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Патент USA US3078732

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Feb. 26, 1963
s. KONGELBECK
3,078,722
MERCURY ACTUATED G-TRIGGERED TIME DELAY
2/2
'
~
W
ATTORNEYS
Feb. 26, 1963
3,078,722
S. KONGELBECK
MERCURY ACTUATED G-TRIGGERED TIME DELAY
Filed April 1o, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ~
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KONGELBECK
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ATTORNEYS
United States Patent 0 "ICC
l
2
3,078,722
tion mechanism of an aerial missile nose cone at a pre
TIME DELAY
determined instant in time following the termination of
thrust generated by the missile’s engine. The time delay
`
Sverre Kongelbeck, Silver Spring, Md., assigner to the
mechanism which is the subject of the instant invention
is operated by acceleration-created G-forces and is there
fore capable of use in any application where accelerations
United States- of America as represented by the Secre
`
Filed Apr. 10, 1961, Ser. No. 102,076
11 Claims. (Cl. 73--‘-5®3)
of a sutlicient magnitude are present, such as in rocket
propelled missiles.
This invention relates generally to a time delay mecha
nism; more particularly it relates to a mercury actuated
acceleration responsive mechanism for use in actuating
tained actuating fluid it is completely independent of
ambient air pressure.
Asis shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the device consists of
three principal components, a mercury actuated timing
unit A, and actuating B, and a linkage system C operably
connecting the timing unit A with the actuating unit B.
lt is the object of the present invention to provide a
time delay mechanism so constructed as to be operable
in response to acceleration, whereby to actuate a desired
element at a specified instant in time following the ter
mination of said acceleration,
A further object of this invention is to provide a tim
The mercury actuated timing unit A includes a cylin
drical housing 2 having screw threads 4 and 6 on its inner
surface at the upper and lower ends thereof, respectively.
An integral, inwardly directed annular projection 8 is
positioned centrally within said housing 2, the upper
ing unit for a time delay mechanism, said unit being
so constructed as to integrate the product of acceleration
and time to determine at what point after the initiation
or" said acceleration a speciñed vclocityis attained, and
to subsequently measure the passage of a specified time
interval.
'
’
end face of said projection forming an abutment Wall
1t?. Disposed within the housing 2 is a core assembly 12.
’The core assembly 12 includes a central core 14 hav
' ing an integral annular flange 16 positioned medially
thereof, said ñange having upper 'and lower radial end
`
Another object of the present invention is to provide k
faces i8 and 2t), each of which has an annular groove 22
and 24,' respectively, therein. The ilange 16 also has a
a timing unit for a time delay mechanism, said unit being
so constructed as to permit a variety of periods of time
’
`
lt is also an object of the present invention to provide
a time delay mechanism having means to actuate a
Moreover, since the time delay
mechanism of the instant invention employs a self-con
a desired element at a specified instant in time follow
ing the occurrence of an initial event.
delay.
Patented Feb. 26, 1963
For example,` they may be employed to actuate the ejec
MERCURY ACTUATED G-TRIGGERED
tary of the Navy
3,078,722
30
plurality of circumferentially-spaced bores 26 there
through, Said bores being positioned radially outwardly
of the annular grooves 22 and 24.
Secured to they upper and lower end faces 18 and 20
source of stored energy.
‘
of ñange 16 by a pair of retainer rings 28 and 30 and
A still further object of this invention is to provide
a plurality of screws 32 are an upper bellows 34 and a
an acceleration responsive time delay mechanism hav 35 lower bellows 36, the bellows each being constructed of
ing means to prevent accidental operation thereof.
a‘ flexible, resilient, chemically-inert material such as
Another object of this invention is to provide a time
polyethelene. The bellows are closed at their outer ends
delay mechanism so constructed that its operation will
and have radially-projecting rims at their inner ends,
be entirely independent of ambient air conditions.
which rims are clamped to the end faces 18 and 2G of
Gther objects and many of the attendant advantages of 40 annular flange 16 by the retainer rings 28 and 30, said
this invention will be readily appreciated as the same
retainer rings having rounded annular projections 3S
becomes better understood by reetrence to the following
and 4t), respectively, thereon which cooperate with an
detailed description when considered in connection with
nular >grooves 22 and 24 to secure the bellows to the
the accompanying drawings, wherein:
end faces 18 and 2t! in sealed relationship therewith.
