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Патент USA US3078750

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Feb. 26, 1963-
E. J. SVENSON
3,078,742
METAL WORKING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 2'7, 1959
18 Sheets-Sheet 1
Feb. 26, 1963
E. J. SVENSON
3,078,742
METAL WORKING APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 27, 1959
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United States Patent 0 ice
3,078,742
Patented Feb. 26, 1953
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?ce of their advantages, and go back to the use of me
3,078,742.
METAL WORKING APPARATUS
Ernest J. Svenson, Rockford, Ill., assignor, by mesne as
signments, of one=half to W. F. and John Barnes Corn
pany, Rockford, 111., a corporation of Illinois, and one
half to Odin Corporation, Rockford, 111., a corporation
of Illinois
Filed Feb. 27, 1959, Ser. No. 796,097
23 Claims. (Cl. 77-335)
chanical drives.
One object of my invention is to provide an improved
machine tool with an improved hydraulic control and
actuating system which will operate with great et?ciency
and effectiveness without signi?cantly heating the hy
draulic ?uid used in the system, thereby eliminating the
difficulties and problems previously associated with pro
gressively increasing ?uid temperatures in this environ
ment.
Another object of my invention is to provide an im
proved machine tool having an improved hydraulic con
trol and actuating system which makes the full power
of the system continuously available for moving major
Many worth-while advantages are gained by using
hydraulic systems in machine tools, particularly in self 15 components of the machine in relation to a workpiece
even at a rapid traverse speed while at the same time
contained machine tool units, to control and to power
eliminating the generation of heat to any appreciable de
movements which operate machine tools in relation to
gree in the ?uid under all operating conditions.
workpieces. For this reason, much effort and ingenuity
A further object of my invention is to provide in a
have gone into the development of hydraulic control and
power systems for self-contained machine tool units that 20 machine tool an improved hydraulic control and actuat
ing system of the character set forth in the above object
are advanced and retracted in relation to a workpiece by
which is hydraulically alive and immediately responsive
a hydraulic motor controlled by hydraulic control struc
under all operating conditions to any demands made on
ture incorporated into the hydraulic power system which
the system.
includes the hydraulic motor.
A further object is to provide in self~contained ma
However, the use of hydraulic control and power sys 25
chine tool unit an improved hydraulic control and actuat
tems in this environment has pointed up a number of
ing system, which under all operating conditions is im~
problems which have not been previously overcome on
mediately responsive to an electrical circuit control (oper
an altogether satisfactory basis. One such problem has
The present invention relates to machine tools and
more particularly to self-contained machine tool units
and controls.
been that of progressive heating of the hydraulic ?uid
able from either a local or remote station) to immedi
during use of the machines. Increasing temperature of
the hydraulic ?uid not only changes the viscosity of the
ately change the operating condition or cycle of the unit.
A further object is to provide an improved self-con
tained machining unit including an improved hydraulic
?uid, upsetting operation of the hydraulic system, but it
also changes the temperature of major components of the
actuationv system which affords a more precise control
machine structure and in this manner affects the posi
over the feeding movement of the unit relative to a work
piece.
tional relationships of fundamental machine parts. Some
of the effects and results of heating of the hydraulic ?uid
in machine tools of this character include the following:
(1) Variation in the speed at which cutting tools are
moved relative to a workpiece,
(2) Changes in the alignment of cutting tools relative
to workpieces,
Another object of my invention is to provide improved
control means for self-contained machine tool units which
facilitates servicing of the control structure by relatively
unskilled personnel in a manner which effectively avoids
down time of the machining apparatus for servicing of
the control structure.
(3) The causation of bending actions between cutting
Still another object is to provide improved machine
tools and workpieces resulting in scoring and breaking
tool control structure which can be serviced without
down of structural parts, and
(4) Numerous dif?culties arising from an undue re
danger of exposure to high voltages.
Still another object is to provide improved machine
tool control structure which makes advantageous use
duction of the viscosity of the ?uid, such, for example,
of the capabilities of my improved self-contained ma
as ?uid leakage with the necessity for replenishing the
chining units recited above.
hydraulic ?uid supply, ?re hazards, and a general con
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be
tamination of the environment creating hazards to the
operating personnel and requiring increased care and 50 come apparent from the following description, taken
with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
maintenance of the machinery.
