus and still
be small enough to allow rapid reversals without greatly
increasing the power consumption of the gyroscope (dur
port;
.
FIG. 3 is a side view of the rotor and rotor support
with a portion of the rotor support broken away;
temperature instability but would mechanically damage
FIG. 4 is a side view of the rotor and rotor support
the gyroscope.
65
as viewed from the left in FIG. 3;
The gyroscope of this invention was designed to have
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the rotor and rotor sup
a moment of inertia sufficient to obtain the accuracy re
ing the reversal period) above its average power consump
tion. The gyroscope of this invention has remarkable
FIG. 6 is a side view of the top portion of the rotor
housing, partly in section;
FIG. 7 is a side view of the bottom portion of the rotor
housing, partly in section;
3,078,727
3
4
FIG. 3 is a section view of the magnetic torquer and
support 31 and spring supports 32 are attached to rotor
housing 10.
torquer housing with the movable coil in pro?le;
FIG. 9 is a section view of the electromagnetic pickoif
In the preferred embodiment of this invention all parts
and picko? housing with the movable coil in pro?le;
?t together by means of the mating of cylindrical ?anges.
FIG. 10 is a pro?le view of a ?exure pivot assembly
with a partial section view of the rotor housing and the
gyroscope housing; and
The parts are fastened together to prevent movement and
a corresponding mass shift.
FIG.l1 is a view of the ?exure springs and spring
supports, partly in section, taken at 11-11 in FIG. 10.
The self-compensating gyro
gyroscopes ‘for each axis about
be accomplished, or a total of
In FIG 1 six gyroscopes are assembled in a compact 10 ventional stabilization scheme
apparatus requires two
which stabilization is to
six gyroscopes. A con~
such as that shown in
assembly within frame 2. Only ?ve gyroscopes may be
patent application Serial No. 86,424 ?led April 9, 1949,
seen. The sixth gyroscope is directly in back of and has
in the names of R. B. Horsfall, Jr., John M. Slater and
J. A. Widemann, on the other hand requires but one
its precession axis coaxial with the precession axis of
gyroscope 1 which is shown in plan view. The gyro
scopes, frame 2 and housing 3 all ?t within a sphere rep
resented by circle 4. The precession axis of each gyro
scope lies upon a radius of the sphere represented by
circle 4. The temperature gradient from the center of
gyroscope for each axis, or a total of three gyroscopes.
Conventional guidance gyroscopes would prove very
large and bulky if adapted to the six gyroscope con?gura
tion. In addition, conventional guidance gyroscopes
would not be able to reverse rapidly enough to satisfy the
requirements of a self-compensating gyro apparatus ap
the sphere represented by circle ‘4 to the outside of the
sphere is everywhere in a radial direction because of the 20 plied to the guidance of a free missile. Rapid reversals of
symmetry of the entire gyroscope assembly.
conventional guidance gyroscopes would overheat and
mechanically damage them.
In FIG. 2 may be seen an assembled gyroscope 1 in
section with certain elements in elevation. Gyroscope 1
The conical shape of gyroscope of this invention pecu
is comprised of a rotor 5 turning upon a bearing assembly
liarly adapts it to ?t compactly into a minimum of space
6 and driven by motor means 7. Bearing assembly 6 is
when used in a shelf-compensating gyro apparatus. As
shown in H6. 1 the six gyroscopes ?t compactly into a
supported upon the center of shaft 8. Shaft 8 is sup
ported by rotor support 9 which ?ts snugly within rotor
sphere with a minimum of wasted space. Each of the
housing 10. Rotor housing 10 is supported on low fric‘
gyroscopes has its output axis along a radius of the sphere.
tion bearing assembly 11, one embodiment of which is
Because of the symmetry of the gyroscope con?guration
shown in FIG. 10. Low friction bearing 11 is mounted 30 in which the gyroscope of this invention ?ts, the temper
upon gyroscope housing 12.
ature gradient is also everywhere along a radius of the
Gyroscope housing 12 comprises two frusturns of iden
sphere. Thus, there is no mass shift due to thermal ef
tical right circular cones 13 and 14 rigidly attached and
fects. The moment of inertia of the gyroscope of this
sealed at the larger end. The smaller end of each frustum
invention is made low compared to that of conventional
13 and 14 is attached and sealed to plates 15 and 16. Top - guidance gyroscopes in order to prevent mechanical
frustum 13 has two housings 3 rigidly attached to it.
damage when torque is applied to reverse the direction of
Housing 3 are for the purpose of accommodating torquer
assembly 17 as shown more particularly in FIG. 8, and
pickoff assembly 18 as shown more particularly in FIG. 9.