FIG. l is a perspectiveview of the time delay mech 45 Each retainer ring 28 and 30 has a plurality of circum
anism of the invention;l
'
FiG. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section of the
mechanism, showing the construction thereof;
ferentially-spaced bores 42 and 44, respectively, therein,
one such bore being in alignment with each of the bores
26. The bores 44 are threaded, and the screws 32 are
FIG. 3 is an axial section, on the line 3-3 of FIG. 2,
passed
through the bores 42 and 26 and are threaded
the mechanism being shown in full lines at an inter 50 into the bores 44 to thereby secure the retainer rings
mediate position during the first, or acceleration inte
and the bellows in position.
The core assembly 12 is disposed within housing 2
of the cam and link being indicated in broken lines;
with the lower face of retainer ring 30 in engagement
FIG. 4 is a detail side elevation further showing the
with abutment wall lll. A cylindrical cap Vmember 46
movement of elements of the mechanism during the 55 having threads on the external lower end vthereof is
operating cycle, the positions of the cam, the link and
threaded into the upper end 4 of the housing 2, the’lower
the plunger, after completion of the first, or acceleration
end face ¿i8 of ysaid cap member being brought into abut
integrating, half ot' the cycle being indicated in full lines,
ment'withy the upper face of retainer ring 2S whereby
and the ñnal positions of said three elements after com
the assembly 12 is clamped in position between said low
60
pletion of the second, or time delay, half of the cycle,
er end face 4S and wall 10. The upper end face of the
being shown in broken lines;
'
cap 46 >has an annular socket 5t) therewithin, there being
FlG. 5 is a detail sectional view showing the actuating
a peripheral groove 52 in the axially-directed wall of
unit portion of the mechanism after the plungers have
said socket medially thereof. A cap plate 54 having a
been released from their cocked positions; and
65 plurality of perforations 56 therein is disposed within the
FÍG. 6 is a detail section of a modified form of the
socket S0 and is secured in position by a snap ring 5S,
grating, half of the operating cycle, the initial position
cylindrical core of the mechanism.
‘
The present invention relates to a mercury actuated
acceleration responsive time delay mechanism.
Time
delay mechanisms are employed in applications where
one element must be actuated at a predetermined instant
in time following the occurrence of some initial event.
which -ring is received within -the groove 52.
'
The core 14 has a passageway extending longitudinally
therethrough, Asaid passageway being composed of an
upper bore 60 of reduced diameter, a lower bore 62 of
enlarged diameter, and a frustoconical seat portion 64
extending between said upper and lower bores 66 and>
3,078,722
4
62, the upper end of the upper bore and the lower end
of the lower bore having threads for securing therein a
metering plug 66 and a retainer plate 68, respectively.
The metering plug 66 has a bore 70 extending there
through, and the retainer plate 68 has an orifice 72 dis
posed centrally thereof.
Disposed within the lower bore 62 is a piston 74 hav
cycle. With the mercury 122 contained within' the upper
bellows the timing unit is accelerated in an upward direc
tion.
Such acceleration creates G-forces which cause
the mercury -to depress bearing plate 186 against the force
of spring 116, whereupon the mercury flows into the
lower' bellows, the precise course followed thereby being
more fully described hereinafter.
The amount of mer
ing a threaded bore 76 extending therethrough, the piston
being substantially smaller in diameter than said bore 62.
cury transferred from the upper bellows to the lower
tion 80 of a bushing 82. The bushing 82 is of a chemical
The spring 116 acts as a bias on the integrating action,
bellows is proportional to the degree of acceleration and
'Ille external upper end portion of the piston is reduced in 10 the time over which it is exerted; hence the timing unit
actually integrates the product of acceleration and time
diameter, and has a peripheral groove 78 extending there
over the period during which acceleration is occurring.
around for reception of an inturned radial flange por
since the force exerted thereby must first be overcome
ly inert resilient material such as Teñon, and serves to
insure that a sealed relationship exists between the up 15 before the lower bellows can expand to permit com
per end of the piston 74 and the frusto-conical seat 64
mencement of the flow of mercury thereinto. Thus, if
the bias is substantially greater than one G small ac
celera-tions exerted over short periods of time may not be
sufficient »to overcome the force of spring 116, and uo
screw 84 extends through said opening and is threaded 20 flow of mercury will occur.