FIG. 1 is a partially sectioned side elevation of a self
Prior efforts to minimize the effect of progressively
contained machine tool unit constructed in accordance
increasing hydraulic ?uid temperatures attending the oper
with my invention;
ation of machines equipped with such hydraulic systems
have included the practice of operating a machine an
hour or more before it is actually put into use in order
to obtain some semblance of a stabilized temperature
level. This expedient is not only expensive but is by no
means wholly effective since the ?uid temperature still
FIG. 2 is a rear end elevation of the unit taken with
reference to line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view
of the unit taken along the line 3-~3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken along the
changes after production is started. Other attempts have 60 line 4-4 of FIG. 1;
PEG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken generally
been made to provide means for compensating for changes
along the line 5-—5 of FIG. 4 and showing components
in the viscosity of the ?uid incident to changes in the
of the rapid traverse pump and the pilot pump;
?uid temperature. However, such approaches have
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken generally
lacked much to be desired in that they only partially com
pensate for the e?ects of temperature variation and do 65 along the line 6—6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the broken line
not eliminate temperature increases or many undesirable
effects of temperature increases.
7-—7 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary end view of the auxiliary and
As a matter of fact, the problems associated with the
traversing pumps taken with reference to the line 8-8
use of hydraulic control and actuating systems in ma
70
chine tools have been so serious as to lead some manu
in FIG. 6;
facturers to abandon the use of such systems, at the sacri
- FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view taken generally
3,078,742
3
4
along the line 9—9 of FIG. 4 and showing feed pump
FIG. 34 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
control structure;
the line 34--34 in FIG. 31; ‘
FIG. 10 is a detail view on an enlarged scale showing
coacting spiral gears used in the driving transmission;
FIG. 11 is a bottom view of the self-contained slide
the end of the valve element illustrated in FIGS. 32-64;
FIG. 36 is a diagrammatic illustration of control cir~
FIG. 35 is a partially sectioned perspective view of
assembly taken with reference to line 11—11 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary lower end view of the trans
latory head taken with reference to the line 12-12 of
cuits used to control the individual machining units in
FIG. 1;
FIG. 36;
conjunction with an automatic machining installation;
FIG. 37 is a continuation of the circuit diagram of
FIG. 38 is a diagram of power circuits for a plurality
FIG. 13 is a diagrammatic illustration of hydraulic 10
of machining units and associated automatic machining
actuating and control circuits used to controllably trans~
late the slide assembly 12 along its support base;
structure;
FIG. 14 is a vertical sectional view of the master con
trol valve assembly for the unit taken along the line
14-44 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 15 is a sectional view of the valve assembly taken
along the line 15—15 of FIG. 14;
FIG. 16 is a fragmentary sectional View taken along
the line 16—16 of FIG. 15;
FIG. 17 is a partially sectioned front view of the valve
assembly;
FIG. 18 is a partially sectioned and somewhat simpli
?ed perspective view of the valve assembly;
FIG. 19 is a simpli?ed vertical sectional view of the
valve assembly showing the positional relationship of.
major parts positioned for energizing the actuator to
effect feeding movement of a slide assembly;
FIG. 19A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hydrau
lic circuit corresponding to the valve positions in FIG. 19;
FIG. 20 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating
one hydraulic pilot control for the main valve;
FIG. 20A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hy
draulic circuit of FIG. 20;
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating
another hydraulic pilot control for the main valve;
FIG. 21A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hy
draulic circuit of FIG. 21;
FIG. 22 is a simpli?ed sectional view of the valve
FIG. 39 is a diagram of solenoid circuitsused in con
trolling machining apparatus;
FIG. 40 is a continuation of the diagram of FIG. 39;
FIG. 41 is a continuation of the diagram of FIG. 40;
FIG. 42 is a fragmentary side view showing a modi?ed
form of gears used to connect the power shaft with the
drive shaft;
FIG. 43 is a fragmentary circumferential view showing
the periphery of one of the gears of FIG. 42;
FIG. 44 is a fragmentary sectional view taken generally
along the line 44-44 of FIG. 42;
FIG. 45 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
the slightly curving line 45-45 of FIG. 43 following the
root of one of the gear teeth;
FIG. 46 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the
diagonal line 46—46 of FIG. 43; and
FIG. 47 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
the line 47—47 of FIG. 43.