Rotor housing 10 is shown more particularly in FIGS.
6 and 7. As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 rotor housing 10
comprises two frusturns of identical right circular cones
input power. The gyroscope is of a minimum size con
sistent with the exposure of an adequate surface area to
19 and 20 rigidly attached at the larger ends. The smaller
allow rapid heat dissipation.
ends of frusturns 19 and 20 are re-entrant.
the rotor and to keep the power input to the gyroscope
during the reversal period approximately the same as the
average power input. The thermal stability of the gyro
scope is further enhanced by the approximately constant
In a typical example of the apparatus made according
Re-entrant
portions 21 and 22 are each in the shape of a frustum of
to the invention, a gyroscope having an angular momen
a right circular cone with the smaller end ‘facing inward.
tum of 2.7 million gram-centimeter-squared-per-second at
Re-entrant portions 21 and 22 surround low friction bear
200 revolutions-per-second is reversed from plus to minus
ing assemblies 11. About the interior of each frustum
200 revolutions-per second in less than one minute, while
19 and 20 is a shoulder which mates with the correspond
the average temperature rise is only one degree centigrade,
ing shoulder upon rotor support ‘9. Rotor support 9 as 50 due to the combination of the features described.
sembled together with rotor 5 is shown in FIGS. 3, 4
Although the invention has been described and illus
and 5. Rotor support 9 is a segment of a sphere and
trated in detail, it is to be clearly understood that the same
nests against shoulder 23 upon rotor housing 10. Rotor
is by way of illustration and example only and is not to
support 9 is symmetrical about a central plane of its
sphere. Rotor support 9 is re-entrant along the axis of
rotor 5. Re-entrant portions 24 are each in the shape of
be taken by way of limitation, the spirit and scope of this
invention being limited only by the terms of the appended
claims.
We claim:
1. A gyroscope comprising a gyroscope housing in
a frustum of a right circular cone with the smaller end
facing inward. A tubular portion 25 is attached to the
smaller end of each frustum 24. Each tubular portion
25 is coaxial with the axis of rotor '5 and is used to sup
port shaft 8.
Rotor 5 comprises two identical frusturns 26 of right
circular cones rigidly attached at their smaller ends by
cylindrical portion 27. Weights 28 are attached to the
the general shape of two frustums of identical right cir
60 cular cones fastened together at the large end of said
frustums and having their axis of symmetry upon the
output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor housing conically
shaped to ?t inside said gyroscope housing, low friction
65
bearings connected between said rotor housing and said
gyroscope housing for supporting said rotor housing
30 is attached to gyroscope housing 12 while the other
end of each spring 30 is attached to rotor housing 19.
Electric wiring is carried across ?exure springs 30 by
means of crossed, crinkled wires (not shown). Spring 75
eral shape of a spherical segment symmetrical about a
plane passing through the axis of said rotor and per
pendicular to said output axis to ?t within said conical
periphery of each frustum 26' to obtain the proper mo
upon the output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor in the
ment of inertia for rotor 5. Low friction bearing 11 may
shape of two frusturns of right circular cones rigidly con
be a ?exure pivot hearing as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11.
nected together at the small end of said frusturns, a rotor
A ?otation ?uid may or may not be inserted into the space
support for connecting said rotor and said rotor hous
29 between gyroscope housing 12 and rotor housing 10. 70 ing, said rotor being ro-tatably attached to the center of
In FIGS. 10 and 11 one end of each crossed ?exure spring
said rotor support, said rotor support being of the gen
rotor housing.