When acceleration-created forces decline and the How
into said bore '76, the oriiice screw having a central bore
of mercury into the lower bello-ws ceases the piston 74
86 extending therethrough. The upper end of the screw
when the former is in contact with the latter. The bush
ing 82 has a central opening therein of a diameter sub
stantially the same as that of bore 76, and an orifice
is urged into contact with seat 64. r1`he second, or time
84 is circumferentially enlarged, the enlarged portion
delay, half of the timing devices operating cycle then
serving to clamp the bushing in position. The bottom
face of piston 74 and the top face of plate 68 have recesses 25 commences. The spring 116 urges the lower bellows
upward, -thus causing the mercury to liow through bores
88 and 90 therein, respectively, and a coil spring 92 is
86 and 70 back into the upper bellows at a rate deter
positioned to extend between the bottom radial walls of
mined primarily by the force exerted by said spring 116
said recesses, said spring 92 serving to urge the piston up
and by the size of said bores. In the mechanism of the
wardly to cause the bushing-bearing upper end thereof
30 invention the expanding and collapsing movements of the
to engage seat 64.
lower bellows during the acceleration integrating and
The core 14 has a pair of generally radially directed
timing halves, respectively, of the timing device’s oper
bores 94 and 96 therein, which bores place the bore 62
ating cycle are utilized to operate a mechanical linkage
system, which system in turn actuates a source of stored
annular flange 16 has an elbow-shaped bore 98 therein, 35 energy.
in communication with the space between lower bellows
36 and the exterior cylindrical surface of said core. The
the radially-outward end of said bore being threaded for
reception of a screw plug 100. The screw plug 100 car
ries an O-ring 102 thereon, which is received within an
The actuating unit B includes an elongated, generally
rectangular housing 124 having therein a centrally posi
tioned bore 126 and firs-t and second elongated chambers
128 and 130, the bore 126 and the chambers 128 and
annular socket portion 104 of the bore 98 to thereby
seal the plug relative to the annular ñange. The axially 40 130 lying in a common plane and being parallel to one
another and to the longitudinal axis of said housing.
directed portion of bore 98 confronts the space between
Four integral, spaced posts 132 of equal length extend
the lower bellows 36 and the cylindrical exterior of the
upwardly from the housing 124 into abutment with
core 14.
closure plate 110, said posts each being connected -to said
Disposed within the housing 2 below the lower bellows
36 is a bearing plate 166 having a diameter smaller than 45 closure plate by a screw 134 which passes through said
closure plate and into a threaded bore in the upper end
the diameter of said housing. The top face of the bear
face of the post.
ing plate has a recess 168 therein of a size to easily re
An annular lip 136 is formed about the upper end of
ceive the closed outer end of the lower bellows. An end
the bore 126, and the shank portion 138 of a plunger 140
closure plate 116 is screwed into the threaded lower end
6 of the housing 2, said plate having a deep recess 112 50 extends through the opening defined by said lip and into
the bore 126. The plunger 146 has an integral annular
in the top face thereof and a large central opening 114.
collar 142 positioned near the lower end thereof, and a
A coil spring 116 extends between the lower face of the
spring 144 is disposed about the shank 138 and extends
bearing plate 106 and the bottom wall of the 4recess 112
between the lip 136 and the upper face of said collar
in plate 1.10, said lower face and said bottom wall hav
ing therein annular grooves 118 and 120, respectively, 55 142 for urging the plunger into the bore 126. The lower
end of the plunger is enlarged to form a cylindrical head
for receiving the opposite ends of the spring 116. The
portion 146, there being a circumferential groove 148
spring 116 functions to normally urge the bearing plate
defined between the head 146 and the collar 142, the
106 upwardly, whereby to compress the lower bellows 36.
lower side wall 150 of said groove being tapered.
The initial position for the core assembly 12 is that
shown in FIG. 2, with the lower bellows 36 being held 60 Positioned within each of the chambers 128 and 130
is an impact piston 152. Each of the pistons 152 in
in a compressed position by the coil spring 116. While
cludes an enlarged head portion 154 and a reduced in
the assembly is in said initial position the interior thereof
diameter shank portion 156, a radial shoulder 158 extend
is filled with mercury 122, the mercury occupying the
ing between the outer cylindrical surface of the head por»
volume defined by the expanded upper bellows, the
compressed lower bellows, core 14, piston 74, retainer 65 tion and the shank. The lower ends of the head portions
154 are reduced in diameter to form rounded annular
plate 68, spring 92, plug 66 and screw 84. The mercury
shoulders 166. A coil spring 162 is disposed about each
is admitted to the interior of the assembly 12 through
shank 156 and extends between shoulder 158 and the
elbow-shaped bore 98, and thence ilows through bores
bottom wall of the chamber within which the piston is
92, 94, 96, 70, and 86 and orilice 72 until the interior
of said assembly is fully occupied thereby. Screw plug 70 disposed, said spring serving to urge the piston down
wardly within said chamber.