General Description of Self-Contained Machine Tool Unit
Having reference to the drawings in greater detail, the
self-contained machine tool unit 10, FIG. 1, constructed
in accordance with my invention comprises a self-ener
gized, self-controlled, and self-propelled machining head
or slide assembly 12 supported for translation on a pair
of longitudinal ways 16 on an elongated base 14. The
assembly corresponding to FIG. 19 but illustrating the
base 14 is designed for installation on a larger bed (not
position of the valves for traversing the slide assembly 40 shown).
rearwardly;
The forward end 18 of the translatable slide assembly
FIG. 22A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hy~
12 is designed to carry a multiple spindle head or other
draulic circuit of FIG. 22;
machining attachment 20 (indicated in phantom in FIG.
FIG. 23 is a fragmentary sectional view showing the
1) which is powered by the slide assembly and trans
main valve in neutral position;
— lated toward and away from a workpiece (not shown) by
FIG. 23A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hy
controlled self-propelled movement of the slide assembly
along the ways 16.
draulic circuit of FIG. 23;
FIG. 24 is a view similar to FIG. 22 but illustrating
the position of valve parts for rapidly traversing the
slide assembly forward;
‘FIG. 24A is a diagrammatic illustration of the hy
draulic circuit of FIG. 24;
FIG. 25 is a view similar to FIG. 24 but illustrating
the valve element in neutral position;
FIG. 26 is a partially sectioned view taken from the
line 26—26 in FIG. 2 and showing internal components
of a manifold;
The slide assembly 12 comprises a main frame or hous
ing 22 slideably supported on the ways 16 and surmounted
on its rear end by an electric driving motor 24.
The
motor is connected by guarded V-belts 26 with a pulley
28, FIG. 3, on the rearwardly protruding end of a lon~
gitudinal power shaft 30 extending centrally through the
housing 22. Support for ‘the motor 24 is provided by a
mount 32 which can be tipped about a hinge axis 34,
FIG. 2, by a threaded adjusting element 37, FIG. 1, to
vary the tension in the belts 26.
The housing 22 is formed by a hollow casting, denoted
FIG. 27 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along
the line 27——27 of FIG. 26;
by the same reference numeral, which is internally shaped
FIG. 28 is a fragmentary view taken along the line 60 and adapted as will presently appear to de?ne a reservoir
28—28 of FIG. 26;
36 for lubricating oil and a reservoir 38 for hydraulic
FIG. 29 is a lay-out of a portion of the hydraulic sys
?uid, FIG. 3, which are completely isolated from each
other so as to prevent the interchange of liquid from one
tem coacting with the master valve assembly and illus
to the other.
trating speci?c components of this system in cross section;
The lubricating oil reservoir 36 comprises space within
FIG. 30 is a simpli?ed cross sectional view illustrating
a relatively large transmission chamber 39 in the forward
the relationship of hydraulic passages associated with one
end of the housing 22 and a hollow longitudinal shaft
end of the main control element when the latter is in
rapid traverse forward position;
housing 40 extending rearwardly from the transmission
FIG. 31 is a view similar to FIG. 30 but showing the 70 Iczliziérntger to the rear end of the housing 22 as shown in
main valve control element shifted to feed position;
The rear end of the power shaft 36 is supported in the
FIG. 32 is a view similar to FIG. 30 but showing the
rear end of the shaft housing 40 by an anti-friction hear
valve element in rapid traverse return position;
ing 42. Annular seals 44 adjacent bearing 42 prevent the
FIG. 33 is a view similar to FIG. 30 but showing the
escape of lubricating oil around the shaft 30.
valve element in neutral position;
75
The power shaft 30 extends through the shaft housing
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