5
3,073,727
6
the centerof said rotor support, said rotor support being
of the general shape of a spherical segment symmetrical
about a plane passing through the axis of said rotor to
?t within said rotor housing.
10. A device as recited in claim 9 having electromag
2. A gyroscope having a moment of inertia su?icient
to obtain accuracy while still being small enough to allow
rapid reversals of the rotor of said gyroscope without
greatly increasing the power consumption of said gyro
scope during said reversals above its average power con
netic detecting means connected to detect movement
about said output axis.
sumption, comprising a gyroscope housing in the general
shape of two frustums of right circular cones rigidly at
11. -A device as recited in claim 9 having magnetic
tached at their larger ends, a rotor housing conically
force means connected to apply a torque to said rotor
shaped to ?t within said gyroscope housing, low friction
bearings connected between said housing, said rotor hous 10 housing.
12. A gyroscope having a moment of inertia su?icient
ing being mounted upon said bearings so that it is free
to obtain accuracy while still being small enough to
to rotate about the outputaxis of said gyroscope over
allow rapid reversals of the rotor of said gyroscope with
a small angle relative tosaidgyroscope housing, said
out greatly increasing the power consumption of said
rotor housing having re-entrant portions symmetrical
about the output axis of said gyroscope for compactly 15 gyroscope, during said reversals, above its average power
consumption, comprising a gyroscope housing in the
housing said low friction‘bearings, a rotor having the
general shape of two frustumsof right circular cones
1 .general shape of two frustums of right circular cones
rigidly attached at their larger ends, a rotor housing
rigidly attached at the small end of ‘said frustums, said
conically shaped to ?t within said gyroscope housing,
rotor being conically shaped to clear said re-entrant por~
bearings including ?uid between said gyroscope housing
tions, a rotor support for supporting said rotor relative
and said rotor housing, said rotor housing being mounted
to said rotor housing, said rotor support having a por
upon said bearings so that it is free to rotate about the
tion of the general shape of a spherical segment sym
output axis of said gyroscope relative to said gyroscope
metrical about a plane passing through the axis of said
housing, a rotor having the general shape of two frus
rotor and perpendicular to said output axis whereby a
gyroscope is obtained having very high temperature sta 25 tums of right circular cones rigidly attached at the small
end of said frustums, a rotor support for supporting
bility, and a short reversing period.
said rotor relative to said rotor housing, said rotor sup-‘
3. A device as recited in claim 2 wherein said low fric
port having a portion of the general shape of a spherical
tion bearings comprise two crossed ?exure springs, one
segment symmetrical about a plane passing through the
end of each of said ?exure springs being rigidly attached
to said gyroscope housing, the other end of each of said 30 axis of said rotor and perpendicular to said output axis
whereby a gyroscope is obtained having very high tem~
?exure springs being attached to said rotor housing
perature stability, and a short reversing period.
whereby a gyroscope is obtained which has zero fric
13. A device as recited in claim 12 having electro-.
tion upon its output axis.
magnetic detecting means connected to detect move
4. A device as recited in claim 2 having electromag—
netic detection means for detecting movement about said 35 ment about said output axis.
14. A device as recited in claim 12 having magnetic
output axis.
force means connected to apply a torque to said rotor
5. A device as recited in claim 2 having magnetic force
means for applying a torque about an axis perpendicular
to the plane of the axis of said rotor and said gyroscope
output axis.
housing.
15. A gyroscope having a moment of inertia su?‘icient
40 to obtain accuracy while still being small enough to allow
6. A gyroscope comprising a gyroscope housing in
rapid reversals of the rotor of said gyroscope without
the general shape of two frustums of identical right
greatly increasing the power consumption of said gyro“
circular cones fastened together at the large end of said
scope, during said reversals, above its average power con
frustums and having their axis of symmetry upon the
output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor housing conically
shaped to ?t inside said gyroscope housing, hearings in
cluding ?uid between said gyroscope housing and said
rotor housing for supporting said rotor housing upon
the output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor in the shape
of two frustums of right circular cones rigidly connected 50
shape of two frustums of right circular cones rigidly at
tached at their larger ends, a rotor housing conically
shaped to ?t within said gyroscope housing, flexure
springs connected between said housing, said rotor hous
ing being mounted upon said springs so that it is free
to rotate about the output axis of said gyroscope over a
together at the small end of said frustums, a rotor sup
port for connecting said rotor and said rotor housing,
said rotor being rotatably attached to the center of said
housing having reentrant portions symmetrical about the
output axis of said gyroscope for compactly housing said
rotor support, said rotor support being of the general
shape of a spherical segment symmetrical about a plane
passing through the axis of said rotor to ?t within said
conical rotor housing.