160 is then inserted, thus sealing the mercury within the
Openings 164 and 166 are provided in »the adjoining
core assembly.
walls between central bore 126 and the ñrst and second
The timing unit A is constructed so as to function as
an acceleration integrator during the first half of its
chambers 128 and 130, said openings being positioned to
operating cycle and as a timer during the last half of said 75 confront the shoulders 168 when the pistons 152 are in
3,078,722
I,
5
their cocked positions as shown in FlG. 2, the springs
162 being compressed and the upper end faces of the
Shanks 156 being in engagement with the bottom walls
of their respective chambers. Retaining balls 16d are
disposed within the openings 16d and 166 and cooperate
with the shoulders 1nd and the cylindrical outer surface
outer cam track 240 opposite the radial slot 244 is open,
whereby to permit the cross-pin 242 to be inserted into
said track. The upper end of the plunger 140 has a slot246 therein, the cross-pin 242 being connected to the
plunger near the upper end thereof and being adapted to
extend across said slot.
of the head portion lilo of plunger ldd to maintain the
pistons 152 in said cocked positions. Upon downward
n_ected to a point 25d on the cam 220 by a pin 252, suit
the desired device. The time delay unit of the instant
26d, suitable bushings 262 and 264 being provided between
the opposite sides of said link and the legs of said yoke.
The lower, forked end of a connecting link 248 is con
able bushings 254 and 256 being disposed between the
movement of the plunger 1d@ within its bore 126 the
groove 148 will be brought into alignment with the balls 10 forked legs ofthe link and the opposite sides of the cam.
rthe point 25h is positioned on a line which is substan
16S, said balls lthereupon being urged into said groove
tially 90 degrees removed from a line emanating from
by the combined action of the springs 162 and rounded
the shaft 222 and bisecting the cam tracks 238 and 240,
shoulder 169. When the balls have moved a sufficient
said point 25d being spaced from the shaft 222 a substan
distance into the groove ldd the impact pistons 152 are
free to move. The impact pistons each strike one of a 15 tial distance whereby to define a lever arm. The upper
end of the link 24S is connected to a yoke 258 by a pin
pair of firing pins 170, said firing pins in turn actuating
invention can be employed to actuate any of a number
of desired devices. ln Áthe embodiment shown in the
drawings the tiring pins 17d are utilized to puncture 20.
bottles 172 containing a compressed gas.
Referring 4to FIG. 2, a manifold 174 is attached to
housing 124 by screws 176, a gasket 17S of suitable ma
terial being interposed therebetween. The manifold has 25
a pair of reduced diameter bores 120 positioned to con
front the first and second chambers 12S and 13d in hous
ing 121i, the firing pins 170 being slidably received within
The yoke 253 has a shank 266 thereon which passes
through the central bores of roller bearing units 268 and
27@ mounted in a hub portion 272 of bearing plate 106,
a snap ring 274 disposed in a peripheral >groove near the
upper end of the shank 266 holding the same in position.
The bearing units 268 and 270 are secured tov the plate
MP6 by retainer plates 276 and 273 and screws 280 and
2&2, respectively.
i
'
The operation of the mechanism is as follows. The
device as shown in FIG. 2 is in an unarmed position, the
mercury'l22 being contained within the upper bellows 34,
said bores. An O-ring 182 is positioned in an annular
socket läd at the upper end of each bore 1S@ and serves 30 the impact pistons 152 being secured in their cocked posi
to maintain the tiring pins in sealed relationship with the
manifold. An enlarged bore 1&6 extends from each bore
18€). and terminates in a flared outer end 138. A shoulder
19t! is formed where the bores 1S@ and 186 meet, against
which shoulder a collar N2 on the firing pin 170 abuts to
thereby prevent the pin from extending too far into its
chamber 128 or 13d.
The bores 156 are placed in communication by a bore
194. Referring >to FIG. 3, a transverse bore 1% intersects
said bore 194 and contains an exhaust plug 198. The plug
1% has a collar Zitti near one end thereof which cooperates
with a nut 2il2 at its opposite end to secure the plug within
said transverse bore 19d, G-ring seals 2%@ and 2%, posi
tioned in annular recesses in the manifold 174i and the
plug 19S, respectively, being utilized to maintain the plug
in sealed relationship.
An annular recess 2% is posi
tioned midway of the plug 19S, and is in communication
with bore 194. The plug contains an elbow-shaped out
let bore 210 which communicates with annular recess 2&8,
bore 194, and the bores läd, whereby gas released from
the bottles 172 may flow to the atmosphere.
The bottles 172 are each secured to confront one of the
ñared outer ends 138 by a bolt 2,12, a plate 21d and a nut
216 (FlG. l), O-ring seals 21S being positioned in cir
cumferential grooves in the bores 136 to place the outer
ends of the bottles in sealed relationship with said bores.
The linkage system C, >which is best seen in FIGS. 2 and
3, is contained partly within housing 2 and partly within
tions, and the cross-pin 242 being disposed in the inner
cam track 238. (The initial, unarmed positions of the
cam 220 and link '24S are indicated by phantom lines in
FIG. 3.) Upon rapid acceleration of the device in an
upward direction the acceleration integrating half of the
operating cycle commences, and the following occurs.
The acceleration, if great enough and if of a suñîcicnt
duration, creates G-forces which act on the mercury 122,
pressing it downwardly. This in turn depresses piston
7d, thus opening a passage therearound _through which
the mercury may llow at a rapid rate, such mercury pass
ing through the opening 72 in the plate 68 and thence
into the lower bellows 36, such flow, together with the
G-forces, acting to force the bearing plate 1% down
wardly. Bores 94 and 95 in the core and bore 86 in
screw 84 faciiltate the ñow of mercury into the lower
bellows. Downward movement of the bearing plate, be
cause of the design of the cam 226 and the link 248, will
cause the cam to swing in a clock-wise direction, the
amount of such swinging movement obviously being de
termined by the amount of mercury transferred into the
lower bellows. FIG. 3 depicts the action of the device
as G-forces are applied, the piston 74 being shown in its
depressed, open position and the cam 22d being shown by
solid lines in a partially shifted positionf If the ac
celeration created forces are great enough and are of
sufficiently long duration swinging of cam 220 will con
tinue until the cross-pin 242 reaches the end of the inner
cam track 23S, this position corresponding to a minimum
housing 124, and includes a cam 22d pivotally connected
by a shaft 222 to a pair of opstanding integral projections 60 Velocity attained by the mechanism; At this point the
spring 144 will cause the plunger 14€)v with its attached
224 and 226 on the housing 12d. The projections 22d and
cross-pin 242 to move downwardly a small amount where
226 have aligned openings 228 and 23h, respectively, there
in, within which are disposed suitable flanged bushings 232
by the cross-pin will enter the outer cam track 24d via
and 23d. The shaft 222 passes through the bushings 232
and 234, and is secured in position by a pair of snap rings
radial slot ‘244, this position being shown by solid lines
in FIG. 4, The device is then armed. lf acceleration
23d positioned in peripheral grooves near the opposite ends
forces are insuñicient or are too short in duration (which
thereof.
The cam 220 has an inner 23S and an outer 2d@ cam
track therein, said cam tracks being in the shape of an
arc and being drawn on radii emanating from a common
is equivalent to saying that if a specified minimum velocity
is not attained), the cross-pin 242l will remain in the
inner track 238, the device will not become armed, and
the mercury will be caused to flow back into the upper
point positioned at the center of the shaft 222. The inner
bellows by the action of spring 116.
and outer cam tracks are of a width to easily receive a
cross~pin 242 carried by the plunger Mtl, and are con
Once the device is armed, and as long as it is being ac
celerated at such a rate that the magnitude of the G-forces
i
nected at one end by a slot 24d which lies along a radius
does not decrease, no further action will occur. As soon
emanating from the center of shaft 222. The end of the 75 as the G~forces begin to drop in magnitude the second, or
acreage'
t3
time delay and firing half of the operating cycle com
mences.
Upon a sufficient lowering of G-forces the spring 92
will urge the piston 74 into sealing engagement with the
conical seat 64, the upper and lower bellows now being in
communication only through the bore 86 within the screw
sure within the chambers 12S and 130 upon release of
the pistons 152, vent openings 287 are provided' in the
housing 124 near the lower end of each said chamber.
It has been found that a rapidly repeating, or vibrating,
' impact action of large magnitude may cause mercury to
84. The spring 116 now exerts a force on the lower bel
flow in small increments from the upper bellows into the
lower bellows, thus operating the device in a ratchet-like
lows 36 though the bearing plate 106, such force urging
manner.
the mercury to ñow from the lower bellows through the
opening 72 and bores 86, 60 and 70 back into the upper
bellows, the rate of such iiow being regulated primarily by
abiy cause arming of the device before such is desired, an
anti-ratchet modification of the device has been devised,
such being shown in FIG. 6.