7. A device as recited in claim 6 having electromag
netic detecting means connected to detect movement
about said output axis.
8. A device as recited in claim 6 having magnetic
force means connected to apply a torque to said rotor
housing.
9. A gyroscope comprising a gyroscope housing in the
sumption, comprising a gyroscope housing in the general
small angle relative to said gyroscope housing, said rotor
?exure springs, a rotor having the general shape of two
frustums of right circular cones rigidly attached at the
small end of said frustums, said rotor being conically
shaped to clear said reentrant portions, a rotor support
for supporting said rotor relative to said rotor housing,
said rotor support having a portion of the general shape
of a spherical segment symmetrical about a plane pass
ing through the axis of said rotor and perpendicular to
said output axis whereby a gyroscope is obtained having
very high temperature stability, and a short reversing
period.
output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor housing conically
16. A device as recited in claim 15 having electro
magnetic detecting means connected to detect movement
about said output axis.
17. A device as recited in claim 15 having magnetic
in the shape of two frustums of right circular cones
rigidly connected together at the small end of said frus
tums, a rotor support for connecting said rotor and
rotor housing, said rotor being rotatably attached to 75
ing in the general shape of two frustums of identical
right circular cones fastened together at the large end
of said frustums and having their axis of symmetry upon
general shape of two frustums of identical right circu
lar cones fastened together at the large end of said
frustums and having their axis of symmetry upon the
force means connected to apply a torque to said rotor
shaped to ?t inside said gyroscope housing, ?exure springs
connected to said rotor housing for supporting said rotor 70 housing.
18. A gyroscope assembly comprising six gyroscopes,
housing upon the output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor
each of said gyroscopes comprising a gyroscope hous
3,078,727
8
7
the output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor housing conical
ly shaped to ?t inside said gyroscope housing, low fric
tion bearings connected between said rotor housing and
said gyroscope housing for supporting said rotor hous
ing upon the output axis of said gyroscope, a rotor in the 5
shape of two frustums of right circular cones rigidly
connected together at the small end of said frusturns,
a rotor support for connecting said rotor and said rotor
housing, said rotor being rotatably attached to the center
of said rotor support, said rotor support being of the gen- 10
eral shape of a spherical segment symmetrical about a
plane passing through the axis of said rotor, said gyro
scope assembly having three mutually perpendicular axes,
the output axis of the ?rst and second said gyroscopes
being coaxial with the ?rst said mutually perpendicular 15
axis, the output axis of the third and fourth said gyro
scopes being coaxial with the second said mutually perpen
dicular axis, the output axis of the ?fth and sixth said
gyroscopes being coaxial with the third said mutually
perpendicular axis; a frame, said frame supporting said
gyroscopes with said orientation of said output axes,
whereby said gyroscopes ?t compactly within a sphere
with the temperature gradient everywhere in a direction
radial to said sphere.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
807,195
865,278
1,265,899
1,501,886
1,558,721
1,794,749
2,109,283
2,361,741
2,606,447
2,641,132
Noalhat et a1. ________ -_ Dec. 12,
Stanuard ____________ __ opt. 3,
Forster _____________ __ May 14,
Abbott _____________ -_ July 15,
Thompson ___________ __ Oct. 27,
Zelov _______________ _- Mar. 3,
Boykow ____________ __ Feb. 22,
Bonsky _____________ -_ Oct. 31,
Boltinghouse ________ __ Aug. 12,
Barkalow ____________ __ June 9,
1905
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