Since such a ratchet-ty e action could conceiv
the size of the bore 86 within the screw 8d. As liow of
As shown in FIG. 6, a modified cylindrical core 288
the mercury progresses the bearing plate 106 is caused
is provided with a transverse bore 296 which is in com
to move upwardly, such action, because of the design of
munication with a longitudinal bore 292. The longi
the linkage system, causing swinging of the cam 220 in a 15 tudinal bore 292 has therein a frusto-conical seat 294, a
counter-clockwise direction. When the cam has shifted to
iirst portion 296, and a second, reduced portion 298.
the point where the cross-pin 242 is freed from the outer
Disposed within the longitudinal bore 292 is a valve as
cam track 24€) (this position being indicated by phantom
sembly comprising a spring 39€), a ball 302 of a size to seat
lines in FIG. 4) the plunger 140 is caused to move into
in sealed relationship on the conical seat 294, and an
the central bore 126, thus freeing the impact pistons 152 20 operating stem 364, the stem 394 having an enlarged por
in the manner explained hereinabove. This position is
tion 306 disposed within the first portion 296 of the longi
shown in FIG. 5. The tiring cycle of the device is now
tudinal bore 292. The outer end of bore 290 is sealed by
complete.
a plug 3%, and a screw plug 31@ is threaded into bore
As is evident from the above description, the length of
292 to secure spring 300 in position. The remainder of
the time delay from the beginning to the end of the firing 25 the core 233 is identical in construction and operation to
half of the operating cycle is determined primarily by
the core 14, and includes a central bore 6b', a piston 74',
the rate of ñow of mercury between the lower and upper
a spring 92', a retainer plate 68’ and a metering screw 66’.
bellows. Therefore, the length of the time delay may be
In operation, «the core 233 is mounted in the device
preset to any one of an innumerable amount of periods
of FIG. 2 in the same manner as core 14, with the lower
by varying the size of the opening around the piston 74 30 end of stern 334 in contact with the end wall of lower
when it is in its retracted position, the sizes of the bores
bellows 36. The operating stem 394 is initially urged
94 and 96, the size of the bore 86 inthe screw 34, the size
inwardly against the force of the spring 360 by the outer
of the opening 72 in the plate 68, the size of the opening
end of the lower bellows and the bearing plate 106, such
70 in the plug 66, the size of the bellows, the amount of
action holding the ball 302 out of contact with the frusto
mercury utilized, or any combination of the above stated 35 conical seat 294.
variables.
The time delay mechanism of the invention is especially
Thus, a passageway between the first
and second bellows is established through bore 60', the
transverse bore 290, and the first portion 296 and the
second portion 298 of bore 202, said portions 296 and
where an element must be actuated at a specified time
29S being substantially larger in diameter than the por
after the rocket engine ceases operation. In such an ap 40 tions of the operating stem 304 contained therein. There
plication the timing device first operates to integrate the
fore, any incremental amount of mercury that is moved
product of acceleration and time during the period up to
from the upper bellows to the lower bellows by ratchet
a specified minimum velocity. If the rocket engine should
action is free to flow back into the upper bellows not
fail before this minimum velocity is attained the amount
only through the regular flow path defined by the ele
of mercury transferred to the lower bellows will be in
ments of the core, but also through the passageway of
sufficient to cause the cross-pin 242 to enter the outer 45 the anti-ratchet mechanism. If the passageway of the
cam track 240, and hence the mechanism will not be
anti-ratchet mechanism is of suflicient size the ratchet
armed and the firing half of the operating cycle will not
effect of the device may be overcome, thus preventing ac
suitable for use in the rocket propelled aerial missiles
commence.
If the amount and duration of thrust is
cidental arming thereof.
When a large, sustained acceleration acts upon the de
sufficient to arm the mechanism, the time delay and firing
half of said operating cycle will begin at thrust termina 50 vice the mercury will iiow into the lower bellows in a
rapid, continuous manner, thus enlarging said lower bel
tion, and after passage of the preset period of time delay
lows at a rapid rate. As the lower bellows enlarges, the
the desired device will be actuated.
stem 304 is free to move and the spring 3th) urges the
It should also be realized that the timing unit A can
ball 302 into sealing engagement with the frusto-conical
function as a velocity indicator, although such a use is not
55 seat 29d, thus closing the passageway through the anti
shown in the drawings. During the first half of its op
ratchet mechanism. The timing device thereafter oper
erating cycle the timing device integrates the product of
ates in the same manner as previously explained.
acceleration and time, the resultant of which integration
is in reality velocity.
Thus, the amount of mercury
Obviously, many modifications and variations of the
moved into the lower bellows (and hence the degree of 60 present invention are possible in the light of the above
teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within
enlargement of said bellows and the amount of rotational
the scope of the appended claims the invention may be
shifting movement of cam 220) is directly proportional
practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
to the velocity of the mechanism. Therefore, by meas
What is claimed is:
uring the displacement of cam 220 velocity can easily
1. A time delay mechanism including a housing means,
be determined. 'Ihe maximum velocity than can be 65
a G-force operated timing device mounted within said
measured is of course determined primarily by the size
housing means, said device including a central core hav
of the bellows, the amount of mercury employed, and the
ing passageway means extending therethrough, an upper
rate of flow of the mercury between the bellows.
bellows, a lower bellows, each of said bellows being closed
The cylindrical head 146 of the plunger 140 is pro
vided with an opening 284, and the housing 124 is pro 70 at its outer end and being attached at its inner end to said
core, the interiors of said upper and lower bellows being
vided with a pair of opposed elongated slots 236, whereby
placed in communication by said passageway means, a
Va suitable tool may be inserted into the opening 284 to
ñuid within and substantially filling one of said bellows
retract the plunger in order to prepare the device for
when it is in an expanded position, movable fiow restrict
operation.
In order to prevent an undesirable buildup of air pres 75 mg means within said passageway for allowing said- fluid
to flow from one of said bellows to the other thereof
3,078,722
10
more easily in one direction than in the other, and re
silient means within said housing for urging said lower
urging said hollow piston into sealing contact with said
abutment surface.
bellows toward a collapsed position, actuating apparatus
6. A time delay mechanism as recited in claim 4,
also mounted within said housing means, and means
within said housing means for operably connecting said
wherein said connecting means includes a cam element
pivotally connected to said second housing, means ex-A
timing unit with said actuating apparatus, said last-men
tioned means being adapted to release said apparatus
tending between and cooperable with> said cam element
and said lower bellows for causing said element to pivot
to response to enlarging and collapsing movements of
from a cocked posi-tion after passage of a predetermined
period of time, as measured by the ñow ot iiuid between
the bellows within said timing device.
2. A time delay mechanism as recited in claim 1,
wherein said actuating apparatus includes at least one
piston, resilient means for bias.ng said piston toward a
released position, and means for restraining said piston
in a cocked position against the biasing force of said 15
lower bellows will cause said cam element to pivot suf
resilient means.
said second passageway means placing the first-mentioned
passageway means in communication with the lower bel
3. A time delay mechanism including a first housing, a
said lower bellows, and means releasably connecting said
restraining means with said cam element, whereby con
secutive enlargementand collapsing movements of said>
ficiently to release said last-mentioned connecting means.
7. A time delay mechanism as recited in claim 4,
wherein said core contains a second passageway means,
lows, and including means within said second passageway
G-force operated mercury controlled timing device
for closing the same when said lower bellows is in an
mounted within said first housing, a second housing, said
second housing being connectedr to said first housing and 20 enlarged condition.
including a central bore at least one elongated chamber
disposed parallel to said bore and a transverse opening
extending between said central bore and said chamber,
actuating apparatus contained within said second housing,
said apparatus including a spring biased actuating piston 25,.
disposed within said chamber, a spring biased plunged
8. A time delay mechanism including a first housing, a
G-force operated timing device mounted within said first
housing, said device including a central c-ore having pas
sageway means extending therethrough, an upper bellows,
a lower bellows, each of said bellows being closed at its
outer end and being attached in sealed relationship at its
inner end to said core, the interiors of said upper and
»disposed within said central bore, a ball detent disposed
lower bellows being placed in communication by said
within said opening and cooperable with portions of said
passageway means, liquid mercury within and substan
plunger and said actuating p.ston to retain said actuating
piston in a cocked position against the force of its biasing 30 tially filling one of said bellows when it is in an expanded
position, ñow restricting means including a spring biased
means, and connecting means disposed within said first
hollow piston disposed within said passageway for allow
and said second housings for operably connecting said
ing said mercury to flow from the upper bellows to the
timing device with said plunger, whereby said actuating
lower bellows more easily than in the reverse direction,
piston will be released for movement after the passage
of a predetermined period of time, as measured by said 35 and resilient means within said first housing for urging
said lower bellows toward a collapsed position, a second
timing device.
housing, said second housing being connected to said first
4. A time delay mechanism including a first housing,
housing and including a central bore, at least one elon
a G-force operated timing device mounted within said
gated chamber and an opening extending between said
first housing, said device including a central core having
passageway means extending therethrough, an upper bel 40 central bore and said chamber, actuating apparatus con
tained within said second housing, said apparatus includ
lows, a lower bellows, each of said bellows being closed
ing an actuating piston disposed within said chamber, re~
at its outer end and being attached in sealed relationship
silient means also disposed within said chamber for bias
at its inner end to said core, the interiors of said upper
ing said actuating piston toward a released position, a
and lower bellows being placed in communication by said
plunger disposed within said central bore, resilient means
passageway means, liquid mercury within and substan
for urging said plunger into said central bore, a ball de
tially filling one of said bellows when the bellows is in
tent disposed within said opening and cooperable with
an expanded position, movable flow restricting means
portions of said plunger and said actuating piston to re
within said passageway for allowing said mercury to flow
tain said actuating piston in position when it and said
from one of said bellows to the other thereof more easily
in one direction than in the other, and resilient means 50 plunger are both restrained against the force of their re
spective resilient means, said plunger having a reduced
diameter portion thereon into which said ball detent enters
when said plunger is released and moves into said central
ond housing being connected to said first housing, actuat
bore, such movement of said ball detent releasing said
ing apparatus mounted within said second housing, said
apparatus including at least one actuating piston, a resili 55 actuating piston for movement, and connecting means dis
posed within said first and said second housings for oper
ent means for biasing said piston toward a released posi
ably connecting said timing unit with said plunger, said
tion, and means for restraining said actuating piston in a
within said first housing for urging said lower bellows
toward a collapsed position, a second housing, said sec
cocked position against the biasing force of said resilient
connecting means being adapted to restrain said plunger
means, and connecting means disposed within said first
against the force of its associated resilient means and to
and second housings for operably connecting said timing 60 release it for movement into said central bore after pasf
unit with said restraining means, said connecting means
being adapted to release said actuating piston from said
cocked position after passage of a predetermined period
sage of a predetermined period of time, as measured by
the fiow of mercury between the bellows within the timing
device.
Y
`
9. A time delay mechanism as recited in claim 8„
of time', as measured by the iiow of mercury between the
wherein said connecting means includes a cam element
bellows within the timing device.
65
pivotally connected to said second housing, _said element
5. A time delay mechanism as recited in claim 4,
having an inner and an outer cam track in communication
wherein said passageway means includes an upper bore
with each other, said outer cam track being open at one
portion, a lower bore portion of greater diameter than
end, means extending between and cooperable with said
said upper bore portion, and an intermediate bore por
tion extending between said upper and said lower bore 70 cam element and said lower bellows for causing said cam
portions, the wall defining said intermediate bore portion
forming an abutment surface, and wherein said flow re
straining means includes a hollow piston, said piston being
element to pivot in response to enlarging and collapsing
movements of said lower bellows, and pin means carried
by said plunger and initially receivable within said inner
cam track, whereby enlargement of said lower bellows re
disposed within and being substantially smaller in diam
eter than said lower bore portion, and resilient means for 75 sulting from the ñow of mercury thereinto will cause said
3,078,722 ~
11
cam element to pivot', causing said pin means to enter
said outer cam track, and whereby subsequent collapsing
movement of said lower bellows will cause said cam ele
ment to pivot in the opposite direction, thereby disen`
gaging said pin means fromsaid outer cam track and re
leasing said plunger.
10. An acceleration responsive timing device, said de
after said acceleration ceases said resilient means will act
to collapse the lower bellows and to thereby cause mer
cury contained therewithin to flow therefrom back into
the upper bellows, the rate of such return ñow being con
trolled by said ñow controlling means in said passageway.
1l. An acceleration responsive timing device as recited
in claim l0, wherein said passageway means includes an
vice including a housing, a central core mounted within
upper bore portion, a lower bore portion of greater diam
said housing and having passageway means extending
eter than said upper bore portion, and an intermediate
therethrough, an upper bellows, a lower bellows, each of 10 bore portion extending between said upper and said lower
said bellows being closed at its outer end and being at
bore portion, the wall delining said intermediate bore por
tached in sealed relationship at its inner end to said core,
tion forming an abutment surface, and wherein said
the interiors of said upper and lower bellows being placed
means for controlling flow includes a piston having a bore
in-communication by said passageway means, liquid mer
therethrough, said piston being disposed within and be
cury within and substantially iilling said upper bellows 15 ing substantially smaller in diameter than said lower bore
when that bellows is in an expanded position, means with
portion, and resilient means for urging said piston into
in said passageway for controlling the flow of said mer
sealing contact with said abutment surface, said bore with
cury from one bellows to the other, and resilient means
in said pist-on serving to meter the ñow of mercury from
within said housing for urging said lower bellows into a
-the lower bellows into the upper bellows.
collapsed position, whereby when said device is acceler 20
ated in an upward direction mercury will be transferred
from the upper bellows to the lower bellows, the amount
transferred and the consequent expanding movement of
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
the lower bellows being proportional to the product of
2,698,657
acceleration and time integrated over at least a portion 25
2,872,538
McLean ______________ __ Feb. 3, 1959
vof the time duration of the acceleration, and whereby
2,926,609
Goey et al _____________ „_ Mar. l, 196()
Blomgren ____________ __ Jan. 4, 1955
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